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Fluids in Motion

Viscosity

Laminar and Turbulent flow

Reynolds Number

Continuity Equation

Bernoulli Equation

Friction Loss Formula

Chezy Equation

Hydrostatics is very simple from the mathematical point of view and the

ancient Greeks were familiar with the basic principles.

liquids, viscosity, turbulence and friction have to be considered but they are

far too complex for simple mathematical treatment. It is important that you

appreciate that we have a new ball game here.

You probably have some idea what friction is; it is the resistance to motion

experienced by a liquid flowing over a solid boundary like a pipe wall or sides

of a culvert. It therefore must make sense that energy will be needed to

overcome friction and keep the liquid moving.

Turbulence is just a random motion, like eddies in the air when a large lorry

drives past you at speed and energy is required to generate the turbulence,

but viscosity is not quite so easy to understand.

and movement. (More formally, viscosity is described as a measure of a

liquid’s resistance to shear stress). For example, cold treacle is very stiff and

does not flow easily, while water is thin and runny. The difference is that

water has a low viscosity and treacle a high viscosity.

If the treacle were heated up, it would flow much easier. So we can say that

viscosity changes with temperature (which is why car engines use

multigrade oils, for example, to cope with large changes in temperature).

At 100° C the dynamic viscosity of water falls to 0.284 x 10-3 kg/ms indicating

that the liquid is getting thinner. At 20° C it is 1.005 x 10-3kg/ms.

Furthermore the density changes from 998.2 kg/m3 at 20° C to 958.4

kg/m3 at 100° C, showing that it is lighter at higher temps.

Water is the only material increases in density as it cools and then reduces

its density when it solidifies or freezes. hence, ice is less denser than water

and thus floats in water.

Viscosity is the most important single property that affects the behaviour of

a fluid. The more viscous the fluid, the thicker it is and the slower it deforms

under stress.

Whilst it is one of the most important factors controlling the flow and

behaviour of a fluid, it does not appear in the equations that we will look at

later. However, it is incorporated in one of the dimensionless parameters

that will define and classify the type of flow and we call this Reynolds

Number.

Top of page

There are many different types of fluid flow. One of the first things you have

to do when investigating a problem involving moving fluids is to define the

type of flow that you are dealing with. Having done that, you will have an

idea of which equations can be applied to the problem.

relatively rare in nature, although an example would be the flow of water

through an aquifer. Groundwater velocities may be as little as a few metres

per year.

Turbulent flow is much faster and chaotic, and is the type usually

encountered. A good example would be flow in a mountain stream.

respect to the flow of liquid through pipelines since the characteristics of the

three flow regimes are very different.

Osborn Reynolds found that the type of flow is determined from the following

equation:

Re = ρ VD/µ

µ = Dynamic viscosity

Pipes Open

Channels

2000

Top of page

is Steady or Unsteady. The key concept here is whether or not the discharge

is changing with respect to time. In steady flow, the discharge Q is constant

with respect to time. In unsteady flow, the discharge Q is not constant with

respect to time.

As explained before, turbulent flow is the most common type of flow and is

characterised by fluctuations in velocity, so it could never truly be called

steady. However, the definition is usually loosely interpreted so that if the

mean velocity and discharge are not changing over a period of time, the flow

is said to be steady. Minor fluctuations are ignored.

The key concept here is whether or not the cross-sectional area of flow and

mean velocity change from one section to the next along the length of the

conduit (pipe or channel) when the discharge is constant. For the flow to

be Uniform the area (depth and width) and the mean pipe velocity must be

the same at each successive cross-section. An example would be a pipe of

constant diameter running full. It follows that Non-uniform flow occurs where

the cross-sectional area and mean velocity change from section to section,

as would be the case with a pipeline of varying diameter.

Continuity Equation

concept of the conservation of mass between two cross-sections of a

continuous conduit. It is generally written as:

Q = A1V1 = A2V2

Where A is the cross sectional are of flow and V is the mean velocity. The

equation can be applied to as many sections as required. It is used

whenever we need to calculate the mean velocity from a known discharge

and area or to calculate the discharge from the known velocity and area. It

can also tell us what happens to the velocity when the area changes (V2 =

V1[A1/A2] ).

halved, then the mean velocity of flow must double in order to discharge the

same quantity of water through the reduced section. Of course, both

sections must have the same discharge (Q1 = Q2)otherwise water would be

either disappearing or magically appearing from nowhere within the

pipeline.

The continuity equation is very simple, but it is one of the three most

important equations in hydraulics. You should never forget it!!!!

Top of page

The Energy (or Bernoulli) Equation

The energy equation, also known as the Bernoulli equation is another major

tool that we can use to analyse a hydrodynamic system. Sometimes this and

the continuity equation are needed to solve a particular problem.

Energy is defined as the capacity for doing work. Work (done) is defined as a

force multiplied by the distance moved in the direction of the force and

consequently has the units Nm. Power is the rate of doing work, i.e. the

product of a force and the distance moved per second in the direction of the

force (Nm/s).

There are three ways that something can possess energy. Perhaps the

easiest to understand is that a body can have energy as a result of being

raised to some height, z. Thus if a car is driven to the top of a hill, it can

freewheel down again and do work by virtue of its elevation.

Where M is the mass of the body, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

So ...... PE = Wz

and if we relate this to unit weight of water, i.e. that of 1 cubic metre.

(Because volumetric flow rate is cubic metres per second)

moving body.

of water,

The third form of energy will be less familiar since it has no direct equivalent

in solid mechanics. It is the energy of a fluid when flowing under pressure,

so it is referred to as Pressure Energy. If a liquid has a pressure P which acts

over an area A then it is capable of exerting a force of P x A. In moving

though a distance L, the flow work done is P x A x L or PAL. So,

of moving liquid, then A x L represents the volume of the liquid. If this

volume has a weight W, and the weight density of the liquid is ρ g then AL =

W/ρ g.

weight of water,

get,

metres

which is equal to the total energy per unit weight of the fluid.

between two points in a fluid. Usually the centre line of a pipe for example.

make the assumption that the total energy at points 1 and 2 is the same.

(i.e. There is no loss of energy). Although energy may change from one form

to another, the following is true,

With a real fluid, there will be a certain amount of energy lost due to friction

and so the equation becomes,

z1 + V12/2g + P1/ρ g = z2 + V22/2g + P2/ρ g + energy

losses

However, each term in the Bernoulli equation has overall unit of metres.

Thus they are often referred to as heads: elevation head, velocity

head and pressure head.

All three terms are measured in metres and can be called ‘Heads’. The sum

of the three terms is often called the ‘Total Head’ as an alternative to

the Total Energy’.

Energy Losses is the ‘Head loss due to friction’ and also has the unit metres.

Top of page

Frictional losses are the most important features in pipe flow and pipeline

design. By the 1850’s, designers had produced a number of purely empirical

pipe flow equations. The most important of these, normally known as

the D’Arcy Equation, relates the frictional head loss as follows:

Hloss = 4 x f x L x V2

2xgxd

or

Hloss = 64 x f x L x Q2

2 x g x d5 x π 2

The bulk of the terms can be measured accurately but a factor f is included

to make the measured head loss equate to the known length and diameter

of pipe and the measured flow rate or average velocity.

attempted to use it for pipe shapes, diameters and velocities other than

those from which the equation had been developed, it was soon discovered

that f was far from a simple constant. Today we know that f not only varies

with the pipe diameter and the fluid velocity, but also with the Reynolds

number of the flow.

Top of page

Flow in Open Channels

Whilst less common than pressure pipes, open channels are still widely used

and enter into the work of a variety of civil engineering specialists.

The basic difference from a pressure pipe is simply that in an open channel,

the fluid’s surface is exposed to atmospheric pressure. Thus the hydraulic

grade line coincides with the surface of the fluid, and the cross-sectional

area of flow decreases and increases as the discharge rate varies.

When water enters an open channel, the depth of flow gradually diminishes

and then becomes constant throughout the channel, provided that its

geometric cross-section and bed slope does not vary. This depth is known

as Normal depth.

Normal depth thus can only occur where a balance exists between

acceleration down the channel and frictional retardation against the flow. In

most real life cases, this is in the middle reaches of long straight lengths of

channel of reasonably uniform cross-sectional area.

which obviously influenced it: the fluid’s average velocity, the geometry of

the channel’s cross-section, the roughness of the bed materials and the

slope of the channel’s bed.

Chezy (in 1775) was the first to succeed, when he produced the following

empirical equation.

V = C x √(m x i)

C = Chezy constant

m = A/P

P = Wetted perimeter

(which for a rectangular channel would be the width plus 2 x depth of flow.)

channel’s wall and bed material. However, this constant was soon found to

suffer from the limitations that were found with D’Arcy’s f factor. To make

matters worse, C was only suitable for the cross-sectional geometries used

by Chezy.

To find out how to measure the flow of water down a channel, take a look

here.

Top of page

Hydrodynamics

1. Hydrostatic

(1) Stress in a Fluid

(2) Force per Volume

(4) Height

(5) Density

(6) Gravitational Acceleration

(9) Pressure in terms of height

(10) Force as gradient of a

Potential

2. Hydrostatic - Lift

(1) Motion Equation

Velocity

(3) Substantive Derivative of

Momentum - Euler Equation

(6) Velocity described in terms of a

Potential

(7) Equation for the Potential

(12) Speed of Flow at the bottom of

a column of height h

numbers

(1) Case of small Reynold numbers

(2) Static Equation for a Sphere in

a Liquid

6. Hydrodynamic Equation - Pipe flow

(1) Static Equation for a pipe flow

(2) Length of the Pipe

(3) Viscosity

(4) Pressure difference between

the two ends of the Pipe

(5) Radius of the Pipe

(6) Speed distribution in terms of

the radius of the Pipe

(1) High Reynold number

(2) Representig the inertia in terms

of an effective Force

(5) Drag Coefficient

(6) Power

8. Vortex

(1) Vortex

(3) Entropy

(6) Circulation

9. Potential Flow

(1) Vortex Free

(2) Velocity in terms of a scalar

Potential

(3) Equation for the scalar Potential

(4) Complex variable

(5) Complex Function

(8) Flow lines

(14) Kutta-Joukowsky Law (2)

(15) Torque on the body

10. Potential Flow - Example Cylinder

(1) Solution

(2) Velocity

(6) Lift Force (Magnus Effect)

(7) No Torque

(1) Solution

(2) Velocity

(3) Pressure

(1) Solution

(2) Horizontal Waves

13. Potential Flow - Example Capillary Waves

(1) Solution

(2) Surface

(3) Speed

(1) Velocity

(2) Vortex

(3) Circulation

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