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Paraphrasing

To paraphrase means to write someone else’s sentences using your own words. Below
are four strategies of paraphrasing:

1. Using synonyms

Although cubism was never itself a kind of abstract art, the many different kinds of
abstract art it led to would have been impossible without it.

While cubism was not a form of abstract art, the large variety of abstract art that it
caused would not have been possible in the absence of cubism.

2. Changing the sentence structure

Although Tom went to the festival, he did not see Jenny. (1)

Using synonyms sentence 1 above can be written as:

Even though Tom was at the celebration, he did not meet Jenny. (2)

Sentence (2) is a good paraphrase, but to make it better we could change the sentence
structure as well. By changing the sentence structure, we could rewrite sentence (2)
as:

Tom did not encounter Jenny at the celebration. (3)

Sentence (3) looks very different from sentence (1) because we used synonyms and
changed the sentence structure. Below is another example to demonstrate how using
synonyms and changing the sentence structure can help you to paraphrase:

Although cubism was never itself a kind of abstract art, the many different kinds of
abstract art it led to would have been impossible without it.

Cubism, which is not a form of abstract art, caused a variety of these kinds of art to
develop.
3. Changing the active to the passive and passive to active
Cubism altered forever the Renaissance conception of painting. (1)

Sentence (1), which is in the active voice, can be change to the passive voice as
follows:

The Renaissance conception of painting was forever altered by cubism. (2)

Sentence (2) is good, but still looks too similar to sentence (1). We can change the
sentence further by using synonyms as follows:

The Renaissance idea of artwork was permanently transformed by Cubism. (3)

Sentence (3) looks very different from the original sentence, that is, sentence (1).

Another example of changing the active voice to the passive and using synonyms is
given below:

My grandfather built the house. (ACTIVE VOICE)


The house was constructed by my granddad. (PASSIVE VOICE and Synonyms)

4. Changing the parts of speech


[notes to be added for this section]
Propaganda, which means using communication to influence the attitudes of a
community, was very important in helping Hitler gain power. As a result of strong
images and simples messages among other reasons, Hitler became a leading candidate
in Germany's 1932 presidential elections. Hitler, who had been a soldier in World War
1 from 1914 to 1918 was influenced by World War 1 propaganda. He believed that
Britain, France, the United States, and Italy had won the war because their leaders
effectively communicated clear, simple messages to their army. On the one hand, their
messages encouraged their soldiers to move on; on the other, it terribly destroyed the
Germans will to fight. Powerful symbols, images and oratory were well understood
by Hitler, subsequently leading him to communicate simple, concrete, but emotionally
appealing messages to the people.

The March 5, 1933 election was won by Hitler, making him the legitimate leader of
Germany. In this photo, taken on March 21, 1933, in Potsdam, the recently appointed
chancellor of Germany, Adolf Hitler, can be seen greeting the president of Germany,
Paul von Hindenburg. The photo was popular at the time, appearing widely in the
German and international press and also on a postcard. The pose in the photograph
was chosen to represent Hitler as non-threatening to Germany's system of government
at the time. The gentlemanly dressed and civil Hitler appears obedient to the heavily
decorated and domineering von Hindenburg.

Hitler was planted in the minds of people as a military leader, father figure, and
ultimately as a messiah who had come to restore Germany. Hitler was glorified as a
gifted statesman who could make Germany stable, create jobs, and restore German
pride. In a religious way, the Germans showed loyalty to the Führer (Leader) by, for
example, giving the Nazi salute which was followed by the so-called German greeting
'Heil Hitler'. The German's faith in Hitler strengthened national unity, and when
anybody was openly against the government, they were imprisoned.

The cult of Hitler was purposely created by the Nazis. Paintings, photos and busts of
the Führer (Leader) were reproduced in large quantities for public spaces and private
homes. Millions of copies of Hitler's political autobiography Mein Kampf (My
Struggle) were published in special editions by the Nazi publishing house, including
special editions for newlywed couples and translations in Braille for blind people.
From 1933 to 1945, adulation of Hitler became a common practice. Hitler became a
living symbol of the German nation, showing strength and a single-minded devotion
to Germany.