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-Final Report-

A Qualitative Study on Violation of Children Rights

Due to Abuse, Exploitation and Harassment in Schools


of Banke District, Midwestern Nepal,
(With Special Focus on Sexual)
A Qualitative Study on Violation of Children Rights

Due to Abuse, Exploitation and Harassment in 24


Schools of 14 VDCs in Banke District
(With Special Focus on Sexual)

By

Irada Gautam

PLAN INTERNATIONAL

April 2002
Acknowledgements

The International Children Rights day is celebrating in November of each year and it is
12 years of ratified UN CRC by country but violence against children in school is still
remains un touch by many child rights organization. Consequently, a number of non-
government sector groups as well as some government have begun to raise awareness
on children rights however, there still exist many gaps, among which the lack of
adequate information and factual data prevent the development and implementation of
appropriate program targeted towards reducing violence against children especially to
girls.
This study was undertaken in response to this gap by the research team. The research
team is optimistic that this endeavor will come to good use to all those individual,
institutions and organizations from all sectors working towards eliminating violence
against children rights in Nepal.
The analysis and recommendations from the findings are crucial in that they will assist
in providing directions for policy and program formulation for minimizing violence against
children rights and empowering to boys and girls equally to fight against abuse and
exploitation.
On behalf of the study team, I would like to extend our heartfelt gratitude to Plan Nepal
for supporting us in undertaking this study. We want to especially mention Madhubanti
Tuladhar, Gender Co-ordinator by providing valuable professional inputs all along and
Sadananda Kandel, Education Co-ordinator country office by giving critical comments
during research presentation.
I am grateful to all colleagues at Plan Nepal Banke especially Kalbhan Rai, District
Program Co-ordinator and Netra Prasad Upadhya, Senior Program Manager who had
shown interest and encouraged to do in Banke district and other coordinators who were
supportive in various ways.
We would like to thank all those who made it possible to produce this report by giving
their valuable time and who contributed their ideas. Special thanks go to the children,
teachers, parents and school management committee members of Kohalpur, Udyapur
and Rapti area of Banke district who have contributed immensely to this field study.
This research would not be possible without having strong research team members in
field so I would like to thank Jagat Khadka who played an active role in every aspect of
the study and my appreciation goes to Kamal Gautam, Kanti Khadka and Sandhya
Khanal who had involved through out the field study as research team members.
But most importantly, our sincere gratitude to all the individual children who shared
openly their pain and anguish.

Thank you! Irada Gautam


Research Team Leader
April 2002
Contents

Acknowledgements

Contents

Executive Summary……………………………………………………

Section 1: INTRODUCTION, An Overview in South Asia ………………1

1.1 Understanding the Issues ………………….2 to 9

1.2 Research Rationale ……………………. 10

1.3 The Nature of this Research…………………………….. 11

1.4 Key questions / Issues ………………………… 12

Section 2: METHODOLOGY AND PROCESS 12 to 17

2.1 Background

2.2 Location of the Study Site

2.3 Selection of the Study villages

2.4 Selection of the groups

2.5 Data collection tools

2.6 Limitations

2.7 Ethical Issues

2.8 Research Timing

2.9 Research Limitations

2.10Research Framework
Section 3: KEY FINDINGS………………………………………… 18 to 45

3.1 Forms of Violence

¾ Corporal Punishment
¾ Bullying with verbal sexual abuse
¾ Attitude of teacher and students:
¾ Teasing
¾ Discrimination based on caste, disability, gender and weak vs. talent
students based on school performance
¾ Sexual harassment
¾ Sexual abuse and exploitation
¾ Teacher’s absenteeism & their behavior towards students.
¾ 3.2 In –depth Individual Case Studies 45 to 47

3.3 Contributing Factors of abuse, exploitation and harassment in school 48 to 50

3.4 Consequences from abuse, exploitation and harassment 51 to 52

3.5 Suggestions from children to reduce the violence in school 53

3.6 Suggestions from teachers, parents and school management committee 53

Section 4: CONCLUSION 54 to 58

Section 5: RECOMMENDATIONS 59 to 65

BIBLIOGRAPHY 66

ANNEX

A: Checklist Used in Discussion with different group 67

B: FGD Children Participants as per school, Grade and Gender 68

C: List of Attendees in FGD discussion with teachers, SMC members and VDC
leaders 69 to 70

D: Happy and Sad Memories of children in school 71 to 73


E: Some of the case studies 75 to 76

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Over a period of one month on November 2001, consultations with more than 800
children took place in 24 schools that covers secondary, lower secondary and primary in
Banke district of Plan Nepal working area. The purpose of the consultations was
allowing children to express their ideas and concerns regarding the issues.

The children were from different background and different ethnicity mainly Tharu, Magar,
Abadhi and Brahaman / Chhetri. Plan Nepal hired outsider research team members and
undertook this research in order to more fully understand the violation of children rights
due to abuse, exploitation and harassment in the school.

The objective of this study is not just to understanding the violation of children rights due
to abuse, exploitation and harassment but also to identify what needs to be done to
prevent violence and provide support to the children. It is hoped that this study will
contribute towards stopping violence against children in school.

Generally children expressed that they are happy in school by getting opportunity to
study, if teachers respond positively while asked questions, while teacher encouraged
in-front of other students, if teacher helped to learn in better way, if behavior of students
and teacher are good, while were participating in game competition, when children knew
new things in schools from outsiders, when friends helped if some one teased to girls,
got many friends in school, when extra activities happened in school, while full time
study happened in school and got opportunities to play etc. However this happiness is
not always observed by children and not for all children.

For many girls female teachers are the source of motivation and are quite happy of
getting female teacher to continue in school where as there was extreme cases of
unhappy situation in one school because of female teacher had involved in girl’s
trafficking.

While discussion with school teachers, school management committee and parents;
most of them did not take the issue of harassment, abuse and exploitation of children in
school seriously though they agreed that schoolboys tease girls by different ways and
even teachers do bad behavior towards students. When further asked about the
incidents of abuse, exploitation and harassment in school, most of them agreed on this
issue and blame to parents and media by which children learnt and practice in school.
The teachers said that students particularly girls rarely complain about the incident and
there were few cases reported even had been many incidents and solved by head
teachers in one or two school but mostly agreed that there is no system to report in
school.

School management committee have never discussed or thought about the issue of
abuse, exploitation and harassment to students in school so they don't find any incident
reported to them. Most of the parents realized that there could be effects from abuse;
exploitation and harassment like school drop out, psychological effects to children and
some time even serious problems like suicide.

Most of the parents and School Management Committee (SMC) members complain on
teachers’ role in school as they are monitored by district education office (DEO) and the
role of SMC is not strong to act upon teachers’ behaviors.

Regarding beating by teachers in school, they took it as normal and in some way
positive to get children in right direction. Most of the participants particularly teachers
blame parents are responsible for not keeping their children in discipline so that the
teachers have difficulties to maintain discipline in school by beating. Similarly parents
have not given the attention to this issue. As per the teachers expression parents rarely
visit in school to know about their children's performance and parents also agreed.

This research study has clearly revealed that the children in schools of Banke district are
routinely exposed to abuse, exploitation and sexual harassment irrespective of caste
ethnicity. Both boys and girls expressed that in all school there is widespread the
problem of sexual harassment, bullying among same sex and opposite sex.

Verbal abuse, corporal punishments by teacher to students are very common.


The girls’ rights are more violated compared to boys. Sexual abuse and exploitation of
children are the worst forms of child abuse and gross violation of child rights.

Research has shown that in all school, violation of children rights are more violated by
Science, Mathematics and English teacher compare to other teachers. This might be
due to most of the children are weak and felt more difficult to learn those subjects.
Teachers who teach these 3 subjects feel more powerful and misuse their power
towards powerless students and students are compel to learn from those teachers either
in school or in tuition class.

Why are there violations of children rights in school? Do the children want to suffer such
violation? Actually not because the children whose behavior is violating to others do not
feel that he or she is violating children rights and if someone do same behavior to him or
her they do not welcome such things and feel sad. So it is whole matters of dialogue
between students, teachers and realizing responsibilities to protect the rights of all
children.

The following were the common forms of violence from the discussion with children
which they felt sad and were the most significant violation of children rights in school:

1. Corporal Punishment

¾ In all schools corporal punishment by teacher to students is widespread problem.


However, mostly primary level students who are very poor, weak in study are
more sufferers than others. Sometime the class monitors also misuse the power,
complaint to teacher and beaten children without analyzing and listening the
children’s views. Younger students are equally sufferers of corporal punishment
from elder students while did not act as messenger to send love letters of elder
and if did not follow the elder behavior towards girls.
¾ Many parents still think and ask teachers to beat their children, which are meant
to be an incentive for children to do better. Further, after being beaten for failures
or misbehavior at school, children are beaten for the same reasons at home.

¾ In all 24 schools beating is frequently raised by all grade students however most
of the students expressed younger students are more sufferers than higher grade
students. Mostly students have experience of beating by English, Science and
Math teacher.

¾ While asking to children’s on what are the bad practices that made sad to
children in school. In all school it was highlighted that; one is beating by teacher
without analysis, give punishment of carrying stone to girls when late in school,
expelled out from classroom followed by beating, teacher hit by stick and scolded
lathuwa etc [worthless]

¾ This research has also shown girls who are sexually harassed or children who
faced corporal punishment by teacher lose interest in education, drop out from
school and early marriage leading to poor citizen of society in the long run.

¾ The existing children’s Act on corporal punishment is easy to manipulate by


interpretation of adults. As it allows simple beating by parents which is difficult to
define itself. Many parents still think and even asked teachers to beat their
children in keeping discipline and expect to improve children performance in
school.
¾ The unavailable of existing facilities especially toilet and play materials to
students in school lead great frustration to children. As school toilets are not used
for children especially the girls who have to go far and there is always fear of
someone might see to them. As they have to go forest for toilet purpose, while
return to class usually late for 5 to 10 minutes and faced punishment either
physical or psychological and its effects in academic too.

2. Bullying with Verbal abuse

¾ Sexual violence especially sexual harassment along with bullying, verbal abuse
and love letters writing cuts across all grades, class, caste, creed and religion in
school. However, mostly secondary and lower secondary girls students are
overwhelmed from this problems.

¾ Almost in all school; children especially girls repeatedly expressed that the boys
expressed very vulgar sexual words while bullying in school.

¾ Elder boys had also written in school “this boy and that girl have love” without
having relationship and this is again became issue of debating and for that
reason bullying has been observed. The boys torn the copy / books and cutting
school bag as per their interest.

¾ There is quite interlinking between bullying and verbal abuse. Usually students
felt that while there is bullying; verbal sexual tone was also observed.

¾ Though most forms of sexual harassment occurs in school, verbal sexual abuse
still remains the strongest one in school.
3. Attitude of teacher and students:

¾ In all school; children both boys and girls expressed very clearly that if they make
a friendship between boys and girls it has been taken negatively even in normal
friendship with opposite sex. As school is within the societal system such attitude
has been reflected in school too.

¾ Like wise students talk too much while teacher come in classroom. During class
time, students are playing but teachers said nothing.

¾ Particularly for girls if they are weak in study or fail in exam, teacher discourage
by saying why you just spent your parents’ money? Instead go to home, fetch
water, fodder collection and help to parents.

¾ The teacher hate to those students if their speech and language is not clear.

4. Teasing

¾ In all schools it was found that girls from all status, caste / ethnicity have been
faced teasing in inside the school, on the way to school and on the way to home
by boys, sometimes teacher and outsiders

¾ While there is more interval and not regular class, girls face more teasing, heard
more verbal sexy words and have seen drawing of vulgar pictures.

¾ However in one school out of 24; the boys reported that girls also teased to boys.
But they accepted that the girls are facing more teasing by schoolboys and
outsider.

¾ Children observed that the girls from secondary and lower secondary are the
most who faced teasing from outsider, schoolboys and teachers.

¾ Teasing is not only observed to girls by boys but from bright students to weak
students, Pahadi vs. Deshi, Deshi vs. Pahadi, Pahadi vs. Tharu and outsider
people vs. school students. It depends on majority of which group come in
school. For example in Rapti area majority of Deshi people teased to girls’ dress
up if they wear miniskirt

5. Discrimination based on caste, disability, gender and weak vs. talent students
based on school performance

¾ It found that most of the school teachers use bad words to weak boys who are
poor in school performance by expressing Gaddha, Salee, Bandar etc Due to
those expression by teacher; those boys who are weak in study felt very bad and
treated as inhuman for them.
¾ The victims of abuse, exploitation and harassment are blamed unnecessarily at
home and in school and discriminated without analyzing the situation if it raised
the issues. Due to that reasons; victims are afraid on what’s the sense of raising
issues?

¾ Teacher had given punishment of carrying stone to girl student when late in
school. On the way to school, adult people are saying why such big girls are
being sent to school and discourage girls for school study.

¾ Sometime parents did not allow girls to go school due to heavy workload and
asked to do household work rather go to school. Despite having lots of work at
home there is no full study in school.

¾ There is discrimination based on upper caste vs. lower caste specially in day-to-
day speaking. Due to misbehave of teacher and student; lower caste children
have low self – esteem. Students are also discriminating among each other of
calling their name by caste. While go for drinking water in tap, higher caste asked
lower caste to leave the tap and getting water first by the higher caste.

¾ Tharu and Pahadi fight each other even in small issues, especially Pahadi
students want to dominate Tharu students. Discriminating and debating between
Deshi and Pahadiya students are also equally affected. As deshi students are
more in Rapti area they threatened Pahadiya students to kill. On the way to
school they tease by saying Pahadiya Bhut.

6. Sexual Abuse, Exploitation and Sexual harassment

¾ By hearing different stories of girls and boys it was found that majority of girls
from secondary and lower secondary school are facing sexual harassment and
seems that it has been taken as birth right as a male to do and as a girl it has
been compel to accept such situation in school and no way to change such
situation in school.
¾ It was found that the children who are victims from corporal punishment and
sexual harassment are the double victimized from family members if children
shared the story to family members.

¾ One of the saddest things we know about corporal punishment, abuse,


exploitation and harassment is that it is always linked to a desire to dominate, so
that abusers often target people with particular vulnerabilities.

¾ All victims of abuse, exploitation and sexual harassment are psychologically,


physically, socially and academically disturbed and live under a lot of tension and
stress.

¾ It noticed that violation of children rights due to abuse, exploitation and


harassment is an unpleasant and common practice to school life.

¾ The most surprising things is; while discussed during research process students
are very clear what behavior they like and what don’t like, what makes happy and
what makes unhappy, those students who are very unhappy due to bad practices
in school never learnt that similar behavior make unhappy to others one but
these are never discussed and never seek solution between students and
teacher and living in same silent environment.

¾ The children especially girls who are getting enough encouragement and support
from family members have more confident to defend on any kind of violent
behavior against them and did not tolerate. Once the girls who succeed to
defense wrong behavior towards them, are not double victimize again.

¾ The girls, who shared the feelings of sexual harassment and exploitation with
own colleague, it has been publicized to other students, school teacher and even
in family. So lots of victim think there is question of confidentiality and rights to
privacy is exploited.

¾ In all school there is no mechanism of listening views of victims. So the children


who are sufferers are tolerating and think it should not be exposed.

¾ There are no support programs at prevention of abuse, exploitation and


harassment or at providing support to victims in school.

7. Teacher’s absenteeism and their behavior towards students:

¾ Mostly in Rapti area and some of the school in Udyapur area; teachers come to
the classroom with chewing tobacco (surti), alcohol, take drug, use bad vulgar
words to students, chewing pan parag [one type of tobacco] and spitting in
classroom. They don’t care students and even asked students to bring tobacco.

¾ In all school children expressed that teachers are not in time to classroom rather
trying to correct teachers fault and mental torture has given to students by
blaming the students fault. Even if teachers come they did not take class.

¾ In Rapti areas, children expressed that usually come at 12 and return at 2 pm


and even come don’t teach, there is no full period of teaching and children think
that it is the waste of time to come in school that’s why children are irregular too.
This is worst in Rapti area compare to Kohalpur and Udyapur area. Sometime
teacher expressed their home frustration and create tension to the students

¾ The children’s right to access and quality of education is far from reality
especially in Rapti area due to frequent absenteeism of teacher.

Research has shown that the most significant contributing factors of abuse, exploitation
and harassment in school are;

¾ Lack of awareness among children especially the girls they do not have idea to
raise voice on such issues of abuse, exploitation and harassment. The girls are
not defensive against wrong behavior towards them. The girls also did not raise
issues due to lack of confident, even not shared with their colleagues and boys
are entertaining in that way.
¾ Lots of people are not aware on these issues and not discussed in society. So
people has not accepted these issues easily and mostly taken as normal
situation.

¾ Influence from media, influence from peer especially bullying, teasing etc

¾ The boys think they are super than girls and had done whatever boys like to do
and do not care the matter of prestige. They never realized how far their wrong
behavior has been taken by girls and its’ affect in their life.

¾ Lack of evidence that abusers are punished due to weak implementation of law
and abusers feel more empower and no matters to violate others rights.

¾ In school system or in society there is no place or person of listening such issues


so where to express? Rather hiding and tolerate of such issues. There is no rules
and regulation in school and school’s weaknesses too of not taking action
against wrong behavior and the boys are repeating the same behavior. While
there is no class due to teacher absent, it seemed student have more time to
engage in wrong behavior.

¾ While sharing some difficulties faced by girls; the colleagues mostly boys laugh
and tease with clapping hand; rather listening in positive way. The schoolboys
who had seen teasing to girls by outsider on the way to school, again they further
exaggerated and teased more in classroom and affect of double victimization.

¾ Children are not united; they fight and debate even for small issues and forget
their responsibilities. Elder children push to younger children for entertaining and
followed to do same thing.

¾ The society at large [that includes school system] has not been aware and not
sensitive on those issues. It has been followed since many decade and children
also learned from their elders, teachers and has been followed wrong behavior.
Teachers are not following responsible behavior that is expected role model
behavior in front of student in school and not sensitize what to express and what
should not express to students and how students could do? It has never
discussed with schoolteacher and they are not aware whether due to their
behavior violate children’s rights or not and never analyzed what would be effects
to children. Mostly it had not respond on such issues positively and seriously by
school authorities and blame to victims rather analyzing the situation. It has been
internalized those issues in such a way that student should be obedient and
should not talk against teacher whatever he / she did.

¾ There is wider inequality in society, family and it has been followed in school too.
Gender discrimination and the subordination of women and girls have been
referred to as a fundamental cause of sexual abuse and exploitation. Gender
base violence is common given the patriarchal structures in the communities and
in school too. The social discrimination against children especially girls are at
greater risk of sexual abuse and exploitation than boys because they face double
discrimination, double social stigma and vulnerability, suffering on account of
their gender as well as their socio – economic status.
Consequences of Abuse, Exploitation and Harassment

¾ There are many negative consequences found of such ill practices and behavior
in the school. Some of them are: drop out of children from schools, negative
feeling towards learning, fearful, lack of openness, emotional torture and
suppressed emotional condition etc. Sexual abuse can have long-lasting effects
on the personality of a victim even if it happened at a young age, or just once, or
wasn’t very severe.

¾ Most victims of sexual abuse are afraid to disclose their abuser and many never
do, due to fear of losing 'family honor', repercussion, embarrassment, shame,
guilt, and the fear of being disbelieved or blamed.

¾ Sexual abuse and exploitation have been found amongst the most prevalent
forms of violence in schools that affect girls throughout childhood and
adolescence. However, it found that boys are also abused and sufferer through
corporal punishment, through discrimination based on caste and weak vs. good
students, through sexual harassment and are being exploited due to attitude of
teacher and students.

Whatever factors may be the responsible for sexual abuse and exploitation of
children, adequate attention must be paid to the adverse impact of sexual abuse
and exploitation on the very life and dignity of children who fall prey to them. We
must also help the wider community to understand that sexual abuse, exploitation and
harassment is not a lifestyle choice, it is a crime committed against children. Talking
about abuse widely – in the community, in schools and within homes – and
implementing policies and strategies to stamp it out are the vital next steps.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child (CRC), 1989, provides an international
framework for the protection of children from sexual abuse and all forms of exploitation. Article 19 States
Parties shall take all appropriate measure to protect the child from all forms of ----physical, mental violence,
injury, abuse, neglect of negligent maltreatment----- Promote physical and psychological recovery and social
reintegration of a child victim of Neglect, abuse, torture or cruel inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment.6

Most of us never know what it’s like to be abused and exploitation. Imagine you have
just been raped and beaten; you are too scared to move, because there’s nowhere to go
and no one to help you. Although many of us might never know what it’s like, we
recommend here on behalf of children who had faced abused and exploitation to make
sure that message in our hearts and ideas in our heads can reach out to improve the
lives of the many children affected in Banke district and across the country.
______
6 Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children; A Review of South Asia – Nepal perspective, SAP Nepal Dec 2001

The recommendations given below from Number 1 to 4 is especially to Plan Banke and
5 to 6 numbers would be effective if work together with Child Rights Concern Forum in
Mid and Far Western or with other Allies at National level, regional or district level who
have been promoting Children Rights.
In executive summary the recommendations are very brief and more detail
recommendations can be finding in Recommendation Section 5.

1. Taking into consideration the local context, each school has to develop child
protection policy and standards must include:

1.1 Realizing Sense of Human Rights:

¾ CRC should be the guiding principle for all policies, practices and programs
related to the fight against abuse and exploitation. Priority should always be
given to the best interest of the child and any discrimination is to be avoided. In
all of these recommendations and actions, there must be emphasize the value of
children’s participation. The involvement of children in all levels of planning,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation is a giant step in the right direction.

¾ Sensitization on Child Rights, Gender issues needs to be discussed with child


club, schoolteachers, teachers association and others stakeholders. Based on
research experience; the children or teacher whose behavior is violating to others
do not feel that he/ she is violating children rights and if someone do same
behavior to him /her they do not welcome such things and feel sad. So it is whole
matters of dialogue between students, teachers about what is harassment,
abuse, exploitation and aware its consequences and realizing responsibilities to
protect rights of all children.

¾ Program planning with children; focused on three important human rights “Safe,
Strong and Free” Everyone has these rights and it is indispensable for human
life.

¾ The children who faced abuse, exploitation and harassment that must be heard
and be central to the development and implementation of action.

¾ Attitudes about violence are learnt. Any agencies should influence this learning at
the grassroots level. Boys and girls should learn about responsible sexual
behavior and program strategies have to promote alternative models of manhood
that oppose sexual abuse and violence with good behave and practice in their
normal life.
¾ The basic and the most effective ways of protecting rights are “Say No”; “Go
Away” and “Talk to Someone”. Sense of human rights and self-esteem are
inevitable for protecting oneself from violence.

1. 2 Develop Behavior Protocols:

In every school it needs to develop ethics of appropriate behavior to protect violation of


children rights. That has to be developed in consultation with equal representation of
boys and girls and has to be monitored by children themselves and school authorities
together.

1. 3 Support Committee in School.

¾ In every school there should be establishment of committee, which has to be


decided by children group with representation of students [equal number of boys
/ girls]. The existing children club can play the role of supporting committee in
school and can be build in working VDCs of Banke Plan. This committee needs
to be well sensitizing to listen the views of children and act to provide
psychological support to victims of abuse, exploitation and harassment and can
protest with support of other children against abuse, exploitation and harassment
of children in school or in communities.

¾ The committee will support victims to remove their discomfort and boost up that it
is not only their fault. This committee will also analyze the allegation and incident
management and report to school principal so that children would get support
from school authorities and all children feel safe, equal and friendly place in
school. The existing paralegal committee of Plan Banke will work closely and
could support in school support committee too.

¾ General confidentiality of every girl or boy has to be maintained by the committee


regarding cases under investigation and information or documentation about
children.

2. Capacity Building of Children:

¾ The existing child club needs to strengthen to look and address the school
violence and act as support committee to listen the views of victims and raise
voice against violence in school or in community.
¾ Net work meeting should be organized monthly so that they could share what
progress made in each school, the future plan of each club and what short of
support is needed to them by other clubs could be explored and shared with
each other.
¾ The activity need to design how children can play active role as a change agent
in maintaining healthy environment in school and feel responsible behavior so
that all children would have develop sense of responsibility and cooperation with
each other.
¾ As per the catchment’s area, child clubs should tie up with network of the clubs
and linkage with existing paralegal committee to get support and co-operation to
each other. Once it established child clubs in school its members have to be
provided exposure visit to see such initiatives done by other child clubs within
Nepal or Outside Nepal as part of building their confidence and capacities.

3. Mobilizing communities, children, teachers, working with parents, school,


District Child Welfare Board and District Education Office to prevent violence in
school:

¾ There is a need to mobilize whole community not only to provide knowledge but
also challenge attitudes about these issues. Parents and teachers’ attitudes
especially towards girls and marginalized children need to be address through
community awareness program.

¾ The children who had participated in research process it would better if they
participate in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of activities
related to their development.

¾ An education system that supported teachers through training on child rights,


gender to build a relationship of trust with children, enabling children to question,
challenge, analyze and learn for themselves and encouraged equal respect for
each other, would have no place for corporal punishment which could be very
good approach to teaching and learning. Like wise discrimination by teacher
between bright vs. weak students need to address through tuition class for 1 to 2
hour for those weak students and that can be managed by school teacher if it
would discuss in teachers training.

4. Gender Sensitization

¾ There is a need to address gender issues, because the way boys and girls raise
in our communities create male – dominant societies that allow the sexual abuse
and exploitation.

¾ As patriarchy and discrimination of children based on gender, caste is noticed it


is recommended that sensitization training cum workshop on gender issues has
to be conducted with school teachers, school management committee, existing
children clubs at all levels.

5. Changes in proposed laws related to corporal punishment and Sexual


harassment and More Effective Law Enforcement:

¾ Present children’s act and regulation is not sound in relation to verbal abuse,
sexual harassment and corporal punishment by teacher to students. There is
plenty of interpretation can be done by the teacher in the name of improving
children. Like wise the process of law enforcement needs to be improved is
obvious.
¾ In most of the places if a criminal robs a bank, they will receive serious
punishment, but if some one robs a child of his her dignity and more they receive
nominal punishments. It is not the victims that should be criminalized but the
exploiters – this is especially important when the victims are under aged. Efforts
must be made to ensure that exploiters are the ones punished, not children who
have been abused and exploited.

¾ There is a need for better harmonization of national legislations in line with


international treaties and cooperation between law enforcement agencies at all
level, as well as strict enforcement, monitoring and evaluation of these laws.

6. Effective Advocacy

¾ There should be National campaign program through out the country against
school violence towards children by mobilizing all stakeholders [parents, children,
I/NGOs, Human rights group] to raise awareness on issues and showing
pressure group against abuse, exploitation and harassment in school.

¾ Advocacy is required to address gaps in the program strategy to donors,


government, I/ NGOs to work with boys and men. In the past, lots of
programming has been addressed for girls and women however the problems
remain the same. As more than 90 % problem come from boys and men we
should not forget to work with them to prepare better manhood. So boys are the
problems and solutions too.

¾ Advocacy is also required to lobby with human rights groups and politicians at
VDC and district level to include these issues on their agenda. It will be required
in the police force to enable more sensitive handling of cases.

¾ Similarly, lawyers and judges also need to be sensitized about these forms of
violence in school and take legal action with sensitivity. There is equally need to
work with media because they are the most effective and appropriate way to
spread among the public.

¾ Bring all stakeholders in one place to advocate of issues with local Govt bodies
(VDCs), DCWB, DEO, Children Club, Teachers’ association, School
Management Committee, District Education Committee, Women’s group and
Parents through initiating dialogue based on research findings and discussed
why sexual violence is happening in their communities, who are responsible for
that and what role can play by different stakeholders to stop such violence in
school or in communities
Section 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Children Abuse, Exploitation and Harassment in School: An Overview

“I want to challenge this world and ask people how they can continue to let things
like this happen? How can they allow children to live unprotected while those who
commit violent crimes against them go free? How will the world take
responsibility for children and protect them from violence, sexual abuse and
exploitation?” - Question by a South Asian girl 1

Children have rights to participate in their own protection. There are, however limited or
no forums for listening to children and giving them opportunities to express their views
and opinions on decisions and actions that affect them.

A “child “is defined in the UN convention on the Rights of the Child [CRC] as a person
under the age of 18. According to CRC, all children have the right to be protected from
sexual abuse and exploitation. Child abuse, exploitation have been recognized at the
international level through various instruments such as CRC, CEDAW, ILO Convention
182.

The school is a very important place for children. Schools have a major role in
promoting rights of the child. Children learn through playing, studying and relationship
with friends and teachers in the school since, they spend most of their time in the school,
it is essential to have safe and good environment for health, good habits/behavior and
overall development.

The school is generally considered as an ideal and safer place to learn and for overall
development of children. However, all the schools in all the time are not safe and do not
have conducive environment. While working with children in different districts of Save
the children UK, Plan, CWIN and AAWAAJ; it has been reported that children are
abused in school- they are beaten, scolded and subject to discriminatory behavior by
teachers. They are also exploited by involving them in teachers' personal work.

Furthermore, girl students are sexually harassed and abused by boy students and male
teachers. Teachers misbehave by drinking alcohol and gambling etc. Children also
complained that teachers do not teach them with love and care. They are not listened
properly. Such cases are happening in schools knowingly and unknowingly. It shows
that most often rights of the child are not promoted as it should be and sometimes rights
to protection are violated.

To reduce and eliminate the abusive and harassing practice and environment in the
school, it is very important to know the extent and nature of abuse and harassment. It
will give us the insight of the issue to tackle and prevent the problem.

1 UNICEF paper in South Asia for second world congress against commercial exploitation of Children Yokohama, Japan
17 – 20 December 2001

1
There is little awareness and acknowledgement of child abuse, exploitation and
harassment in the school as a wide phenomenon in our society where open discussion
on sex is considered a taboo. It is a bitter reality that most of the abuse of children is
silently tolerated at the cost of the victims/survivors and the society. Although increasing
cases of exploitation of children (done for commercial purposes) such as trafficking,
Prostitution are being reported but it is rarely reported the cases, which is happening in
school.

Even less severe forms of corporal punishment damage children’s education. Children
learn through exploring, questioning, trying things out; they need the freedom to
experiment, to think for themselves, to take risks. Where discipline is maintained through
fear, all these preconditions for successful learning are lost. Teachers justify corporal
punishment as being for the good of the students, improving discipline and learning. But
there is no evidence that the absence of corporal punishment leads to poor performance
or out of control in school.

Various forms of child sexual abuse, which are of a non – commercial nature, also exist.
Deep rooted secrecy and denial and a pervasive silence make issues of sexual
exploitation extremely complex. Most children who are sexually abused are boys and
girls between 13 to 18 yrs and the average age seems to be falling. Boys and girls of the
underprivileged and marginalized, religious and ethnic minorities or caste groups those
with disabilities, weaker students in school are particularly vulnerable to sexual
exploitation.

As per the UNICEF South Asia report prepared for second world congress in Yokohama
mentioned that while both girls and boys are sexually exploited and abused, a large
majority of exploited children in South Asia are girls. The report also said that with
respect to sexual abuse, it appears that no age is safe. In some cases sexual abuse has
been reported on girls as young as a few months old, and data indicates that the age
group 10 to 15 yrs is the most vulnerable group of children to sexual abuse. 1

In South Asia, child sexual abuse and exploitation are some of the least explored forms
of child abuse. It has been pointed out that in South Asia talking precisely about sexual
abuse is not customary even among psychiatrists. The very lack of direct and clear
language to discuss child sexual abuse makes diagnosis and treatment problematic. 1

2
1. 2 BACKGROUND - Understanding the Issues Based on Literature Review:

CHILD ABUSE:

There can be many definitions of child abuse. One of the most accepted definitions is as
follows: Acts or omissions leading to actual or potential damage to health and
development, and exposure to unnecessary suffering”. “Anything which individuals,
institutions or processes do [acts] or fail [omissions] to do which directly or indirectly
children or damages the prospects of safe and healthy development into adulthood. 2

Corporal Punishment is A violation of Children’s Human Rights

The worldwide use of corporal punishment seems to contradict the fact that children are
people the same as us, humans with human rights. People justify behavior towards
children that they would never justify for themselves as adults, such as beating someone
when they behave in an undesirable way. In fact, adults hit children because they can do
it and many societies accept and support it, but corporal punishment ends when children
grow up, when abuse of power is no more acceptable.

Historically, it seems that children will be the last group to be protected in law from
corporal punishment. In previous eras the beating of wives, children servants, prisoners,
soldiers and slaves was legal and socially acceptable.

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 [UNCRC] explicitly protects children
from all forms of physical violence [article 19] and from inhuman and degrading
treatment or punishment [article 37]. It requires school discipline to be “consistent with
the child’s human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention” [article 28.2]. In
view of the damage that corporal punishment can do to children’s attendance and
learning experience, it can also breach Article 28, which enshrines children’s right to
receive primary education [Article 28.1.a] and requires states to take measure to
encourage regular attendance at school and reduce drop- out rates [Article 28.1.e].

The four “general principles” of the UNCRC can be seen to exclude the possibility of
corporal punishment. Article2, the principle of non- discrimination, is relevant to the
many circumstances in which specific groups of children suffer corporal punishment
while others are protected. Article 3, which states that the best interest of the child shall
be a primary consideration in all actions concerning the child, is incompatible with a
practice that has been shown to be against the interests of children. Article 6, the right to
life and maximum possible survival and development, is breached whenever children are
killed, permanently harmed or stunted in their development because of corporal
punishment. Article 12, the right of children to be heard and have their opinion given due
weight, is plainly disregarded when brute physical force is used to control them, rather
than listening, respect, reason, example and guidance.

2. News Flash Save the Children South and Central Asia Region February 2002

3
Children are physically, emotionally and economically dependent on parents or teachers.
All societies and all human rights treaties recognize adults’ responsibilities to care for
and socialize children, and it is these adults who usually claim children’s rights for them -
for example, to education, health or justice-often with great courage and against the
odds. But when it is the parents or teachers who are violating rights then children may
have great difficulty in claiming them. Children may not be able to get help easily and by
their situation, are generally not in a position to challenge such violations of their rights.

Fundamentally, corporal punishment would be inconceivable within any education


system that was genuinely based on the rights of the child. An education system that
supported teachers to build a relationship of trust with children, enabling children to
question, challenge, analyze and learn for themselves and encouraged equal respect for
each other, would have no place for corporal punishment which can only undermine the
very basis of this approach to teaching and learning. 3

Discriminatory practices have their roots in Religions, Social and Cultural norms. It is a
social construct with the backing of social institutions. On the pretext of pursuing the
social norms adults are violating the rights of children in the families, communities, public
places including schools persistently. The suffering of children who experience such
dominations is too often unheard. Additionally, there are legislations and government
priorities that are not in tone with the non-discrimination principle of CRC. As a result,
country is facing gradual escalation of hatred, prejudices and conflict between Nepalese
of various socio-ethnic groups.

Childhood is the most formative period of life. Children’s survival, development and
active participation are significant to the progress of any society. The development of
children makes them particularly susceptible to the conditions under which they may live.
Program that bring people together for collective analysis around the causes of
discrimination, coalition building among the like minded organizations in local and nation
level in order to organize people to uproot such causes are rare.

A child’s presence in a classroom does not guarantee inclusion in learning. The national
program with the theme “ education for all” carries little value as yet a large section of
child population enter into adulthood without experiencing school lives in their total
childhood. The retention rate in primary education has been too low. Discriminatory
behaviors persistently practiced by state and non-state obligators have been the major
reasons for depriving a large mass of children from their fundamental rights. Teachers,
parents and communities practicing discrimination are directly teaching their children
that it is acceptable to humiliate and hostile weaker ones. 4
3 Ending Corporal punishment of save the Children UK, London published on 2001
______________
4 Unpublished Paper on campaign against discrimination in education of SC Alliance Nepal

4
The attitudes and practices perpetuated by stereotype values and beliefs have derailed
our aim to create an environment that contributes in making CRC daily realities for
children in the country. It has been popularized that the poverty is main and only cause
playing adverse to the children’s rights to schooling and high drop out rate. CRC article
29 talks about education that challenges such a myth and suggests deconstructing and
redefining it in the context of socio-cultural dynamics showing its link with discriminatory
attitudes. “Free education” has not been success as it takes economic factor only into
accounts.

People have maintained a degree of culture of silence in this matter. They have been
indoctrinated and made to belief that it is the god given Karma therefore is not
transformable in this life. A considerable size of population irrespective of their socio-
economic status still believe that the children belonging to these groups by born inherit
deficiencies in their performance in all of their walks of lives. So it is no worth of trying for
education or other alternatives in their favor.

Sexual harassment defines as any conduct, which is sexual in nature and


unwelcome. That includes;

• Unwelcome physical contact or advance


• Unwelcome demand or request for sexual favor
• Unwelcome sexually colored joke or remark
• Unwelcome display or pornography
• Unwelcome [any other] physical, verbal or non-verbal behavior with sexual
undertones.

Usually there is myth that the seriousness of sexual harassment has been exaggerated
and most so called harassment is actually trivial and harmless flirtation but the fact is
sexual harassment is not an expression of healthy human relationships. It has a
devastating effect on children especially the girls who faced more and is perceived as
offensive, degrading and frightening.

Sexual harassment can happen to any one especially the girls and women as patriarchy
affords to men / boys and the consequent desire to subjugate. Subjecting girls to various
forms of sexual harassment is one way of undermining the worth of girls’ value and self
esteem. It is different from sexual desire, flirtation or romance. In the final analysis,
sexual harassment is about power play and violation of individual rights. Many people
have still myth on if we ignore sexual harassment, it will go away in-fact it will not.

For society as a whole sexual harassment at school or any place impedes gender
equity, condones sexual violence and hinders both productivity and development.
Sexual harassment has come to be perceived as trivial, ordinary, everyday experience
to the extent that it is seen as normal. 5

_______________
5 Campaign package against sexual harassment at workplace published by Sanhita, Kolkata
6 Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children; A Review of South Asia – Nepal perspective, SAP Nepal Dec 2001
7 National Report on sexual abuse, exploitation and trafficking of children in Nepal - Dec 2001

5
In Kathmandu post published on 19 April, 2002; the European Union [EU] wide
legislation defines sexual harassment as unwanted conduct related to sex with the effect
of affecting the dignity of a person and of creating an intimidating, hostile, offensive or
disturbing environment. An EU study found that sexual harassment was common in all
countries.

Sexual exploitation is defined as the exploitation for sexual purposes with financial or
in– kind profit, of children. Sexual exploitation of children takes many forms such as
pornography and trafficking. 8

“Sexual abuse becomes sexual exploitation when a second party benefits – through
making a profit or through a quid pro quo- through sexual activity involving a child”…
UNICEF 6

Sexual abuse of children can be defined as contacts or interactions between a child and
an older or more knowledgeable child or adult [a stranger, sibling or person in a position
of authority, such as a parent or care taker] when the child is being used as an object of
gratification for an older child’s or adult’s sexual needs. These contacts or interactions
are carried out against the child using force, trickery, bribes, threats or pressure.
………UNITED NATIONS

Sexual abuse is the impositions of sexually inappropriate acts, or act with sexual
overtones by one or more persons, who derive authority through ongoing emotional or
professional bonding with that child or who have a commercial or other interest in the
child. ------------Save the Children 7

Sexual abuse can be physical, verbal or emotional and includes and is


described in detail as the following: 6

• Touching and fondling of the sexual portions of the child’s body [genital and
anus] or touching the breasts of pubescent females, or the child’s touching
the sexual portions of a partner’s body that the child feels uncomfortable;
• Sexual kissing
• Penetration, which includes penile, digital and object penetration of the
vagina, mouth or anus
• Exposing children to adult sexual activity or pornographic movies and
photographs;
• Making lewd comments about the child’s body;
• Having children pose, undress or perform in a sexual fashion on film or in
person;
• “Peeping” into bathrooms or bedrooms to spy on a child [voyeurism]

In the context of Nepal, there has been very little research done on child sexual
abuse. Gauri Pradhan in his book “Jibit Pidaharu” [1998] has briefly summarized
Child Sexual Abuse as follows;
_______________
8 Rights based training report on child sexual abuse and exploitation, Save the Children Norway, April 2001

6
• Force children under 18 in sex trade
• To use children for pornographic purpose or to make then view such things
• To fondle children’s private parts for one’s sexual satisfaction
• To force children in acts such as masturbation and oral sex
• Child marriage
• To coerce children in sexual activities using the power of relations
• To have sexual relations with children
• To engage or deceive in conversation with children over the telephone or in real
life
• Any other type of sexual misconduct with children

MYTHS ABOUT CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE AND EXPLOITATION

It is quite important to aware the myths about child sexual abuse and how it is
understand by society. There are several myths regarding sexual abuse and exploitation
that are accepted and even practiced. Sometimes the people make immoral decisions
based on the myths and they do not go for knowing the fact. Such decisions may affect
the victims more and it keeps the abuser at the safe side. Those myths are following; 8

¾ Abusers look and act in a particular way and can usually be recognized.

Sometimes it does not happen. Even the very close relatives are found abusers and
sometimes it is unnoticed and hard to believe that the person can be the abuser.

¾ If a child is abused at a very young age, s/ he will most likely forget it and it will
not affect his/ her life as much.

It depends on the severity of abuse. If the act of abuse is harmful it obviously affects
the life of the child. It also depends on the age of the child. Generally; it affects the
very young children as well.

¾ The only reason why children are trafficked because their families want them to
do so.

There may be various other reasons for child trafficking such as low socio economic
status of a girl / woman, no employment opportunities, open border etc.

¾ Abusers mostly abuse because of sexual frustration. It may apply in the case of
some married men or women who are not satisfied with their partners and abuse
others. But it is not true in the case of unmarried who often are abusers.

¾ Very young children are not abused. It usually happens to adolescents.

This is very common and misleading myth because it makes us think that very little
children are safe from the abuse. This is not true. It could happen to very young
children who simply do not know what is happening and could get confused. Children
of all ages have been known to be abused.

¾ Child Sexual Abuse is usually accompanied by physical violence and force.

7
This is a myth in which a lot of us may be fooled because if a child does not seem
hurt, we may think that child had encouraged the abuse in some way or in a way had
taken part in it willingly. Abusers are very clever people; they do not want anybody to
know what they are doing. In order to do that they may bribe that child with sweets or
even extra attention. They may tell him /her again and again to keep the abuse their
own little secret. They may use threats and manipulate the situation but rarely use
physical force, because if they do so chances that other might find about it increases.

¾ Child sexual abusers are always men.

Women can also be abusers although their ratio is very much less that of men.

¾ Boys are rarely sexually abused.


Many of us assume that victims are only girls and parents of boys often feel relieved
that they don’t have to bother about protecting their boys. Boys too are as vulnerable
to child sexual abuse as girls are. However, abuse in girls is more likely to be found
out.

¾ Abusers are usually the strangers to the child.

Abusers are seldom strangers. They are mostly people the child knows and trusts,
thus making it more difficult for children to talk about it.

¾ Children often make up stories about being sexually abuse.


It takes a lot of courage for a child to come out and talk about a thing like abuse.
Why would a child deliberately go through so much embarrassment, awkwardness
and discomfort? Moreover, the child knows that what he / she is saying could cause
him / her or the abuser a lot of problem, so it is very unlikely that the child would
make up a story like adults.

¾ Children have a right to take all decisions about their life including prostitution.

In the case of an adult who is above age of 18 years it can be considered as his / her
right. But in the case of children they need to understand the positive as well as
negative factors affecting them. Sometime they make wrong decisions by the
pressure of the peer groups.

¾ Child sexual abuse only occurs in uneducated classes and the slum areas.
Child sexual abuse is not the problem of a certain areas or class. It is not like poverty
or illiteracy, which are the problems, of a certain class. Research from all over the
world has shown that Child sexual abuse can occur in all socio economic classes
and in families with varying educational levels.

¾ It does more harms than good if a child who has been abused talks about his /
her experience.

People often believe that if a survivor avoids talking about the abuse, it will go away
and everything will be all right again. However, clinical experience has shown that it
is very difficult for the child to forget. He / she may seem to be leading a perfectly
normal life and look quite alright but if a child is not encouraged to talk and unburden

8
himself s/ he may grow up with a lot of suppressed pain and negative feelings which
may cause his / her problems later on. It is very important that the child talks to
someone who supports and understands. Studies have shown that children who
were given emotional support on disclosure were able to cope with the abuse better
than those who did not get any support were. The ability to deal with the abuse
further deteriorated in cases where children were either not believed or blamed for
the abuse.

¾ Sometimes the abuse can be the child’s fault.

Sometimes children are blamed for the abuse. It is wrongly assumed that the child
may have acted or dressed up in such a way which could have provoked or
deserved the abuse. None of this true. Child sexual abuse is never the fault of
children. Children do not relate anyone in a sexual way unless they are made to do
so is exposed to such things. Even if they enjoy the act it does not mean that they
are at fault, it simply indicates that their bodies are functioning normally. The
responsibility of the abuse always lies with the older person, who knows that such
things can have an impact on children’s emotional health and has more power over
the situation. They are also able to understand fully the moral and legal implications
of such a relationship. At times, children may go back to an adult who has abused
them in return of some favor such as money, gifts etc. However, the responsibility
still lies with the adult who makes use of the child’s vulnerability.

¾ Abusers look mentally ill and act aggressively or in a strange way all the time

Abusers can be people who appear quite normal and may be living perfectly normal
lives. These could be rich or poor, educated or uneducated. They may even be people
holding important and responsible posts and people may trust them totally. They could
be judges, teachers, doctors, managers or lawyers.

1. 3 Research Rationale:

Violation of children rights is one of the issues for Plan Nepal. As a child focused
organization, Plan Nepal has acknowledged to do research before implement the rights
of children program and is necessary to understand the nature, magnitude and its
contributing factors on violation of children Rights in school due to child abuse,
exploitation and harassment. So that it gives magnitude of prevalence, nature and
extent of violation of rights of children due to abuse, exploitation and harassment
including sexual abuse - (forms of violence- physical, emotional, academic, gender
related).

It has given perception of girls, boys, male / female teachers and parents on the issues,
causes and solutions. By looking these areas it is equally useful to all NGOs/ INGOs,
Government and donors who are concern against violation of children rights.

The purpose of the study was to explore on the violation children rights due to abuse,
exploitation and harassment in schools and develop the project proposal accordingly to
implement the children rights program. Plan Nepal recognizes that voices and presence
of experiential children be included at all levels of the development and implementation
of the programs.

9
It is a bitter reality that most of the abuse of children is silently tolerated at the cost of the
victims or survivors in the society. Although increasing cases of exploitation of children
(done for commercial purposes) such as trafficking, prostitution is being reported but it is
rarely reported the cases, which is happening in school. Different research studies have
shown that abuse, exploitation and harassment is extremely prevalent in South Asia
irrespective of age, sex, education, caste, and class. Human Development in South
Asia, 1997’ states, “While growing up in South Asia is a perpetual struggle, to be a girl in
this region is to be a non person.”

Most victims of sexual abuse are afraid to disclose their abuser, and many never do, due
to fear of losing 'family honor', repercussion, embarrassment, shame, guilt, and the fear
of being disbelieved or blamed. Abusers in most cases also use threats. Sexual abuse
can have long-lasting effects on the personality of a victim even if it happened at a
young age, or just once, or wasn’t very severe. Sexual abuse is never the fault of a child.

In Surkhet district, while working on issues of child sexual abuse and exploitation in
school by AAWAJ and safer spaces project of girls by SC /UK; it identified that school is
an unsafe spaces to many girls due to following reasons.9

Use of vulgar words by boys towards girls, boys writing names of a boy and girl paired
up on public school walls and bathroom walls (such as Hari +Savitri), groups of boys
teasing girls by making up false stories to hurt her reputation (such as love letters),
usually teasing about a non-existent relationship with a boy, no toilets so having to go in
public and facing shame if others see, boys entering girls toilets, teasing and putting
paper tail at the back of shirt or skirt by boys is very common, teachers are not taking
such incidents of teasing as serious, when a teacher (male) punishes a girl student,
there have been many times where the teacher, pretending to hit her on the back opens
the student's brassier, the teacher goes behind the student, as if to hit her, and then
pinches the girl student's butt cheek, stomach or puts his hand in her shirt pocket,
touches her breast and asks "What is this?"

Other teachers have asked younger girls to sit on their lap and also harass girl students
when they make small mistakes by saying “you girls are grown up and ready to get
married”, "do not worry about your studies, you have to go husband ‘s home soon, so
passing 4 or 5 grade is enough". Teacher's asking girl students stupid questions such as
how many legs you have, to irritate the girls and make them feel uncomfortable and
staring at the girls while teaching or asking questions.

Studies in sub – Saharan African schools, girls in particular are the victims of school -
based violence and tolerate serious sexual harassment and abuse, most of it
perpetrated by older male pupils and male teachers. Sexual abuse of girls by male
pupils and teachers is accepted, along with corporal punishment, verbal abuse and
bullying as an inevitable part of much of school life. It exploits unequal power relations
and the authoritarian ethos within schools.

_______________________
9. An internal annual report of AAWAAJ and SC /UK of Surkhet district 2001
10. Special Insights Development Research, Institute of development studies, supported by DFID, August 2001

10
The reluctance of education authorities to address the issues and to prosecute
perpetrators allows abuse to flourish unchecked. By their inaction, authorities condone
and encourage it. Male teachers who openly pursue sexual liaison with girls are
indicating to boys that such behavior is acceptable. Fear of abusive teachers and
mistrust that turn a blind eye prevents pupils from reporting incidents. Thus sexual abuse
of girls in school is a reflection of gender violence and inequality in the wider society. It is
difficult to accept that the school is a site of abuse rather than a haven against
perpetrated elsewhere. 10

In Nepal there is no yet formal study in schools in relation to abuse, exploitation and
harassment of children and Plan Nepal has realized to do.

1.4 The Nature of this Research

This study does not aim to focus on one particular form of violence. It explores all sort of
violence in school where children faced and think that their rights are violated due to
various natures and especially focused on sexual abuse, exploitation and harassment. It
is more on qualitative nature.

The children were interviewed from 24 schools of Banke district of Plan working area in
Kohalpur, Udyapur and Rapti area that covers only Government secondary school, lower
secondary and primary schools. In-terms of caste ethnicity the children were from Tharu,
Abhadhi, Dalit [Kami Damai, Brahaman / Chettri, Magar and some of them are fromRai
etc. They are ordinary children studying in schools and living in their own families rather
belongs to a particular vulnerable group like street children, Refugee children or
domestic workers.

1.5 Key questions / Issues:

1. What do children understand about their rights?


2. What are the good practices that made happy to children and what are the bad
practices that made sad to children in school?
3 What sort of difficulties faced by children that are not expected in school
environment, which they think abuse, exploitation and harassment and violation
of children rights

This research aims to understand the main areas where children suffer from violation of
rights due to abuse, exploitation and harassment in the schools. In particular, it focuses
on the following areas;

1. Assess the prevalence, nature and extent of abuse, exploitation and harassment
(with special focus on sexual) in the school.
2. Identify the contributing factors for abuse, exploitation and harassment.
3. Identify consequences of abuse, exploitation and harassment on children. (Girls and
boys)
4. Hearing the views of children and adults what they think are realistic ways to reduce
violence in schools.

11
Section 2: METHODOLOGY AND PROCESS

2.1 Background

Plan Nepal has been working in Banke district with a direct focus on children. In the
process of implementation; Plan has been realized to implement ROC program in its
program area. Before starting ROC program, Plan decided to do Research on violation
of children rights due to abuse, exploitation and harassment in schools. Accordingly
external research team members were hired by Plan and detail research process had
developed. A preparatory meeting was held with Plan Banke team, among research
team members and finalized terms of reference. Originally it was plan only in 3 VDCs of
Plan working area but as per the requirement to fulfill the coverage of secondary, lower
secondary and primary schools 14 VDCs were selected.

2.2 Location of the Study Site:

Banke is one of the district in Mid western region, located about 500 kilometers from
Kathmandu; Nepal’s capital. The study areas are relatively newly settled with people
from the adjoining hill districts such as Rolpa, Dailkeh, Salyan, Jajarkot and Surkhet who
have migrated to these places.

Banke lies in the Flat land, southern part of Nepal and the India border is very near from
its headquarter. The group studied live in the villages of Kohalpur area, Udyapur area
and Rapti area. Relatively Rapti area looks like part of the India and quite far from district
headquarter to reach the place. Day to day life of Rapti community such as marriage,
shopping is very common to India rather in Banke district.

2.3 Selection of the Study Villages and Schools

The study had conducted in the schools- primary, lower secondary and secondary level
of PLAN working village development committees (VDCs) of Banke district. Name of the
VDCs are listed below.

Banke PU, Rapti Branch Banke PU, Udayapur BO Banke PU, Kohalpur BO
Office (BO)

1. Laxmanpur 1. Puraina 1. Shamshergunj


2. Matehiya 2. Puraini 2. Rajhaina
3. Fattepur 3. Bankatti 3. Bankatawa
4. Binauna 4. Bashudevapur 4. Kohalpur
5. Kamdi
6. Manikapur

12
The study site [VDCs + schools] had selected with consultation of Plan staff especially
with the support of District coordinator, area coordinators and education coordinators in
Banke district. Out of 29 VDCs, 14 VDCs were selected of each branch office area and
school had selected in such a way where 3 different level [primary, lower secondary and
secondary school] is access in different location rather see in one school.
Total 24 schools were selected for the study where 11 schools from Kohalpur branch
office, 5 schools from Udyapur Branch office and 8 schools from Rapti area had chosen.
It was supposed to select 8 schools from each branch office i.e. 2 primary and 3
secondary and lower secondary schools respectively from each area.
In Udyapur area, 3 schools i.e. 1 primary and 2 secondary school could not get as per
requirement and replace in Kohalpur area. The study had focused with school children at
school in order to bring about their own changes and hopefully to take catalyst role by
monitoring such issues and raise voice with concern authorities so the problem will not
be repeat to same child & for other children in school.

SN Name of schools Grades Boys Girls Total students Remarks


in first round
discussion in
1. Kohalpur Area 8 - 10 40 40 80
Tribhuvan Ma.Vi. Kohalpur
2. Gyanjoyity Ma. Vi Chhapargaudi 8 -10 30 30 60
3 Prabhat ma. Vi. Ggaun 8 - 10 52 29 81
4 Adarsha Ma. Vi. Ranjha 8 - 10 15 16 31
5 Ram Ma. Vi. Baizanathpur 8 - 10 11 12 23
6 Janta Ni. Ma.Vi Matihawa 6-8 15 15 30
7 Ni. Ma.Vi dalaipur, kamdi 6-8 44 37 81
8 Jaya janta Ni.Ma.Vi thapuwa 6-8 10 49 59
9 Janajoiti Pra Vi. Jhandawa 4-5 7 18 25
10 NRPV Lakhanpur 4-5 25 13 38
11 NRPV Khargarwar 4-5 10 11 21
12 Udyapur Area 8 -10 15 15 30
Maharaja Ma. Vi. Puraina,
Udayapur
13 NMV Bankatti 6-8 18 11 29
14 NRPV Puraini 4-5 13 10 23
15 Ni.Ma.Vi Basudevpur 6 -7 24 1 25
16 NRPV Kanthipur 4-5 22 11 33
17 Rapti Area 8 - 10 15 17 32
Bhunvar Bhawani Ma. Vi Binauna
18 Siddheshowr Ma. Vi. Sidhnawa 8 - 10 20 12 32
19 Mahendra Ma. Vi matihawa 8 - 10 15 15 30
20 Ni. Ma. Vi laxmanpur 6-7 28 3 31
21 Ni. Ma. Vi Bhojpur 6-7 10 10 20
22 Ni. Ma. Vi. Chilhariya 6-7 10 10 20
23 NRPV Sarri 4-5 18 11 29
24 NRPV Kodarbetawa 4-5 24 3 27
Total: 493 399 892

13
As much as possible research team had seek equal numbers of boys and girls
representation in discussion but due to low attendance of girls in Udyapur and Rapti
area the girls participation seemed low compare to boys. In general students’ numbers
were quite high in Kohalpur area and the selection of students in that area is relatively
more than other areas. Like wise in Jandawa school of Kohalpur area there were less
representation of boys compare to girls as boys mostly go to private boarding and in
Thapua School there was holiday so lots of boys did not come in our discussion.

2.4 Selection of the groups:


As much as possible groups and individuals from all different caste ethnicities, from
different status, from different grade i.e. 4 to 5 grade in primary, 6 to 8 grades in lower
secondary and 9 to 10 grades had chosen. In plenary; the group of children were
selected by schoolteacher after giving brief orientation to schoolteachers.

In each school there was following process followed while done consultation
meeting.
‰ Before starting discussion to any group; research objective was shared and had
taken consent for the process. Anonymity and confidentiality was informed. Any
stories shared in the research process related with violation of rights would not flash
the name of person and not in research report too.
‰ Briefly started on what they understand by child rights. After that 4 baskets of CRC
was visualized and brief what it comes under each basket and explained to them
that research would explored more on violation of protection rights in school and
obtained general information on violation of children rights and selection of children
for focus group discussion will be held. At the end of the discussion; informed to
children about second round of focus group discussion and from each grade, 2
children one boy and one girl were selected by the students itself to whom we
discussed.
‰ While doing focus group discussion it had done separately among boys and girls.
Similarly after consultation with children, consultation meeting with school teachers
[i.e. school principal and one female teacher from each school], VDC leaders,
school management representatives + parents representative [whose children had
involved in research process] were invited in focus group discussion. Before starting
discussion the objective was shared.
‰ Individual in depth interview was also collected. The individual girl or boy had
selected after focus group discussion or plenary discussion depends on expression
in plenary or in focus group discussion.
‰ Interviews with key informants- relevant NGOs working in same VDC, District Child
Welfare Board, District Education Office, Police, District Court and Lawyers was
planned but at the end of the field study external political situation was worsen and
could not consulted with those group.

14
Total group consultations were as follows:
Plenary discussion in each school 24
Focus group with Children: 8
Focus group with teachers, representatives
of VDC leaders & parents 5
----------------------------------------------------------
Total 37

2. 5 Tools used for the study:


The studies had mainly focused on exploratory qualitative aspects. It was in two folds.
First was assessing on violation of rights of the child abuse, exploitation and harassment
to all selected group of sample schools in workshop style. Among the children of the
sample schools focus group discussion with selected children was done for depth study
on sexual abuse and harassment.
The maximum time for plenary and focus group discussion was 2 hrs and took half hour
to one hour for individual case study. The following tools were used:
• In the beginning, rapport building with concern groups through introduction of
who we are and shared the objectives of why we came in school and entering on
subject matter.
• Card sheet of objectives of study to visualize all children
• Card sheet of CRC framework to visualize.
• News print, marker was circulated in plenary
• Group discussion among boys and girls separately.
• Individual brainstorm and writing in paper that makes happy and sad to children
in school.
• Semi structured interviews using a checklist in plenary and focused group
discussion
• Observations of children expression to ensure the stories are real.
• Writing most painful experiences and maintaining anonymity and confidentiality.
• Explore with girls and boys on which parts of body they like and how to know
whether it is love or abuse if some one touches in your body? How they
understand good touch or bad touch?
• Time line to recall the events of the abuse and exploitation of past 3 to 5 years
had been used.
• Meditation to visualize the stories and probe the issues
• Spontaneous writing of the feelings by children for case studies reflecting nature
of violence, causes, consequences and if possible perceptions of affected
children even for prevention.

All the methods have their own strength in-terms of exploring issues but the most
effective tool we felt was group discussion among boys and girls separately that was
done immediately after plenary and quite useful because it lead the issues in track and
lots of issues came out while done in separate gender. The group members also felt
easy to discuss in-group separately and easier to probe for the researcher once got the

15
issues. Once we got the issues then depth discussion was made in focus group
discussion and individual case studies.

2. 6 Ethical issues:

The informed consent of District education office had taken to selected schools. Before
starting field study the meeting was held between District Education officer, Resource
person and Plan Banke staff where the objectives, the research process and time frame
of field study were made clear. It was requested to DEO to get formal letter
correspondence in selected study through Plan Banke and made easier to conduct
study.

Before visiting in school PLAN Banke team had also informed to selected schools
regarding research team members visit in school for the study. It was also discussed
with all schoolteachers about half an hour and gave orientation of research purpose.
Before starting the discussion with the various groups, the objectives of the research
were outlined.

The information collected from plenary or focus group, from the individual case studies
would not be disclosed and the real names of informants would not be given in the text.
Especially this was informed to children who participated in research process regarding
obtained information would not be disclosed with schoolteachers to prevent the child
from re-victimized.

2.7 Research team members:

There were 5 team members of having gender balance to carry out research including
one professional researcher as a research team leader with experience in planning, with
good facilitation skills at the community level, working in the field of child sexual abuse,
have good understanding on girls, children issues in relation to rights based
programming and have skills of conducting participatory research. She was involved full
time in study and ensured research process followed as mentioned in terms of reference
[TOR].

2.8 Time Frame:

The suitable period for the field study was decided with consultation of Plan team in
Banke and field study was conducted by third week of October to last week of November
2001. Actually the date for field was quite appropriate in-terms of climate and luckily field
study was finished before declaring emergency situation in country.

2.9 Limitations:
As per outlined in research TOR, it was not possible to select equal representatives of
boys and girls in plenary and focus group discussion especially in Rapti area and
Udyapur due to low attendance and low enrolment of girls in school. Like wise while
selecting children in selected school in plenary there were various in numbers by looking
ratio of students in every school. In Kohal pur area in certain school there was section
system in secondary school so there was representative from all section and the
numbers of children participating in research process seemed quite high compare to
other area. Where students numbers are quite high in certain schools it was quite
difficult to avoid students who had shown interest in research process and could not

16
participate due to congested hall and it was quite difficult to handle more than 80
students. While discussion was held with schoolteachers, school management
committee and with parents they blame to each other. Especially teachers were reluctant
to share the examples of the abuse and exploitation in their own school because of the
their school's reputation and when we asked have you heard about other school's
examples they all said yes we have heard. So teachers’ views might not be truly
reflected.

Next is; this research focused more on qualitative aspect and does not give quantitative
figure which is the limitation of this research.

2.10 Research framework

Submitting Research proposal to PLAN and


Getting Approval

Planning Meeting with Research Team

Refining of TOR with the Organization

Site Selection and Preparation for Field


Schedule with Plan Field Office (Banke) Staff

Field Study

Analysis of the Field Study/Draft Report

Presentation of Findings of the Field Study to


the Organization

Preparation of Final Report based on the


Comments/Suggestions

Presentation of Final Report to Relevant other


Organizations

17
Section 3. KEY FINDINGS:

Before starting field study research team leader had some doubt on how it will be easy
to explore such sensitive issues in school environment? Do children could express easily
of being abused, exploitation and harassed? Shouldn’t they feel threat in school etc?
While it started and listened the views of children it was amazing that children could
expressed such issues openly and demanded that their views would taken seriously
rather only been taken for research information and thrown in dust bin. They expect to
improve their school environment and do not like to stay as it is and expect someone
need to initiate to facilitate the children and are saying it is not expecting money but just
giving ideas and building capacity of children is sufficient. Children thank to research
team to explore such issues with children for being attentive to voice of children in
research process. While asking children why you all were silent and did not raise voice
before? In the response where to express as there is no forum to raise and there is no
way to listening environment of children’s views in school. They shared that you are the
people first come and trust to you of being not disclose our issues openly.

- Girls have right to play unlike boys. One of the girl had drawn the picture of understanding on their rights

Generally children expressed that they are happy in school by getting opportunity to
study, if teachers response positively while asked questions, when friends help if some
one teased to girls, while teacher encouraged in-front of other students, if teacher teach
in better way, if behavior of students and teacher are good, while were participating in
game competition, when children knew new things in schools from outsiders, got many
friends in school, when extra activities happened in each school, while full time study
happened in school and got opportunities to play etc.

While discussion with school teachers, school management committee and parents;
most of them did not take the issue of harassment, abuse and exploitation of children in
school seriously though they agreed that schoolboys tease girls by different ways and
even teachers do bad behavior towards students. However, when further asked about
the incidents of abuse, exploitation and harassment in school, most of them agreed on
this issue and blame to parents and media by which children learnt and practice in
school. The teachers said that students particularly girls rarely complain about the

18
incident and there was few cases reported and solved by head teachers but mostly
agree that there is no system to report in school.

School management committee members have never discussed or thought about the
issue of abuse, exploitation and harassment to students in school so they don't find any
incident reported to them. Most of the parents realized that there could be effects from
abuse; exploitation and harassment like school drop out, psychological effects to
children and some time even serious problems like suicide.

Most of the parents and School Management Committee (SMC) members’ complaint
about teachers’ role in school as they are monitored by DEO and the role of SMC is not
strong to act upon teachers’ behaviors.

Regarding beating by teachers in school, they took it as normal and in some way
positive to get children in right direction. Most of the participants particularly teachers
blame parents responsible for not keeping their children in discipline so that the teachers
have difficulties to maintain discipline in school by beating. Similarly parents have not
given the attention to this issue. As per the teachers expression parents rarely visit in
school to know about their children's performance and parents also agreed.

For many girls female teachers are the source of motivation to continue in school & are
happy of getting female teacher in school where as there was extreme cases of unhappy
in one school due to female teacher had involved in girl’s trafficking. However all children
do not always observe the happiness.

---------One child draws a picture of how school should look like?

19
The following were the common forms of violence from the discussion with children
which they felt sad and were the most significant violation of children rights in school:

3.1 Forms of violence in school

¾ Corporal Punishment
¾ Bullying with verbal sexual abuse
¾ Attitude of teacher and students:
¾ Teasing
¾ Discrimination based on caste, disability, gender and weak vs. strong students
¾ Sexual harassment
¾ Sexual abuse and exploitation
¾ Teacher’s absenteeism & their behavior towards students.

3.1.1 Corporal punishment:

Children drawing a picture while asking what type of violation they faced which they feel child abuse

Corporal punishment in schools is often associated with wider, fundamental problems in


the education system. Many parents still think and ask teachers to beat their children,
which are meant to be an incentive for children to do better. Further, after being beaten
for failures or misbehavior at school, children are beaten for the same reasons at home.

The most forms of corporal punishment observed by children are;

¾ Beating by stick, beating by palm, beating on head by duster,


¾ Slapping on cheek or back, beating with scolding badly,
¾ Insulted in-front of colleagues, humiliated by expressing harassing words with
verbal abuse,
¾ Accusing without mistake and without analysis,

20
¾ Did not take attendance in classroom,
¾ Ask to carry stone and ignoring or seen negatively towards children.
¾ Throwing copy

In all 24 schools beating is frequently raised by all grade students however primary
grade children are more sufferers than higher grade students. Elder students of higher
grade equally beat lower grade students if they do not follow the request of elders.
Mostly students who are marginalized due to caste, economic status, age, lower grade
and weak in study are facing punishment much more that others. The students are
mostly sufferers from those teachers who had taught English, Mathematics and science
subjects. It is prevalent in all school but serious problem in Rapti area and Udyapur
compare to Kohalpur.

In-terms serious ness of the problem those students who had gone through corporal
punishment mostly they have negative feeling towards that teacher, becoming weak in
study, irregular in school, drop out and could not concentrate particular subject due to
punishment given by teacher.

Here are some of the cases of children’s feelings of sadness and helpless when being
punished by beatings:

How I became weak in English?

I was 8 yrs old and studying in 3 grades. One-day teacher asked for home assignment. I
also did as per assignment of teacher. Next day while checked my copy by teacher there
was small mistake of one question. Due to this reason, teacher had severely beaten on
my leg. I went to house with help of my friends. As it was noticeable bruise scar; my
parents asked what happened in your leg. I shared the story but he also had beaten and
scolded badly as I had not done hard study. I could not walk properly till one month and
could not attend school for one month. It was like sprain of my leg. After that I am
becoming weaker than before in English and every year I could not pass English
subject. From 3 grades to 8 grades, English subject is the one, which is very difficult to
succeed in exam, and still I am weak in English. ------ Binauna Tharu boy 10 grade

Even less severe forms of corporal punishment damage children’s education. Children
learn through exploring, questioning, trying things out; they need the freedom to
experiment, to think for themselves, to take risks. Where discipline is maintained through
fear, all these preconditions for successful learning are lost. Teachers justify corporal
punishment as being for the good of the students, improving discipline and learning. But
there is no evidence that the absence of corporal punishment leads to poor performance
or out of control in school.

“When master [teacher] hits me with a stick I feel like snatching the stick from his hand
and hitting him back…A 13 yrs boy [Yadav caste] studying in 6 grade from Rapti area.

21
---One child draw a picture of how teacher has beaten to students

“In our school Head teacher is always angry, irritating and beats students till stick has
broken, if some one is sick don’t care and asked students go back to home.”…Children of
Udyapur area

“It is very hard punishment even for minor mistake. He slapped me on the cheek, back
and hit me with a stick and scolded badly. Teacher touches girls’ private parts in the
name of teaching and learning and expressed badly by saying how many times you saw
mirrors? You always did facial make up and how you could good in study? and pass
humiliating remarks like such a big girl still does not know how to do this. You girls are
grown up why you spent parents’ money? It’s better to marry etc. It’s a shame when you
get beaten and also fail in the class; all the classmates come to know about it… Girls of
Rapti school

Those similar types of expression were also felt in certain school of Kohalpur and
Udyapur area. In Surkhet district too; while working with adolescence girls those type of
expression was also felt by girls and quite discouraging by teacher for continuation of
girls’ education.

On the way to school big students beat and thrown our copy…Younger children of Kohalpur

The girls observed: “I know some teachers who beat children to make them work harder,
but beating is not right.” Children will loose their confident, no concentration and fear of
being beating again.

Moreover, children reported, children are sometimes beaten by teachers if they use the
mother tongue they speak at home, rather than the official language of the education
system. In such cases, corporal punishment infringes the rights of children to use their
own language.

22
One day I was sitting in classroom. Class monitor asked what you are doing. I response
nothing! I asked him anything wrong? Shouldn't I sit in this way? Once I replied with him
he brought teacher. Teacher asked what happened. Monitor told that; this girl is always
talkative, disturbs to others and ignored my ideas. Once teacher listened from monitor
he had beaten in my hand with green stick many times. Due to that reason my hand was
swollen, can't move hand for many days and was very painful. Still I feel very sad, do not
talk with him and I have lots of anger with that monitor. --------- A Girl of Kohalpur area

It was not the pain that hurt me, but the feeling of humiliation I underwent when my
classmates laughed at me. While I shared with parents, my father became quite angry &
asked teacher about why you had beaten to my son in such a way? Once my father had
asked to teacher and returned back to home from school; again that teacher had beaten
severely than before which was near to unconscious & very traumatized feelings I have.
The reasons of beating again was because of I shared to parents at home. I still afraid
to share this story with you and hope you would not share with schoolteacher.…….. A Boy
of Rapti area.

One girl draw a picture how teacher beat to students

I am 15 yrs old now and studying in grade 9. When I was in 8 grade; a teacher in
classroom beat me by accusing in making loud noise in the class. In-fact, I was not
making any noise in the classroom but the boys are doing and making alert to boys, as
they are disturbing too much by talking with each other. Without being done any mistake,
without analysis by teacher I was beaten and insulted in front of my colleagues. I think
that was a non-sense punishment for me. In the beginning teacher had beaten by duster
on head. After that used heavy stick and beat in my hands 4 times. I tried to convince
teacher but he did not believe me rather he scolded badly and beaten. I felt very angry
and I could not concentrate my study whole day. It was really frustration to me. I did not
like to see faces of that teacher for long time and does not like to study of his subject.
After beaten by teacher, I became very weak in English. ………….. A girl of Kohalpur area

The study indicates that in terms of getting punishment in all school, the children who
are weak in study, who are poor, who are marginalized due to age, caste and gender etc
were most sufferers than others but in occasion if any students did mistake, all students

23
get punishment without analyzing the mistake by teacher. Sometime outside boys also
come in school and beat small students.

A girl asked is beating a matter of power that leads violation of children Rights?

While I was in 6 grade, some one had written vulgar words “you love some one, you are
prostitute” etc in my friend’s desk. Teacher came to classroom. My friend shared about
that writing with teacher. Teacher accused me without my mistake and without proper
analysis. Teacher suspected a boy who is near to my home and doubt in such a way “I
asked him to write such bad words in her bench.” Teacher had beaten 4 times; twice in
thigh, twice in waist. In front of all friends, teacher asked me to come in front and
severely beaten by stick, which is great humiliation to me. I did not have good
relationship with my friend. The other colleagues did not ask me how I felt. Due to that
beating I had pain for 2 to 3 days, angry with him and never talked with that teacher. I
could not concentrate his subject and once he entered in classroom tear comes in my
eyes. …Tharu girl of Rapti area secondary school

People usually think that the effects of corporal punishment only apply to the children
who experience it but others children’s are equally affected due to fear and anxiety of
getting punishment by teacher. The parents and society are affected too.

3.1.2 Bullying with verbal sexual abuse

In all 24 schools; children especially girls and young boys repeatedly expressed that the
elder boys expressed very vulgar sexual words while bullying in school. Bullying among
students is very common even for simple cases.

The forms of bullying are;

¾ Students dominate to each other based on Pahadiya vs. Deshi boys, Pahadiya
vs. Tharu, outside boys entered in school and threatened to school children,
disturb in school activities, children are not allow to play,
¾ Fighting among students, between outsider and school students due to
insufficient benches and desk in school and in-relation to the issues of girls,
¾ Students fight each other while put tail in backside by students, while write vulgar
words in bench or in copy etc.
¾ Misplacing books or copy, thrown copy, snatching the books and copy once they
angry.
¾ Blowing whistle, pricking ear and making irritating to students

While students are bullying to each other they throw the books, beat and expressed very
vulgar sexual words and relate to sexual intercourse with mother by scolding [such as
Machikni, Muji] which is very dirty words at local level and girls felt very discomfort by

24
listening such words. Actually the boys they did not care what should talk and what
should not. Children also do misplacing books, stationary and sometime snatching the
books and copy.

While playing in school; boys usually fight and quarreled to each other. Some boys’
expressed very vulgar words even in front of schoolteacher without care anyone, make
more noisy and bullying to each other in classroom and disturbed class in such a way
that other students feel very discomfort, shame and have fear to talk with them.

In classroom the boys pulled hair of girls, write vulgar words in copy, blackboard, also
write in cloths, thrown stone, copy, pen and blowing whistle. There is no discipline in
school and schoolteacher can’t control to those students. Boys do bullying with each
other for one girl and making girl’s reputation bad in the society.

Usually when there is leisure period; boys disturbed other students by hitting or pricking
in ear, misplacing books, stationary and some time torn the books and copy. Big boys
used smaller children and asked to give their love letter to girls and to carry their books.

If smaller children did not fulfill their request elder boys are beating them. Elder boys had
also written in school “this boy and that girl have love affair” without having relationship
and this is again became issue of debating and for that reason bullying has been
observed. The boys torn the copy and cutting school bag as per their interest.
Students are not regular in school, go to see film, have stolen pen and books in school,
used tobacco and if it complaint to teacher they give threatened or beating or scolding
took place to children who had informed to teacher.

One day in my hair the boys had thrown lots of Kuro. I cried too much as it was very
difficult to remove. I asked to teacher and he helped to remove but it was very painful
while removed by teacher. ----------- Khadagawa primary school
The boys spoilt ink, water, put kuro [one type of forest plan which is difficult to remove
from hair or cloth], put dust of brick or stones, put bubblegum in inside the book and
small stone in bag and given torture to us. ---------- Girl of Thapua

Boys even ready for beating to teacher if he has not allowed cheating in examination,
make noisy environment while studied in classroom. The bullying has been observed by
children not only due to reasons of school students but due to outside boys entered
inside the school or outside the school compound. Outside boys disturb to girls and boys
in school while play volleyball and due that bullying is happening. They come with full
drink of alcohol and express bad behavior especially this was reported in Kohalpur area.

25
It found that the violation of rights in school is not only between teacher and students but
also among students are violating children rights of each other, creating a problem and
unhealthy environment. It’s a whole matter of how powerful students are creating
irresponsible behavior and torture to powerless students in school environment.

3.1.3. Attitude of teacher and students:

In all school; children both boys and girls expressed very clearly that if they make a
friendship between boys and girls it has been taken negatively even in normal friendship
with opposite sex. As school is within the societal system such attitude has been
reflected in school too. Like wise students talk too much while teacher come in
classroom. During class time, students are playing but teachers did not say anything.

Some of the children’s responses are as follows:

Boys had written in school compound this boy and that girl have love affair and publicize
to all students without having relationship which is big torture to children especially girls
because everyone suspect to girls behavior without her mistake…Girls of Rajha school

If I talk to girl, my friends tease me and making publicize in school that is big humiliation,
sometime taking at home and my friends stop to talk with me. So we do not have rights
to make friend with opposite sex and we are grown up in different society. As everyone
is conscious on this matters this practices has been internalize in our society and in
school too. If girl talks to boy and boy talks to girl or walk together it becomes the issues
in school and societies. …..Boys of Tribhuvan

While secure same marks in exam with one of the boy, teacher doubt to me and
expressed is there some thing? Do you have matching pair between two of you?
Teachers are also discouraged to girls by saying “these girls will failed” before giving
exam which looses our confident too. When students ask any quarries to teachers,
teachers don’t respond positively. Due to such expression it felt that girls could not
compete and should not secure the marks as boys and the girls would have feelings of
guilt, anger, helplessness, fear of disclosure and humiliation.-------- Girl of Gyanjyoti

If girls sit together with boys in classroom, other boys and girls teased and talked with
other colleagues oh!“ how could that girl talk to boys”? Even while help girls to learn
other girls feel bad toward girl and suspect her behavior.

26
A boy drawing a picture of good friend between girl and boy but everyone suspect in their friendship

Is there any wrong to have friendship with opposite sex?

This year in the beginning when I entered grade 10, I met a girl just one grade junior to
me. She was very nice and helpful to me. We both were quite supportive and close to
each other as good friends. Some of our colleagues were aware of our friendship. They
started teasing to us. They made our relationship publicly in negative way as we were
fall in love affair. Our headmaster and some other teachers knew about that and scolded
too. Even her parents knew of this rumor but it was not true as they were told. She might
have given punishment and torture from her parents but I don’t know. She never shared
me what happened to her and now due to that reason she had changed her school.

Being an innocent and have just good friends, we faced unnecessary tension and
burden, which causes very bad effect in our study. Now we don’t have any
communication between us, we haven’t seen each other since she left our school. I
could not find my single mistake to be a good friend but we both are given severe
punishment as crime holder. I think it is our society, which does not allow us to live in our
own way…Brahman Boy 10 grade.

While boys are helping to weak girls to learn better; other boys blaming those boys and
girls fall in love, doubt on friendship and restriction on learning from each other. While
boys and girls come together in school some boys had given threatened by saying not to
come together and expressed if they will see again it will not be good in future. While
laughing together with friends and helping each other’s especially with opposite sex then
teacher started to tease and expressed oh! these girls have started puberty and said
‘Taruni Muskurayo” that means puberty laugh.

In any extra activities while girls participate in different games; the outsider boys / men
harassed by saying these game should not be played by girls, this is only for boys; girls
have to do household activities. In our school and society still there is feeling of what’s
the value of girls’ education? Thapua lower secondary girls and boys

27
While I was in 9 grades; I was weak in the Mathematics so I went to ask and learn with
bright boy student who was very good in Mathematics. He taught me well. But all of my
friends laugh with clamping hand. I became angry and without complete learning, I
returned in my bench. I could not control my anger and went to share with teacher about
the way of my colleague behavior towards me. Teacher only told not to quarreled and be
friendly with each other. He did not take this issue seriously and I felt teacher is also
biased and keep silent myself and tolerate my anger. ------------- Girl 9 grade

By hearing such responses from children; Article 3, the principle of Children Rights
which states that the best interest of the child shall be a primary consideration in all
actions concerning the child, is incompatible with a practice that has been shown
against the interests of children

It found that the attitude of teacher, men, boys or girls towards girls and boys reflected in
school based on gender role and followed as per expectation of society and has never
been try to change in school too. Therefore, there is a need to change the people’s
attitude towards a girls and boy child.

All the people should realize that there is no difference between them and both of them
have equal rights in all aspects of their lives. Many of the times girls are shy and not
comfortable with their physical growth and changes in their body become more dis-
empowering to them. Thus an essential thing is to change the people’s attitude through
dialogue at school and community so gradually the change can be seen in their behavior
and socialization process.

3.1.4. Teasing:

In all 24 schools it was found that girls from all status, caste / ethnicity have been faced
teasing by boys and outsider inside the school, on the way to school and on the way to
home from school. Children observed that the girls from secondary and lower secondary
are the most who faced teasing from outsider, schoolboys and teachers.

Teasing is not only observed to girls by boys but from bright students to weak students,
Pahadi vs. deshi, deshi vs. pahadi, pahadi vs. Tharu and outsider people vs. school
students. It depends on majority of which group come in school. For example in Rapti
area majority of Deshi people teased to girls’ dress up if they wear miniskirt. However in
one or two school the boys reported that girls also teased to boys and boys accepted
that the girls are facing more teasing by schoolboys and outsider.

Pahadi are mostly migrated from rural area and Deshi are mostly Indian origin but living in Terai area.

The forms of teasing felt by children are;

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¾ Putting nickname or wrong name based on ethnicity, based on physical structure,
based on dress
¾ Winking eyes
¾ Matching to each other without having relationship
¾ Clapping, whistling, laughing, shattering words
¾ Taking it wrong way even in normal behavior
¾ Making barrier and do not give side on the road
¾ Taking out air from bicycle
¾ Throwing stone or mud, or paper ball to girls.

Teasing is very common words expressed by all children but while asking what it means.
The children responses are as follows;

The boys laugh and tease with clapping hand while sharing some difficulties faced by
girls rather listening in positive way. Boys teased to girls by whistling, saying oh! Keti
[not respected way of calling girl], clapping, throwing stone or mud. The schoolboys who
had seen teasing to girls by outsider on the way to school, again they further
exaggerated and teased more once come in classroom and affect of double
victimization. Big students tease girls by saying Oh! Dear (Priya).

Boys are looking towards girls even when teacher is taking class. Boys make paper
aeroplane or round ball with dirty words and throwing to girls is the most forms of teasing
in school. Winking eyes [Aankha jhimkaune] and making barrier to girls to enter in the
classroom has been also observed by girls and boys. While talking to friends, boys
teased to girls by saying why you are talking in artificial way. [ Nakkali tarikale] There is
also tendency of teasing by saying “this girl is the wife of this boy”

While I was in grade 2, I became very sad, as my hair was almost short due to shaving.
The boys always scratch my hair and school sir also beat on my head, as there was no
hair. I felt that while I would be elder I would do same things to you as you did now and
tolerate all sort of things. ------ One tharu girl

While I was coming to school all of sudden fallen down from bicycle, then boys started
clapping hand & laugh too much once had seen to me. I could not walk properly as I had
big injury in leg but the boys laughing and clapping speed had been increased than
before. I tolerate all these things & thought one day your turn will come and I replace to
you in same way ----------Girl in 7 grades

I usually returned at home late from school because I took coaching after school time.
While I returned home the neighbor and relatives teased a lot as they blame I lived with
some boy so I did late to return home but I did not say anything to them. Parents and
neighbor doubt when girls return home late due to extra activities in school

In all school where girls used bicycle expressed that bad boys take out air of the cycle
tier and puncture it.

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-A girl draw a picture of while girls fallen down from bicycle the boys laugh and clapping hand

Like wise while playing any game the boys tease to girls. Matching to each other without
having relationship such as “Bina and Ram are fall in love” is also seemed common in
school life.

On the way to school the boys always teased to one girl and she drop out from school
due to wrong feelings developed towards girls and can’t do anything by girls… Thapua Boys

Boys teased girls on the way by saying what a beautiful girl [kya chawak keti] with
clapping, whistling, saying oh! My darling etc where girls felt dominating, discriminating
and discouraging. If could not read and write in classroom boys teased to us and if we
did not answer have question they also tease.

One boy always teased to my friend. While we shared with teacher about this event he
did not believe to us and replied that without teasing by girls how boys could tease to
you? it is your fault. ------ Girls of Tribhuvan MV

Boys tease girls while study the books in leisure time by saying “Oh! Girls how good
you are; you will be first in exam” how much you can read? [Padhandas bhayeko].
Thapua girls

Boys put different nicknames for e.g. if girls used gazzles i.e. black linear in eyelid they
said charaankhe, [four eyes] Mooti [fatty woman] and Bhaise etc. Giving wrong
nickname for e.g. kale, [black] Pudke, [short height] Bahira [deaf] etc rather calling by
true name.

Outside people teased girls by saying what a chawk girls (Beauty girls)? On the way to
school or home, people tease girls by saying Oh! Saali [sister in law] and make nervous.

During interval the outsider boys entered in our school and teased to us with vulgar
words and expressed oh! Sister come here and tried to touch our body unnecessarily.

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On the way to school or while returning home, the outsider boys see negatively such as
clapping hand, winking eye, expressed hello sister! [Bahini] where are you from? Asked
would you like to take sweet?

Deshi men teased girls on the way to school by saying why you wear short cloth, why
you had shown your leg etc. ……… The girls of Mahendra MV Matihiya

It was also found that the teacher accused of being love to students if girl and boy
secured same marks especially in front of colleagues. Teachers used words like Taruni/
Tannery, Maiyaharu Muskan Dinchhau etc during class time that make frustrating to
girls. Teachers also tease girls on the way to schools and within schools, which is not
expected role of teachers. If some students have hearing problems or short in height
teacher or students did not call by their name rather teased by saying Pudke, [very
short] if some one did not see eye then said Kano [blind], if they did not hear then said
bahira / lato [deaf etc.] Teachers saying bad things to girls if they come late in school
such as have you been staying with boys? Or whether you have been married with boy?

When girls say some things good in class other boys laugh even in normal speaking,
dancing and singing. Boys and teachers tease girls and laugh if girl is alone, the boys
teased to girls in negative way and taking as sex object. Like wise while do homework in
school, the boys tease to girls

Girls teased boys by saying Vinaju [elder sister’s husband], a keta, [oh! Boy] what a
smart boy while come with new cloths. Good students hate to the weaker students and
teasing by expressing “oh! You don’t know this easy thing”. Girls also teased boys
while boys don’t answer the question of the teacher

On the way to school, some people tease girls by saying till how long you go to school?
This is time for marriage. Like wise out side people expressed there is no air in your
cycle and sing a song such as this girl has no good behavior. [" Yon keti ko thik
chhaina chala"]

When girls are riding bicycle; people don’t give side and make barrier to them. If girls are
eating some thing people asked what you are eating and tease to them. While laughing
together with friends and helping each other’s especially with opposite sex then teachers
take it in wrong way and start teasing.

The children especially girls who faced teasing they have feeling of anger, hatred,
frustrated, fear of further teasing, feelings of worthlessness, inability to concentrate in
study, loose self –esteem and humiliations.

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3.1.5. Discrimination in school especially to marginalized children [based on
caste, disability, gender and weak vs. talent students in study]

In all 24 schools the children both boys and girls expressed that there is much
discrimination between weak and bright students especially by teacher. This expression
has been mentioned in all school not only by weak students but the talents students has
also accepted this sort of discrimination is happening in school. There are different forms
of discrimination has been observed by students which are;

¾ Discrimination in expression between weak and bright students, able vs. disabled
¾ Discrimination in providing opportunity to play and learn
¾ Discrimination in getting punishment as per age, gender, caste, status of children
¾ Discrimination in day to day behavior such as calling name by caste or as per
color, as per physical structure
¾ Discrimination by society and teacher to get education based on gender

--A boy draw a picture of discrimination by showing able children hated to disabled children

Children felt that whose parents are rich or in big post, teachers care more for those
students by correcting their copy carefully, correcting mistake and not beating but for
poor students it is just reverse. While good students help to weak students some friend
and Madam became angry and scold why you teach to them? Teachers are also doing
biasness in teaching and encouraging only to good students and discouraging the
weaker students by saying, “why you did wastage of your parents money, its better
to drop out rather come in school”.

When student stay back due to lack of space in the front; teachers expressed why are
you going back? Is it because you want to fight etc. Because of poor situation, some
students are not able to pay monthly fees and as a result of this, students are getting
different actions by teachers. If weak student do not understand and asked teacher for
further clarity in classroom then teacher scolded to students. When suggested reducing
the school fees for poorer children by students, as they are not able to afford, teachers
gave threatening of closing school.

Big students don’t allow smaller boy to play. Rich students discriminate the poorer ones,
asked for extra work and beat. The bright students do teasing and harassing the weaker

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students. The boys are scolding girls very badly with vulgar words and loose their
prestige. Old students misbehave newcomer and smaller children. While students come
first time in school, old students do not talk and putting those new comers in back seat of
the classroom.

- A girl draw a picture of discrimination by showing how boys are barrier while playing skipping rope by girls

Talented ones had shown proud ness, no opportunity provided to weaker one to speak
and the higher-grade students do not allow playing volleyball to lower grade students
and girls are not given play materials. Elder boys called smaller children by different
name like pudke, [stunted] kale [black] and dominate. Primary level teachers and elder
students also beat to younger and lower grade students even in small mistake or without
any reason.

It found that teachers use bad words to boys in school like Gaddha [donkey], Sale,
Bandar [monkey] etc. Due to those expression by teacher; boys felt those words are
very bad and treated as inhuman for them.

Like wise students felt that who comes for tuition get question paper in advance, give
more importance, love to bright students, more care by teachers and make pass them in
exam and hate to weak students. Teacher focused only bright students. Talented
students are always in front row, teacher asked more questions and helping them more
compared to weaker. While student become sick, teacher do not approve sick leave and
did not believe to weak students of being sick.

Schoolteachers allow playing for good player and not giving opportunities for bad one
and express you can’t play. The students also felt that in big competition among different
schools like Birendrasild competition, outside boys are included from school to win the
prize and for the popularity of school; school students are not getting opportunities.

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There is also discrimination between boys and girls while playing game. More lower
grade students are asked to clean up the classroom and school compound. Lower
grades are not even teaching properly.

Particularly for girls if they are weak in study or fail in exam, teacher discourage by
saying why you just spent your parents’ money? Instead go to home, fetch water, fodder
collection and help to parents. Teacher had given punishment of carrying stone to girl
student when late in school. On the way to school, adult people are saying why such big
girls are being sent to school. Sometime parents did not allow going school due to heavy
workload and asked to do household work rather go to school. Despite having lots of
work at home there is no full study in school. On the way to school and returning back to
home the society express daughter should not read and do household, which discourage
to girls for school study.

-A girl draw a picture of emphasis on girls’ education as society discriminate by saying what’s the value of sending school
to daughters?

There is discrimination based on upper caste vs. lower caste specially in day-to-day
speaking. Due to misbehave of teacher and student; lower caste children have low self –
esteem. Students are also discriminating among each other of calling their name by
caste. While go for drinking water in tap, asking lower caste to leave the tap and getting
water first by the higher caste. Tharu and Pahadi fight each other even in small issues,
especially Pahadi students want to dominate Tharu students. Discriminating and
debating between Deshi and Pahadiya students are also equally affected. As deshi
students are more in Rapti area they threatened Pahadiya students to kill and on the
way to school they tease by saying Pahadiya Bhut. The teacher hate to students if their
speech and language is not clear.

It found that discriminations practiced in schools, families and communities based on


gender, caste, disability, language, status, level of talents, topography, sexual abuse /
exploitation have contributed significantly in depriving children from their basic rights to
education.

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CRC article 29 talks about education that challenges such a myth and suggests
deconstructing and redefining it in the context of socio-cultural dynamics showing its link
with discriminatory attitudes.

3.1.6. Sexual Harassment

By hearing different stories of girls and boys it was found that majority of girls from all
secondary and lower secondary schools are facing sexual harassment and seems that it
has been taken as birth right as a male to do and as a girl it has been compel to accept
such situation in school and no way to change such situation in school. In children’s
views there are occasionally boys also faced harassment from teacher and own
colleague but usually the girls are victims of sexual harassment from boys, outsider and
teacher which has been accepted by boys too. The girls from lower secondary and
secondary had frequently raised and felt serious problems in school.

While analysis of children’s views following are the major forms under sexual
harassment:
¾ Asking questions to girls with doubtful that feel discomfort
¾ Unexpected vulgar expression that treated as sex object to girls and feel guilty
¾ Showing sex related organ and discomfort to others
¾ Expression of bad words that lead moral down of children without mistake
¾ Writing love letters with vulgar words
¾ Watching girls’ body
¾ Drawing vulgar picture in different places inside the school compound
¾ Spreading rumor of natural changes seen in body for e.g. [menstruation, how big
is the breast]
¾ Accusing of being fallen in love affair without having true relationship

In any case if girls are delay to home other people asked and make harassed by asking
where are you from? Are you still studying? Now you are supposed to be married? On
the way to home some one had written the name of my and a boy who study in same
grade. By seeing such writings I feel very sad and in my mind always comes what other
colleagues thought to me? [For e.g. Parbati + Raju] ……………

While come to school from home the outsider, some school boys come nearer of the
girls and expressed “I love you” even expressed by drunken men.

-A girl draw a picture of how men behave to girl while walking to school and have feeling of harassment

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The class monitors inquiry lots of things and scolding unnecessarily. Teachers are giving
torture to students by expressing shatter words, if girls could not answer the question,
teachers said; “Are you here to read or cheat”? Teachers and Madam used words like
kukur [dog], Bokshi [witch] and Rando [male prostitute] etc to students while they did
small mistakes and called boys by different nick name like elephant’s egg.

The boys read health subject so loudly in classroom especially female organs and
showing picture to their friend to attract and harassed to girls.

While come through bicycle sometime we fallen down in road but boys laugh and teased
too much in a way that girls are falling down with purposely. During interval time outside
boys come in school and said oh! How is beautiful girl in this class? {Oh! Kya Chanwk
girls and send love letters} While I heard such expression…. “I just wanted to burst out in
tears. I wanted to hit him but I couldn’t”.

If we share our feelings among friends those issues are either in taking house or making
public in school so there is no confidentiality of personal issues.

Boys write vulgar picture and words in the wall of school, in toilet, school board, in
school bench, in books and drawing vulgar picture in school uniforms and copy without
care [Jathavabi].” I wanted to spit at them, but I was afraid.”

Outside boys and school boys make harassed girls in school through sending love
letters, writing vulgar words and drawing pictures on the blackboards, even do urinate
and pass stool in classroom. They also make harass to girls by saying oh! How good is
that girl and has given pressure to students and teachers to write girls’ name and other
things in blackboard if they like particular girl and make harassed to her. The boys make
harassed by expressing vulgar words such as I take you at my home and scolding bad
word such as Amagali [that means sexual intercourse with mother]

Boys become barriers while coming out of class for toilet and for drinking water. They
write love letters to girls without interest while opening letter there is very bad word and
making harassment in-front of colleagues, scolded girls in Tharu language, pull girls’ hair
and put Kuro [one of the plant which is difficult to remove] in hair, make a paper ball and
throw in back, while return to home boys beat with singing and do not give value by
making paper camera and teasing to girls.

One day in school I have menstruation and one of the boy noticed blood scar in my
cloth. Then he spread to my entire class fellow that don’t touch with me and don’t sit in
that bench, as I am impure. While I heard these things I have shame and feel guilty and I
loose my confidence. --------Binauna girl studying in 8 grades
On the way to home from school there was windy, one Pahadi boys expressed should
we catch your mini skirt? Would I carry to you at home? If we scold them, they winked
eyes [line marchan] to us… Girl of 8 grade in Rajena

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On the way to home from school there was windy, one Pahadi boys expressed should
we catch your mini skirt? Would I carry to you at home? If we scold them, they winked
eyes [line marchan] to us… Girl of 8 grade in Rajena

One day, I was coming to school. On the way to school, a jeep was passing on the same
way to me. I was alone. Driver and conductor were in the jeep. When jeep came very
near to me they stopped. They just looked me and asked to go with them to see
beautiful place. I replied very strongly and scolded, “You bring your mother and sister to
see nice place”. They had shown their anger face and move jeep very fast. ----Girl TVMV
I was in 4 grades. In our school; we used to go toilet in forest. While we [3 girls] returned
after urination class teacher was already in class. It was about 5 minutes late. But
teacher scolded very badly and "asked do you needed 50 hrs to pass urine" in front
of all students. Teacher had taken attendance before we came in class and asked for
attendance but he scolded with anger face and did not take our attendance and
expressed if you did late in same way you girls will be get out from class." ----------8 grade
chaudhari girl

Very recently one of my class friends had asked me to give health education book to
prepare for exam, as half early exam was very near. Next day, after interval when I
entered to classroom with friends few boys of my class were laughing and were just
looking to me. Being completely innocent of an incident, I felt guilty myself and tried to
explore the causes for that. After a while I found my book on my desk. When I opened
my book, it was written, “I love you, without you I can't survive etc". I was really insulted
on that day. After few days I had received another love letter, which was kept in my bag.
I did not know when and how it was kept. At the end of the letter the boys' name has not
written but only mentioned your lover. The boy who felt guilty earlier told that he had not
written since he made first and single mistake in the past. Still those incidents has been
disturbed my study and I have always fear. Perhaps this is not only to me, other friends
might have equally sufferers but no one could express publicly as it looses our prestige
in the society. But I think we should have strong commitment to fight against this sort of
incidence. Till now there is no support system to express these problems and I am very
much grateful to you by listening our feelings. ------Girl of 8 grades.

On the way to school if boy talk with any girl; other boys said “oh! That’s your wife now
I recognized.” Some boys commented on my height. I blamed myself for being short.
If I had been tall they would not have laughed at me.

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--A girl drawing a picture of boys’ behavior, its effects and asking is it fair to blame girls only?

I am 16yrs old and studying in 10 grades. Two years ago, when I studied at grade 8, one
of my boy class fellows who was dull in study and not disciplined; tried to insult me by
spreading rumor that I had fallen in love with him. Some of my girl friends knew and
asked about the fact. I told them it was not true but he did just to insult me for no reason.
After few days I came to know he was following one-sided love with me. I did not care to
him. I didn't say anything about the incident to my family member because I was worried
about my study. I thought if my family members knew my problem, they might have
stopped my school education. The boys tried to get my acceptance in various ways.
When he was unsuccessful, he decided to go India for further studies. I was happy
knowing that he was going somewhere. After a month, my friend told me that the boy left
school because of me. The boy told his family that I was always forcing him to be a lover
without his intention. Even his family members were accusing me for the same thing. I
was surprised to be a victim of the mistake without doing it. My family members are
unknown about the incident till now. It has been two years since I haven't received
anything from that boy but I am still worried about my future. … Girl of Kohalpur area

When girls/ women ignore sexual harassment; it is often interpreted as a sign of


approval actually sexual harassment is a crime committed against individual child
and is a violation of human rights. People interpreted that girls provoke
harassment by the way they dress / behave but in-fact this is a classic way of
shifting the blame from the harasser to the girls. Girls have the right to act, dress
and move around freely without the threat of harassment.

The effects of sexual harassment might not be at the same time but after its effect might
be long lasting. Many girls or women they do not know whether it is harassment or not
and taken as normal but once they aware it’s very difficult to cope and hated for own
body. Girls learn to expect unwanted sexual behavior as part of life. Its effects on girls
are ignored or borne in silence. Yet why should it be so? Why should girls have to live
under the shadow of violence or in an unfair and unequal environment?

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1.3.7. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation:

In all school the children have understanding that if there is bad behavior without choice
or without interest of individual child to fulfill abuser or exploiter interest is an abuse and
exploitation. As per the views of children; teasing, bullying with verbal sexual expression,
display sexual visual materials, sexual harassment, touching girls’ private part are
comes under the sexual abuse and exploitation.

The forms of sexual abuse and exploitation in school are as follows;

¾ Attempt to girls trafficking


¾ Sexually contact by adults to children [girls]
¾ False attraction of love or gift, food stuff, cloth and giving more score to students
¾ Touching girls ‘body in the name of teaching / learning.
¾ Pretending to love girls by touching girls’ body
¾ Expression of sexual behavior
¾ Sending love letters with sexual flavor
¾ Looking girls’ body, comments on dress and express sexual words that treated
as sex object.
¾ Drawing sex organ in toilet, school wall, benches and in copy.
¾ Eloped girls without interest while go to school
¾ Attempt to do rape, put red powder and later not accepted

As per the children expression we found some of the extreme cases of sexual abuse
and exploitation in some of the school, which is illustrated below.

In our school, chairperson of school management committee and the female teacher did
more care and love to one girl student. The girl is from lower caste and poor family
background comparing to others. Due to these situations one of the female teachers
[who is daughter in law of chairperson of school management committee] tried to exploit
her by selling in India. One-day teacher took her at hotel. After few days girl knew that
she was ready to traffic in India and ran away. The teacher did not come in school for
many days. Now this issue has been collapsed. Still that lady work as teacher but for all
students there was very negative consequences in our school. As a teacher if she did
such behavior could we believe she teaches us good knowledge and do good behave?
She also beat and scolded badly to students…………. Kohalpur area

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--A girl drawing a picture of how girls are in trap of trafficking and its effects

Like wise there was one extreme case of sexual abuse in Udyapur area. While did focus
group discussion; the girls of Maharaja School expressed that one of the teacher of their
school did sexually abused one girl inside the school while she was grade 4. This
scenario had seen by schoolboys and girl drop out from school. While discussed this
issue in adult group and shared some of the stories of sexual abuse cases in school;
some of the teacher has accepted and some did not accept these things and blame to
students. Head sir of Maharaja told that he was being accused by many boy students in
giving more score to girls students and favor to girls compare to boys which he think is
useless judgments. He expressed that students who are talent are getting more score
than accusing these things.

----A boy draws a picture of sexual abuse by teacher to girl

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One college boy took one girl from school that studied in 4 grades to see film in
Nepalgunj. They both had seen film. Then that boy had raped her and left her. She
returned back at home, dropout from school and everyone blame to her. ---------Pravat Mv

--A girl drawing a picture of showing force to do sexual contact

Girls in Rapti area school also reported another case of sexual abuse. The case was a
girl abused by the teacher of next school rather in similar school. The teacher transferred
to somewhere and society blame to girl’s mistake only.

In Kohalpur area before 2 years; an unmarried girl who was studying in 10 grade gave
birth of newborn baby in classroom. The person who made pregnant is from same
school but ran away and the girl also could not express who made the pregnant. In this
case again she was the victim of blaming by her own colleagues, teacher and her other
relatives. After that she left school. The girls expressed that there were few cases of
unmarried pregnant in school but the boys are reluctant to accept and free from getting
blame and girls are the only victims of blaming. The boy pretended to love and girl did
not know whether it is love or abuse that’s how most of the girls are victims of blaming.

Like wise in Kohalpur area one of the science teacher had shown bad sexual behavior
with girls in school in front of other students. Such as asking how are you with slapping
hand in backside of girl, sometime put hand in thigh, sometime hugging; sometime put
hand in girls’ breast and teased to girls by expression of Hexury …. Hexury etc. [at local
level this mean very sexual word] if girls are weak in study; hated too much and only
encouraged to most talent one. This type of behavior had done continuously by that
teacher. While this was complaint to school principal, the case was not taken seriously
and that teacher was transferred to another place by showing his personal reason and
principal was afraid of loosing school popularity rather taking action.

Next are most of the boys and girls said that teachers do pretending to love girls by
touching girl’s body. Teacher touches girls’ private parts unknowingly or knowingly in the
name of teaching and learning and had beaten on girls' back by their hand. It was also

41
come out while in tuition class, usually teachers touch girls’ body and put pressure to sex
demand.

When we were at grade 6, Laxmi, one of our best friend in the class had faced very bad
behave from our science teacher. As she was beauty and disciplined, the teacher
pretend of love with her. Even in the classroom he pretend to teach but abusing to her
by touching in backside and private part. He was very clever teacher. He had shown his
free and frank behavior to other students too. She was very much worried about that &
we too were worried but could not do any thing because of fear. She could not response
anything as if she said anything to teacher he might not give marks and failed in his
subject. His behavior is not good with other girls but no one could raise due to fear of
failing in examination. When we entered at grade 7 another teacher was scheduled to
teach us science and the problem was automatically solved.

While I was in 9 grades, some one wrote love letter to me and I gave to one teacher but
nothing did. They checked handwriting but have not matched. I had shown that love
letter to all girl friends. In love letter it was mentioned, “I love you very much”. Boys still
writing vulgar words and drew the picture of vagina mostly in girls’ bench. Almost all girls
are suffering from such things but no one could talk and schoolteacher did not take any
action…….. Girls from Kohalpur area

It was noticed that in Udyapur and Rapti area; teacher itself expressed Bhosdic,
Machickne [Vulgarsexual words] and beat to students if he or she could not able to
answer.

On the way to school and home, some of the girls faced difficulties due to some of the
boys’ behavior. They said that "Oh! Dear [Maya] give one kiss, how big is the breast of
this Maya? Try to touch breast, asked to go with them for one night and expressed
please "don’t ride bicycle, your breast moves, don’t be proud… we know how to
break. Oh! Dear (Maya) please------- I love you only once, don’t use long dress;
show your body and had given winking eyes [Ankha Jhimkaune] etc.
The boy’s dominant and trying to touch the girls’ private parts and did eye winking
[Aakanmarchan] to girls. As per girls’ expression such types of abuse exploitation have
been faced by 2 to 4 girls of each secondary and lower secondary school. Mostly it had
done by schoolboys and outsider on the way to school and on the way to home.

Writing love letters, hanging tale, writing sexual words with picture for e.g. [vagina, penis]
in the walls, school toilet, in girls’ copy, make a small paper ball and had thrown to girls
etc are very common phenomena in most of the school. Some boys had given trouble
even after teacher entered in classroom by writing vulgar words, drawing sex related
organs and particularly showing the female organs of the health book in the bench and
matching boys and girl’s name without having relationship. Big boys from out side also
came in school, had written vulgar words, some time blowing condom and thrown in the
classroom. While asking who did such behavior in school? The response was mostly by
schoolboys and some outsiders also do such activities.

42
In some of the school it was also noticed that the boys put posters of vulgar pictures and
condoms in girls' desk. Boys had written love letters with different words like I love you, I
like you and I am your Prince [Rajkumar] etc. While boys quarreled with each other,
they expressed very vulgar words like “aamagali, bahini gali” [sexual intercourse with
mother and sister] during class time. Boys also try to catch girl’s hand and other parts,
sing vulgar song and try to see girls private parts when they go to toilet

In Mahendra MV of Rapti area; one deshi boy proposed one girl to have sex and attract
to pay money in the absence of teacher. Then the girl complaint to teacher and teacher
asked boy to leave school.

In one of the school at Kohalpur area the boys attempt to rape without girls interest and
put red powder on girls’ head. Now girl is studying in 6 grades and boy is in 8 grades.
The boy’s parents did not accept the girl and almost all girls felt in school she loose her
prestige and everyone blame to her. As per other girls she is still studying in school.

Like wise in one of the primary school at Kohalpur area, a Tharu girl who was just 13 yrs
old and was studying in 3 grades had eloped forcefully by one of the man while returning
to home from school. In every school it was found that 4 to 5 girls in every year while
they study in school are compel to marriage at young age due to teasing, harassment or
due to sexual abuse and exploitation.

Sexual abuse can have long -lasting effects on the personality of a victim even if it
happened at a young age, or just once, or wasn’t very severe. The effects might be
immediately or might not be at the same time of abuse but its effects would be long
lasting as it affect more on psychological, physical, social effects and academic effects it
violates other rights of children such as survival, development and participation rights.

While asking children why you are not raising voice against such abuse and exploitation
in school? In response almost all children said that where to express such things?
School principal or Teacher does not believe such abuse or exploitation happened to
girls by the teacher itself. If it happened due to teacher, school authorities tried to hide
everything and manipulate in different way and abusers are powerful and always in safe
side. In-relation to teacher and students; teacher is more powerful than students and if
she or he complaint, students have lots of fear as teacher can do failed or give physical
and psychological punishment to students.

In Surkhet district, similar type of experiences were felt by girls in school of its fieldwork
of SC /UK, AAWAAJ and felt that school is an unsafe spaces to many girls.

Like wise studies in sub – Saharan Africa Schools, girls in particular are the victims of
school - based violence and tolerate serious sexual harassment and abuse, most of it
perpetrated by older male pupils and male teachers. Sexual abuse of girls by male
pupils and teachers is accepted, along with corporal punishment, verbal abuse and
bullying as an inevitable part of much of school life. It exploits unequal power relations
and the authoritarian ethos within schools.

The reluctance of education authorities to address the issues and to prosecute


perpetrators allows abuse to flourish unchecked. By their inaction, authorities condone
and encourage it.Male teachers who openly pursue sexual liaison with girls are

43
indicating to boys that such behavior is acceptable. Fear of abusive teachers and
mistrust that turn a blind eye prevents pupils from reporting incidents. Thus sexual abuse
of girls in school is a reflection of gender violence and inequality in the wider society. It is
difficult to accept that the school is a site of abuse rather than a haven against
perpetrated elsewhere. 10

Sexual abuse in schools is not a new phenomenon, nor an exclusively problem of any
single country. If we do explore in all school of every country, similar situation or more
might come. Talking about abuse widely – in the community, in schools and within
homes – and implementing policies and strategies to stamp it out are the vital next
steps.

1.3.8. Teacher’s Absenteeism and Behaviors in School:

In all school children expressed that teachers are not in time at classroom rather trying
to show the fault of students and mental torture has given to students. Even they come
they did not take class. In Rapti areas, children expressed that usually come at 12 and
return at 2 pm and even if they come don’t teach, there is no full period of teaching and
children think that it is the waste of time to come in school that’s why children are
irregular too. This is worst in Rapti area compare to Kohalpur and Udyapur area.
Sometime teacher expressed their home frustration and create tension to the students.

Mostly in Rapti area and some of the school in Udyapur area; teachers come to the
classroom with chewing tobacco (surti), alcohol, take drug, use bad vulgar words to
students, chewing pan parag [one type of tobacco] and spitting in classroom. They don’t
care students & even asked students to bring tobacco.

In one of the school of rapti area there was one case of slapping by leg to one girl by
Head sir. [Lattale haneko] Sometime when teacher angry they called Chundel and
Manga to girls, which are very bad, words at local level.

---A child draw a picture of teachers behavior towards students

44
Mostly students expressed that in school there is lack of rules and regulation, teachers
can’t control students, had not take any action and be quite whatever wrong behavior
had done by boys even they are bullying or who go around in class time did not care by
teachers. In every school students expressed there is no sufficient play materials and
teachers do not organize extra activities such as cultural program, which is supposed to
organize in every Friday.

Students also expressed that there is toilet in school but did not open. The girls have to
go far for toilet and always fear of someone will see to them. While asked teacher they
did not listen children’s views.

In one of the school of Udyapur area, students expressed that Head teacher is always
angry; beats student till stick has broken.

It has been noticed by students that teachers give priority to boy if there is quarreling
between boys and girls. If students are late for 5 minutes their attendance is not
recorded. Teachers give more and long punishment to small grade students and are
strict to smaller students but can’t do the same thing to big students

Teachers ask students to clean school compound instead of school support staff and
use vulgar words to students, helping in the exam to those whom they like, only
responding positively to talented boys and is discriminating between rich and poor.
Teachers are paying more attention to the rich students and not helping the poor ones
don’t respond positively. They become angry if poor students ask question and did not
allow seeing the exam copy while students want to see.

3.2 Some Successful Individual Case Studies Against Sexual Violence (Real name
has changed):

Sita 15 yrs, 10 grade

I am only one daughter of my parents. I have mother, father and 2 brothers. Originally
we are from Gulmi. I am studying in this school since 6 grades. My brother and my
parents always encouraged whatever I like to do that allow to be bold in nature, I do not
afraid to anyone if there is unfair to me. They never suspect to me. I also shared
everything to my family members whatever problems I faced. Both brothers are
educated and her mother had gone through literacy class and now working as facilitator
by herself for literacy project in village.

One day there was optional math in 6 grade in school but teacher did not come. Head sir
told us, teacher will come in 7th bell but did not come. I asked teacher whether you teach
or not? “He replied that I am not toys of yours”. While teacher expressed that word I
became very angry and that is the most sadness in my school life. Actually I am very
much curious to learn anything and I am first among the girls and 4th position in class.

While I was in 7 grade I was just 13 yrs old, one boy expressed with her own sister that
he would marry to me. His sister expressed to her friend who is my friend too. She
shared to me that boy is going to marry you”. Then I became so furious and asked
myself how he could talk in such a way to others and try to loose my prestige? Rather
than talk to others he can talk with me. The boy is from same grade.

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After that I met that boy and catch his hand and took him in his house. Boy asked why
you are bringing to me. On the way he had already assumed that why I took him at his
home and he expressed “I am ready to respect on your foot.” His mother seemed
surprised by looking our presence. I shared with her mother that your son had expressed
with others about he will marry me so I came with your son and ask you to marry me. His
mother scolded to son by saying why you talked with others in such a way and request
son to bend on my foot to forgive this thing.

After that he did not speak till one year. I am very frank to all students. Anyone could ask
to me if they do not know or if they have problem on subject matter. I also asked to my
friends if I do not know; no matter whether boys or girls.

One day while I returned from home; the boy i.e. Raju name teased me. I became very
reactive with that boy while teasing to me. Then I shared with my brother and asked to
go that place where group of boys was playing carimboard and convince Raju why he
teased to me in such a way? Then my brother went and asked to Raju; do you think it’s
good to tease any sisters? If it would happen to your own sister what will do?

I felt that in our school; English and Math teacher encouraged and cared more for good
students, which I do not like. The teacher has to care more for weak students rather
bright students. Since last year physically I am suffering from Gastric ulcers and getting
medicine. I do sleep at 9 to 10 p.m. and get up at 6 a.m. I always regular in school even
during sickness, I do not like to miss any subject in school.

I like to play with small children and teach to them. Sometime I organized competition
program in village among children on writing story on any subject or poem competition
and who write best give small prize to them. In my school, before teachers were usually
absent in classroom, which is really hampering of students time. So the students closed
19 teachers in room for one day to improve quality of education. After that school
management committee, parents and schoolteachers sit together and discussed these
issues seriously. Nowadays they are regular in school.

I think the girls who faced difficulties if they tolerate all these things these are burden for
themselves. So physically defend is quite important whether the issues are bigger or
smaller needed to be response. I am always ready to provide support to needy group,
support friend at the time of emergency and some girls are coming to take suggestions. I
do evaluation my-self as I give more emphasis on my own views rather listen what
others are saying and more arrogant in nature, which might be my weaknesses. In my
views; if girls have self-confident they can do as they like and it is equally necessary to
make realize boys’ behavior towards girls.

46
Aswani, from Udyapur area

I am studying in 9 grade. While go to school the outsider boys has been followed to me.
While I was in 6 grade during interval time in school, one boy who is my classmate had
thrown love letter and I asked to open that love letter to my friend. While open the letter I
was so afraid as he put 50 Rs and mentioned that “ I love you very much and without
you I could not survive. I had asked class teacher to take action against that boy by
showing the letter and money but teacher did not take any action in spite he took 50 Rs
and no any response to me.

I felt that the boy who sent letter is Muslim and the teacher is also Muslim so did not
take any action. That boy is still studying in same grade in same school. Still I did not
talk with him in school due to such behavior. I shared this story and cried with my mother
and she convinced not to be worried. As that boy is from our same village my parents
asked that boy “why you are doing naughty things to my daughter”. My Parents boost
up me by saying “you have to defense with any kind of misbehave by the boys”.

After that I did not receive any love letters and neither disturbed as well. Again this year
in the occasion of happy New Year the boy who sent love letter before sent happy New
Year card with his friend at my home and I scolded to his friend by saying, “Are you
doing [Chamche] work? Take your post card to your own friend”. Then he returned
without giving post card to me.

Like wise one day I walked on the way to home from school and near by farming canal
some of the boys expressed that “Oh! Oh! Randi (prostitute) is coming.” Actually boys’
thought I did not heard and did not see to them but actually I heard. There were no any
girls beside me so I did immediately react to them by saying Oh! Boys to whom you
are saying Randi? I was ready to fight with them and boys asked please give forgive to
us. Right now we will not say any thing to you.

While asking why boys are doing to girls in such a way? In response; the boys’ do of
their interest whatever they like to do; they do not care how it affects to others’ life. I
think the girls itself should be bold and should not tolerate anything.

47
Kapila, 17yrs from Rapti Pari

I am studying in 10 grade. I have mother, father, 2 brothers and 2 sisters. I am the elder
daughter of my parents. My parents encouraged a lot for study and no restriction at all
for school education. We migrate from Ramghat, Surkhet. I studied till 4 grades in
Surkhet and 5 grades in Lalpur, Banke. Since 6 grades, I am studying in this school.

In Surkhet, school was very good compare to this place because in this school most of
the time teacher do not come regularly and class is not running well which is the most
sadness to me. Next is language is one of the big problem.

I found that the girls in classroom, on the way to school and on the way to home have
been heard lots of vulgar words which is internalize and is taking normal. We do not like
to listen such words; it always gives tension, anxiety in our day-to-day study. I do not like
the boys’ behavior towards girls but I do not have confident to react too. So I have to
tolerate all sorts of things.

In my classroom one boy demand to do sex with my friend by attracting small amount of
money. My friend shared these things and I convinced her not to do without marriage. I
have good rapport with all colleagues and shared all sort of bad feelings by them and I
give different options to tackle those problems. My colleagues also trust me as I have
good study and help weak students to do better.

My aspiration; is being educated as it helps to do everything in better way and do social


service in society. To all girls I bless God to give strong capacity and fairness in every
aspect to girls. I felt we should not tolerate any kind of abuse, exploitation but the girls’
capacity has to be developed to raise such issues and if any organization is ready to
work with us we are happy to change the existing situation in school.

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3.3 Contributing Factors of Abuse, Exploitation and Harassment in School:

--Social discrimination is one of the factors of violation of rights in school

While child sexual abuse cuts across caste, class, ethnicity and location, street /
homeless children and working children, particularly domestic workers and poor children,
have been identified as experiencing an especially high risk of sexual abuse.
Newspapers frequently report that sexual abuse in schools and at work places, within
institutions, on the streets and other public places.

Discrimination of children especially girls is also reflected in male control over female
sexuality. Deep rooted inequality in structures and systems within families and
communities, perpetuated by cultural norms and practices, are factors to consider in
combating abuse and exploitation of children in South Asia.

Gender discrimination and the subordination of women and girls have been referred to
as a fundamental cause of sexual abuse & exploitation. Gender inequality is widely
prevalent in South Asia. Gender base violence is common given the patriarchal
structures in the region. Girls are at greater risk of sexual abuse and exploitation than
boys because they face double discrimination and vulnerability, suffering on account of
their gender as well as their socio – economic status. Sexual abuse and exploitation
have been found amongst the most prevalent forms of violence that affect girls through
childhood and adolescence. In Nepal, during 1995 and 1996, a local newspaper

49
reported a number of rape cases in which the majority of the victims were under 16
years.

Globalization has also led to the expansion of international / National organized crime,
the profitability of trafficking and the consequent co modification of children’s bodies.
Communities along many borders also profit from trafficking by providing meals, shelter
and other support services.

The social discrimination against children especially girls has also been mentioned as a
factor of abuse and exploitation. Child marriage has traditionally been determined by the
concept of childhood, which across the region was generally seen as a period of life that
ended as soon as children puberty. Not only does early marriage add to the burden of
girls, it also leads to sexual abuse. No registration of marriages is another serious
problem that allows child marriages to continue.

Research has shown that the most significant contributing factors of abuse,
exploitation and harassment in school are;

¾ Lack of awareness among children especially the girls they do not have idea to
raise voice on such issues of abuse, exploitation and harassment. The girls are
not defensive against wrong behavior towards them. Girls think that it is shame to
express and loose prestige of family and community and no one believe & trust
to her. If it will be public, parents also beat and friends might also hate to her.

¾ The girls also did not raise issues due to lack of confident, even not shared with
their colleagues and boys are entertaining in that way. The children are not
aware very much on what is abuse, exploitation harassment and its
consequences to them.

¾ It has been internalized and deep rooted in school system and society in such a
way where student feel that they should be obedient and should not talk against
teacher whatever he / she did. Sexual harassment, corporal punishment, verbal
abuse and bullying are accepted as part of much of school life.

¾ Influence from media, influence from peer especially bullying, teasing etc

¾ The boys think they are super than girls and had done whatever boys like to do
and do not care the matter of prestige. They never realized how far their wrong
behavior has been taken by girls and its’ affect in their life.

¾ Lack of evidence that abusers are punished due to weak implementation of law
and abusers feel more empower and no matters to violate others rights.

¾ In school system or in society there is no place or person of listening such issues


so where to express? Rather hiding and tolerate of such issues. There is no rules
and regulation in school and school’s weaknesses too of not taking action
against wrong behavior and the boys are repeating the same behavior. While
there is no class due to teacher absent, it seemed student have more time to
engage in wrong behavior.

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¾ While sharing some difficulties faced by girls; the colleagues mostly boys laugh
and tease with clapping hand; rather listening in positive way. The schoolboys
who had seen teasing to girls by outsider on the way to school, again they further
exaggerated and teased more in classroom and seemed of double victimization.

¾ Children are not united; they fight and debate even for small issues and forget
their responsibilities. Elder children push to younger children for entertaining and
followed to do same thing. Children are not aware and not fulfill responsible
behavior among each other that has never discussed on children’s role and how
they can make differences by themselves in maintaining healthy environment in
school.

¾ The society at large [that includes school system] has not been aware and not
sensitive on those issues. It has been followed since many decade and children
also learned from their elders, teachers and followed wrong behavior.

¾ Teachers are not gender sensitive and not following responsible behavior.
Usually it is expected role model behavior in front of student in school and not
sensitizes what to express and what should not express to students and how
students could do? It has never discussed with schoolteacher and they are not
aware whether due to their behavior violate children’s rights or not and never
analyzed what would be effects to children. Mostly it had not respond on such
issues positively and seriously by school authorities and blame to victims rather
analyzing the situation. It has been internalized those issues in such a way that
student should be obedient and should not talk against teacher whatever he / she
did.

¾ Teachers are not following good behavior and how students could do? As
teacher is always powerful compare to students and there is plenty of fear of not
giving marks by schoolteacher and might be failed in examination. If it raised
there is plenty of fear of threatening given by boys or teacher while she is alone

¾ There is wider inequality in society, family and it has been followed in school too.
Gender discrimination and the subordination of women and girls have been
referred to as a fundamental cause of sexual abuse and exploitation. Gender
base violence is common given the patriarchal structures in the communities and
in school too. The social discrimination against children especially girls are at
greater risk of sexual abuse and exploitation than boys because they face double
discrimination, double social stigma and vulnerability, suffering on account of
their gender as well as their socio – economic status.

Whatever factors may be the responsible for sexual abuse and exploitation of children,
adequate attention must be paid to the adverse impact of sexual abuse and exploitation
on the very life and dignity of children who fall prey to them. We must also help the wider
community to understand that sexual abuse, exploitation and harassment is not a
lifestyle choice, it is a crime committed against children. Talking about abuse widely – in
the community, in schools and within homes – and implementing policies and strategies
to stamp it out are the vital next steps.

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3. 4 Consequences from Abuse, Exploitation and Harassment:

Sexual abuse, exploitation and harassment have been found amongst the most
prevalent forms of violence in schools that affect girls throughout childhood and
adolescence. However, it found that boys are also abused and sufferer through corporal
punishment, through discrimination based on caste and weak vs. bright students,
through sexual harassment and are being exploited due to attitude of teacher and
students.

Most victims of sexual abuse are afraid to disclose their abuser and many never do, due
to fear of losing 'family honor', repercussion, embarrassment, shame, guilt, and the fear
of being disbelieved or blamed.

There are many negative consequences found of such ill practices and behavior in the
school. Some of the effects children felt that are: drop out of children from schools,
negative feeling towards teacher and learning, fearful, lack of openness, emotional
torture and suppressed emotional condition etc. Sexual abuse can have long-lasting
effects on the personality of a victim even if it happened at a young age, or just once, or
wasn’t very severe. However there are many others effects that can be immediate or at
later on which are;

Psychological effects:

¾ Mind is always disturbed


¾ Mental torture
¾ Acute anxiety, can be depression
¾ Feel lonely, helplessness
¾ Fear ness, withdrawal, isolation
¾ Frequent mood swings
¾ Being upset very easily
¾ Lots of frustration and felt why I am surviving
¾ Low self-respect, low self esteem and low self confident
¾ Wanting to cry often
¾ Hated by themselves and sometimes why we are being a girls rather boys
¾ Feeling of worthlessness
¾ Sometimes feel sad and why it happened to girls only?
¾ Felt angry, felt guilty
¾ Does not like to talk with perpetrator [teacher or boys]
¾ Does not like to mix up with many friends
¾ Feeling scared and seen bad dream
¾ Impaired interpersonal relationship

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Physical effects:

¾ Swollen hand and painful due to beating


¾ Bruise in leg and difficult to walk, other injuries on any part of the body for which
the cause is not clear and the victim cannot explain fully.
¾ Physically disabled could not become mother due to tear in vagina if it is due to
rape or abused.
¾ Eating disturbances resulting in weight loss or physically weakness
¾ Ulcers and stomach cramps
¾ Changes in genital areas of body such as pain, itching, visible injury, discharge,
infection or difficulty urinating
¾ Victims might sufferers from different disease such as vulva swelling, burning
urine, uterus cancer, venereal diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV +ve
etc.
¾ Like to do suicide
¾ Can’t speak in-front of many people
¾ Unwanted early pregnancy and unwanted birth of new born baby
¾ Restriction on mobility by parents
¾ Lack of confident

Academic effects:

9 Less productive in studying


9 Not regular in school
9 Does not like to attend particular subject.
9 Does not concentrate her / his subject
9 Does not like to talk with particular boys or particular teacher
9 Not secured good mark and failed in examination.
9 Drop out from school
9 More chances of early marriage

Social effects:

¾ Feel lonely [due to lack of support] and always think what others will
say?
¾ Family, Friends, teacher hated to victims.
¾ Tension to family members if it is publicize
¾ Family is blamed by society
¾ All girls in school or in community are blamed due to one event
¾ The neighbors, the colleagues are quite talkative against girls rather
try to understand and listening the views
¾ It become the matter of talking in communities and hated by society
¾ Society, schools think that girls’ loose prestige and blame she would
damage to others too.
¾ Fear of not being able to marry and not accept by men / boys due to
societal attitude.

53
¾ Everyone blame to girls, might kicked out from society, she might get
different title and loose her position.
¾ Might not get justice wherever she goes and gained more torture than
before.
¾ Negative thinking and seeing negatively for all the times though it has
been done for positive purposes.

Beside those effects there are other effects, which need to analyze and understand
especially why victims can’t raise voice, despite having such sexual violence that listed
as follows:

¾ There is no forum or person to listening such issues.


¾ If it is unwillingly there might be fear of prestige to loose.
¾ Fear of everyone knows and what others will say to victims.
¾ Due to low self esteem and low self-confident of victims.
¾ Fear of getting blame and hated to victims by friends or others.
¾ Due to not aware of whether it is love or abuse?
¾ Due to threat given by abuser she could not raise and if she
raised she might not alive.
¾ Victims are attracted by getting love or by objects and compel
in their dependency.
¾ Blame to own fate or does not believe that she would not win
the case even goes to court.
¾ Due to long procedure has taken for legal action.
¾ Police and court are not girls / women friendly to deal such
cases
¾ Due to feeling of who believe the victims voice?
¾ Fear of family might kick out from home.
¾ Fears of again repeating the similar cases would happen to
her life if share to others.
¾ Due to not getting information of where to go for justice?
¾ Fear of barrier to achieve objective for e.g. student might have
fear of failed by teacher if she publicize.
¾ Feelings of what the benefit is there once already loose the
prestige?
¾ Internalize that these sexual abuse and exploitation is bad
things, it has to tolerate by girls / women and should not talk in
society.
¾ Due to society expect different role to girls and boys. For e.g. if
any wrong behavior did by son it does not matter but for the
daughter it is matter of prestige at family and in society.
¾ Girls and women have no property so there is fear of survival
especially food and shelter might be stop.

Mostly those students who had faced corporal punishment its direct and negative impact
had observed in their academic performance as well as psychological effects too. But
those students who had gone through other forms of violation like discrimination, sexual
harassment or abuse and exploitation had observed all sorts of effects. Especially the
girls who had faced sexual harassment, abuse, exploitation there is serious effects of

54
why they can’t raise voice despite of sexual violence is most important which is listed
above. There is no only single effects, it always come one to another.

After doing all analysis of effects of abuse, exploitation and the nature of violation
especially why victims can’t raise voice despite sexual violence is a more serious
problem. It can be concluded that though sexual abuse, exploitation and harassment
comes under violation of protection rights it equally affects other survival, participation
and development rights of victims. If the person is hungry or not getting education
opportunities; he / she can claim easily but not in the case of sexual violence.

3. 5 Suggestions From Children to Reduce the Violence in School:

¾ Should not allow outsider to enter in school. If they teased there should be strong
punishment
¾ All the children should unite to each other need to be discussed together and
raise voice against the violence. It does not need money, only if children unite
and discuss the issues on what sort of behavior we like and what we do not like
and how to avoid those behaviors.
¾ There should be strong law to punish the perpetrator.
¾ Raise awareness to children on such sensitive issues.
¾ This issues also need to be discussed in village children’s group
¾ Build confidence of children especially girls.
¾ Make realization to boys so they will not repeat wrong behavior.
¾ Teacher has to listen the students’ problem and convince to them.
¾ Make rules and regulation in school and monitor it.
¾ Dialogue between students, parents and teacher on these issues.

Suggestions from Teachers, Parents and School Management Committee to


Reduce the Violence in School

¾ Awareness on children's right and their responsibility issue to parents, teachers


and children
¾ Formation of child clubs in schools (some school teachers are not happy with this
idea as they think that it will make difficult in maintaining the student's discipline)
¾ Supporting learning materials like school library and sports materials in school
¾ Sufficient teachers in school
¾ Support in improving school infrastructure
¾ Discussion with parents, children and teachers regularly about the issues of the
children, teachers and parents
¾ Establishing a complain box in school

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Section 4. Conclusions:
This research study has clearly revealed that the children in schools of Banke district are
routinely exposed to abuse, exploitation and sexual harassment irrespective of caste
ethnicity. The girls’ rights are more violated compared to boys.

Sexual exploitation of children and child sexual abuse are the worst forms of child
abuse and gross violation of child rights. For South Asia, complex issues of globalization
and its impact on resource poor household, the feminization of poverty, all forms of
Discriminations, migration and poor education must all be addressed.

Why are there violations of children rights in school? Do the children want to suffer such
violation? Actually not because the children whose behavior is violating to others do not
feel that he/ she is violate children rights and if someone do same behavior to him /her
they do not welcome such things and feel sad. So it is whole matters of dialogue
between students, teachers about what is harassment, abuse, exploitation and aware its
consequences and realizing responsibilities to protect rights of all children.

4.1. Corporal Punishment

¾ In all schools corporal punishment by teacher to students is widespread problem.


However, mostly primary level students who are very poor, weak in study are
more sufferers than others. Sometime the class monitors also misuse the power,
complaint to teacher and beaten children without analyzing and listening the
children’s views. Younger students are equally sufferers of corporal punishment
from elder students while did not act as messenger to send love letters of elder
and if did not follow the elder behavior towards girls.

¾ Many parents still think and ask teachers to beat their children, which are meant
to be an incentive for children to do better. Further, after being beaten for failures
or misbehavior at school, children are beaten for the same reasons at home.

¾ In all 24 schools beating is frequently raised by all grade students however most
of the students expressed younger students are more sufferers than higher grade
students. Mostly students have experience of beating by English, Science and
Math teacher.

¾ While asking to children’s on what are the bad practices that made sad to
children in school. In all school it was highlighted that; one is beating by teacher
without analysis, give punishment of carrying stone to girls when late in school,
expelled out from classroom followed by beating, teacher hit by stick and scolded
lathuwa etc [worthless]

¾ This research has also shown girls who are sexually harassed or children who
faced corporal punishment by teacher lose interest in education, drop out from
school and early marriage leading to poor citizen to society in the long run.

56
¾ The existing children’s Act on corporal punishment is sufficient to manipulate by
interpretation of adults. As it allows simple beating by parents which is difficult to
define itself. Many parents still think and even asked teachers to beat their
children in keeping discipline & expect to improve children performance in
school.
¾ The unavailable of existing facilities especially toilet and play materials to
students in school lead great frustration to children. As school toilets are not used
for children especially the girls who have to go far and there is always fear of
someone might see to them. As they have to go forest for toilet purpose, while
return to class usually late for 5 to 10 minutes and faced punishment either
physical or psychological and its effects in academic too.

4. 2 Bullying with Verbal abuse

¾ Sexual violence especially sexual harassment along with bullying, verbal abuse
and love letters writing cuts across all grades, class, caste, creed and religion in
school. However, mostly secondary and lower secondary girls students are
overwhelmed from this problems.

¾ In all school; children especially girls repeatedly expressed that the boys
expressed very vulgar sexual words while bullying in school.

¾ Elder boys had also written in school “this boy and that girl have love” without
having relationship and this is again became issue of debating and for that
reason bullying has been observed. The boys torn the paper and cutting school
bag as per their interest.

¾ There is quite interlinking between bullying and verbal abuse. Usually students
felt that while there is bullying; verbal sexual tone was also observed.

¾ Though most forms of sexual harassment occurs in school, verbal sexual abuse
still remains the strongest one in school.

4. 3 Attitude of Teacher and Students:

¾ In all school; children both boys and girls expressed very clearly that if they make
a friendship between boys and girls it has been taken negatively even in normal
friendship with opposite sex. As school is within the societal system such attitude
has been reflected in school too.

¾ Like wise students talk too much while teacher come in classroom. During class
time, students are playing but teachers said nothing.

¾ Particularly for girls if they are weak in study or fail in exam, teacher discourage
by saying why you just spent your parents’ money? Instead go to home, fetch
water, fodder collection and help to parents.

57
¾ The teacher hate to those students if their speech and language is not clear.

4. 4 Teasing

¾ In all schools it was found that girls from all status, caste / ethnicity have been
faced teasing in inside the school, on the way to school and on the way to home
by boys, sometimes teacher and outsiders

¾ While there is more interval and not regular class, girls face more teasing, heard
more verbal sexy words and have seen drawing of vulgar pictures.

¾ However in one or two school the boys reported that girls also teased to boys.
Boys accepted that the girls are facing more teasing by schoolboys and outsider.

¾ Children observed that the girls from secondary and lower secondary are the
most who faced teasing from outsider, schoolboys and teachers.

¾ Teasing is not only observed to girls by boys but from bright students to weak
students, Pahadi vs. Deshi, Deshi vs. Pahadi, Pahadi vs Tharu and outsider
people vs. school students. It depends on majority of which group come in
school. For example in Rapti area majority of Deshi people teased to girls’ dress
up if they wear miniskirt

4. 5 Discrimination based on caste, disability, gender and weak vs. talent students
based on school performance

¾ It found that most of the school teachers use bad words to weak boys who are
poor in school performance by expressing Gaddha, Salee, Bandar etc Due to
those expression by teacher; those boys who are weak in study felt very bad and
treated as inhuman for them.

¾ The victims of abuse, exploitation and harassment are blamed unnecessarily at


home and in school and discriminated without analyzing the situation if it raised
the issues. Due to that reasons; victims are afraid on what’s the sense of raising
issues?

¾ Teacher had given punishment of carrying stone to girl student when late in
school. On the way to school, adult people are saying why such big girls are
being sent to school and discourage girls for school study.

¾ Sometime parents did not allow girls to go school due to heavy workload and
asked to do household work rather go to school. Despite having lots of work at
home there is no full study in school.

¾ There is discrimination based on upper caste vs. lower caste specially in day-to-
day speaking. Due to misbehave of teacher and student; lower caste children
have low self – esteem. Students are also discriminating among each other of

58
calling their name by caste. While go for drinking water in tap, higher caste asked
lower caste to leave the tap and getting water first by the higher caste.

¾ Tharu and Pahadi fight each other even in small issues, especially Pahadi
students want to dominate Tharu students. Discriminating and debating between
Deshi and Pahadiya students are also equally affected. As deshi students are
more in Rapti area they threatened Pahadiya students to kill. On the way to
school they tease by saying Pahadiya Bhut.

4. 6 Sexual Abuse, Exploitation and Sexual harassment

¾ By hearing different stories of girls and boys it was found that majority of girls
from secondary and lower secondary school are facing sexual harassment and
seems that it has been taken as birth right as a male to do and as a girl it has
been compel to accept such situation in school and no way to change such
situation in school.
¾ It was found that the children who are victims from corporal punishment and
sexual harassment are the double victimized from family members if children
shared the story to family members.

¾ One of the saddest things we know about corporal punishment, abuse,


exploitation and harassment is that it is always linked to a desire to dominate, so
that abusers often target people with particular vulnerabilities.

¾ All victims of abuse, exploitation and sexual harassment are psychologically,


physically, socially and academically disturbed and live under a lot of tension and
stress.

¾ It noticed that violation of children rights due to abuse, exploitation and


harassment is an unpleasant and common practice to school life.

¾ The most surprising things is; while discussed during research process students
are very clear what behavior they like and what don’t like, what makes happy and
what makes unhappy, those students who are very unhappy due to bad practices
in school never learnt that similar behavior make unhappy to others one but
these are never discussed and never seek solution between students and
teacher and living in same silent environment.

¾ The children especially girls who are getting enough encouragement and support
from family members have more confident to defense on any kind of violent
behavior against them and did not tolerate. Once the girls who succeed to
defense wrong behavior towards them, are not double victimize again.

¾ The girls, who shared the feelings of sexual harassment and exploitation with
own colleague, it has been publicized to other students, school teacher and even
in family. So lots of victim think there is question of confidentiality and rights to
privacy is exploited.

59
¾ In all school there is no mechanism of listening views of victims. So the children
who are sufferers are tolerating and think it should not be exposed.

¾ There are no support programs at prevention of abuse, exploitation and


harassment or at providing support to victims in school.

4. 7 Teacher’s Absenteeism and their Behavior Towards Students:

¾ Mostly in Rapti area and some of the school in Udyapur area; teachers come to
the classroom with chewing tobacco (surti), alcohol, take drug, use bad vulgar
words to students, chewing pan parag [one type of tobacco] and spitting in
classroom. They don’t care students and even asked students to bring tobacco.

¾ Almost in all school children expressed that teachers are not in time to classroom
rather trying to improve correct the fault of students and mental torture has given
to students. Even they come they did not take class.

¾ In Rapti areas, children expressed that usually come at 12 and return at 2 pm


and even come don’t teach, there is no full period of teaching and children think
that it is the waste of time to come in school that’s why children are irregular too.
This is worst in Rapti area compare to Kohalpur and Udyapur area. Sometime
teacher expressed their home frustration and create tension to the students

¾ The children’s right to access and quality of education is far from reality
especially in Rapti area due to frequent absenteeism of teacher.

60
Section 5: Recommendations:
We know what the problem is,
Now what‘s the solution?

Convention on the Rights of the child, Article 19 States Parties shall take all
appropriate Measure to protect the child from all forms Of ----physical, mental
violence, injury, abuse, Neglect of negligent maltreatment----- Promote physical
and psychological recovery And social reintegration of a child victim of
Neglect, abuse, torture or cruel inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

“Most of us never know what it’s like to be abused and exploitation. Imagine you have
just been raped and beaten; you are too scared to move, because there’s nowhere to go
and no one to help you. Although many of us might never know what it’s like, we
recommend here on behalf of children who had faced abused and exploitation to make
sure that message in our hearts and ideas in our heads can reach out to improve the
lives of the many children affected in Banke district and across the country.”

There is still has a gigantic question to answer; when shall have a world in which life is
based on a sense of caring, sharing, true love and the protection of all societies and
individuals from all forms of abuse, discrimination and exploitation?

Over the last 12 years, it has become increasingly obvious that the majority of programs,
services and policies are focused on rights to survival and development. Right now we
have to make a balance of our resources on rights to protection and rights to
participation of children as equal to survival and development rights. If we could not
protect children from the abuse, exploitation and harassment they loose their
development and survival rights too. The problem has been identified again and again
by children with frightening clarity and frustration; what we now need are practical
solutions that are workable in diverse communities.

We must also help the wider community to understand that sexual abuse, exploitation
and harassment is not a lifestyle choice, it is a crime committed against children and it is
not their fault. It must be recognized that combating child sexual abuse and exploitation
will require addressing the factors perpetuating the root causes and consequences of
exploitation and abuse. Factors that generate and contribute to a demand for use of
children as sexual objects and as commodity need specific attention and call for
immediate intervention.

In addition, all actions should be guided by the CRC principles of non - discrimination,
the best interest of the child, the child’s right to life, survival and development and
respect for the views of the child. When organize something to do with children, the
organizers have to make sure that the children can participate in meaningfully through
out the program cycle related to their development, recognize that children have the
ability to express their own opinion and take part in decision – making, every child
should be respected and treated as equal partners in all other development efforts and
children should receive support from adults and fellow children.

61
The recommendations provided in the report can be integrated of exiting Plan Banke
program rather seen as separate program. The recommendations given below from
Number 1 to 4 is especially to Plan Banke and 5 to 6 numbers would be effective if
work together with Child Rights Concern Forum in Mid and Far Western or other
Allies at National level, regional or district level who have been promoting Children
Rights.

1. Taking into consideration the local context, each school has to develop child
protection policy and standards must include:

1.1 Realizing Sense of Human Rights:

¾ CRC should be the guiding principle for all policies, practices and programs
related to the fight against abuse and exploitation. Priority should always be
given to the best interest of the child and any discrimination is to be avoided. In
all of these recommendations and actions, there must be emphasize the value of
children’s participation. The involvement of children in all levels of planning,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation is a giant step in the right direction.

¾ Sensitization on Child Rights and Gender issues needs to be discussed with


child club, schoolteachers, teachers association and others stakeholders. Based
on research experience the children or teacher whose behavior is violating to
others do not feel that he/ she is violate children rights and if someone do same
behavior to him /her they do not welcome such things and feel sad. So it is whole
matters of dialogue between students, teachers about what is harassment,
abuse, exploitation and aware its consequences and realizing responsibilities to
protect rights of all children.

¾ Program planning with children; focused on three important human rights “Safe,
Strong and Free” Everyone has these rights and it is indispensable for human
life.

¾ The children who faced abuse, exploitation and harassment that must be heard
and be central to the development and implementation of action. They are the
most powerful resources and can be mobilized without discrimination to build the
capacity of other children. This joint sharing of pain and healing could
significantly contribute to the healing process.

¾ Prevention should include interventions with boys that teach them to recognize
and respect girls’ rights. Opportunities should be found to help both boys and
girls to value girls in the family, school and community.

¾ Attitudes about violence are learnt. Any agencies should influence this learning at
the grassroots level. Boys and girls should learn about responsible sexual
behavior and program strategies have to promote alternative models of manhood
that do not tolerate sexual abuse and violence.

62
¾ The basic and the most effective ways of protecting rights are “Say No”; “Go
Away” and “Talk to Someone”. Sense of human rights and self-esteem are
inevitable for protecting oneself from violence.

1.2 Develop Behavior Protocols:

In every school it needs to develop ethics of appropriate behavior to protect violation of


children rights. That has to be developed in consultation with equal representation of
boys and girls and has to be monitored by children themselves and school authorities
together.

1.3 Support Committee in School.

¾ In every school there should be establishment of committee, which has to be


decided by children group with representation of students [equal number of boys
/ girls]. The existing children club can play the role of supporting committee in
school and can be building in working VDCs of Banke Plan. This committee
needs to be well sensitizing to listen the views of children and act to provide
psychological support to victims of abuse, exploitation and harassment and can
protest with support of other children against abuse, exploitation and harassment
of children in school or in communities.

¾ The committee will support victims to remove their discomfort and boost up that it
is not only their fault. This committee will also analyze the allegation and incident
management and report to school principal so that children would get support
from school authorities and all children feel safe, equal and friendly place in
school. The existing paralegal committee of Plan Banke will work closely and
could support in school support committee too.

¾ General confidentiality of every girl or boy has to be maintained by the committee


regarding cases under investigation and information or documentation about
children.

2. Capacity Building of Children:

¾ The existing child club needs to strengthen to look and address the school
violence and act as support committee to listen the views of victims and raise
voice against violence in school or in community.

¾ Awareness raising on issues and relate this with human rights, children rights,
gender issues especially rights to protect from abuse, exploitation and
harassment. Children from primary level to higher secondary level should have
sound understanding about their rights and responsibilities. Particularly, children
(girls) should be able to know what are abuse, exploitation and harassment.

¾ In other hand the boys are equally aware on how far their behavior has been
affecting on girls’ life and its consequences so that they are aware to
avoid/reduce the incident of such act in school and community. The best way to

63
equip with this is to help children to form a children's club or mobilize existing
children club in school and build the clubs capacity to deal with this issue.

¾ Facilitating the children that they possess human rights, they will understand that
they are valuable beings, which leads to regaining confidence and courage.
Through this program, provide them with skills of protecting themselves in
dangerous situations.

¾ Violence towards children had been left untouched in such societies where
children were thought to be helpless and powerless. Therefore many adults had
believed that the best way to protect their children was to tell them what not to
do, instead of what they can do. So when they came across violence, they were
not able to protect themselves alone and many victims put the blame on
themselves. Children are neither powerless nor hopeless. Under any
circumstances, they are capable of defending themselves if they have enough
knowledge, encouragement and enough capacity, which is needed for every
human being. We have to believe in their power and empower in their ability.

¾ The activity need to design how children can play active role as a change agent
in maintaining healthy environment in school and feel responsible behavior so
that all children would have developed sense of responsibility and cooperation
with each other.

¾ As per the catchment’s area, child clubs should tie up with network of the clubs
and linkage with existing paralegal committee to get support and co-operation to
each other. Once it established child clubs in school its members have to be
provided exposure visit to see such initiatives done by other child clubs within
Nepal or Outside Nepal as part of building their confidence and capacities.
Children Net work meeting should be organized monthly so that they could share
what progress made in each school, the future plan of each club and what short
of support is needed to them by other clubs could be explored and shared with
each other.

3. Mobilizing communities, children, teachers, working with parents, school,


District Child Welfare Board and District Education Office to prevent violence in
school:

With Parents:

¾ There is a need to mobilize whole community not only to provide knowledge but
also challenge attitudes about these issues. Parents and teachers attitudes
especially towards girls and marginalized children need to be address through
community awareness program.

¾ Dialogue between children and parents on a regular basis has to be organized


so that the understanding about the children's perspective and parent's
perspective from each other could be done to support each other for the safety of
child.

¾ Understanding and support from adults are necessary for children to live safely.
By listening to adults talk in any programs, children will understand there are

64
adults who are earnest in assuring their safety. Ultimately if adults understand
the protection rights of children they will be able to share information about
violence and protection skills and support each other to build violence – free
society.

¾ The children who had participated in research process it would better if they
participate in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of activities
related to their development.

¾ Awareness program on child rights/responsibilities should be integrated in other


existing program like Parents group of ECD, women group, user group etc of
Plan so parents would be supportive towards the activities of child clubs.

With School:

¾ Every teacher needs to be aware on abuse, exploitation and harassment and its
consequences and linked with child rights and their responsibilities.

¾ School principal or assistant principal should sit together on weekly basis with
support committee to know the information and aware to other teachers and
students & prevent hostile environment in school.

¾ Teachers also need to be learnt about the consequences of beating, harassment


and abuse and ways to alternative teaching instead of punishment.

¾ Schoolteachers, children and parents, School management committee need to


hold regular discussion and interaction in every quarter about the issues that
child club want to discuss with them.

¾ System /mechanism for listening children’s complain/issues to be developed in


schools.

¾ Code of conduct should be developed along with students and followed in


school.

¾ An education system that supported teachers through training on child rights and
gender issues to build a relationship of trust with children, enabling children to
question, challenge, analyze and learn for themselves and encouraged equal
respect for each other, would have no place for corporal punishment which could
be very good approach to teaching and learning. Like wise discrimination by
teacher between bright vs. weak students need to address through tuition class
for 1 to 2 hour for those weak students and that can be managed by school
teacher if it would discuss in teachers training.

65
With District Child Welfare Board and District Education Office:

¾ Bring all stakeholders in one place to advocate of issues with local Govt bodies
(VDCs), DCWB, DEO, Children Club, Teachers’ association, School
Management Committee, District Education Committee, Women’s group and
Parents through initiating dialogue based on research findings and discussed
why sexual violence is happening in their communities, who are responsible for
that and what role can play by different stakeholders to stop such violence in
school or in communities.

¾ Child club of school and their issues has to be linked with District child welfare
Board to aware the children issues at local level.

¾ Issues of children rights and Gender issues need to be discussed with District
education office so that the would have sensitive to take action from government
side if it is due to teachers’ behavior.

4. Gender Sensitization

¾ There is a need to address gender issues, because the way boys and girls raise
in our communities create male – dominant societies that allow the sexual abuse
and exploitation. As patriarchy and discrimination of children based on gender,
caste is noticed it is recommended that sensitization training cum workshop on
gender issues has to be conducted with school teachers, school management
committee, existing children clubs at all levels.

¾ Messages to create a more equal society must also be delivered over mass
media. School curricula should also address this crosscutting dimension of
discrimination and address it from the male and female points of view to initiate
positive change.

¾ Increasingly there is need to work especially with boys / men to address the
demand factors in the problem of sexual abuse and exploitation. The unequal
gender relations also affect this demand although many girls are sexually
exploited; we should recognize that boys are also prone to such exploitation.

5. Changes in proposed laws related to corporal punishment and Sexual


harassment and More Effective Law Enforcement:

¾ Present children’s act and regulation is not sound in relation to verbal abuse,
sexual harassment and corporal punishment by teacher to students. There is
plenty of interpretation can be done by the teacher in the name of improving
children. Like wise the process of law enforcement needs to be improved is
obvious.

66
¾ In most of the places if a criminal robs a bank, they will receive serious
punishment, but if some one robs a child of his her dignity and more they receive
nominal punishments. It is not the victims that should be criminalized but the
exploiters – this is especially important when the victims are under aged. Efforts
must be made to ensure that exploiters are the ones punished, not children who
have been abused and exploited.

¾ There is a need for better harmonization of national legislations in line with


international treaties and cooperation between law enforcement agencies at all
level, as well as strict enforcement, monitoring and evaluation of these laws.

6. Effective Advocacy

¾ There should be National campaign program through out the country against
school violence towards children by mobilizing all stakeholders [parents, children,
I/ NGOs, Human rights group] to raise awareness on issues and showing
pressure group against abuse, exploitation and harassment in school.

¾ Advocacy is required to address gaps in the program strategy to donors,


government, I/ NGOs to work with boys and men. In the past, lots of
programming has been addressed for girls and women however the problems
remain the same. As more than 90 % problem come from boys and men we
should not forget to work with them to prepare better manhood. So boys are the
problems and solutions too.

¾ Advocacy is also required to lobby with human rights groups and politicians at
VDC and district level to include these issues on their agenda. It will be required
in the police force to enable more sensitive handling of cases.

¾ Similarly, lawyers and judges also need to be sensitized about these forms of
violence in school and take legal action with sensitivity. There is equally need to
work with media because they are the most effective and appropriate way to
spread among the public.

67
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sexual abuse of Children in South Asia2001


December, UNICEF- ROSA, Kathmandu, Nepal
2. News Flash; Save the children South and Central Asia Region, February 2002
3. Ending Corporal Punishment of Children, Making it happen, Save the children,
London 2001
4. Paper on campaign against discrimination in education of Save the Children Alliance,
2002
5. Campaign Against Sexual Harassment at Workplace, towards a gender friendly
workplace, Sanhita, Kolkata, 2001.

6. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, A review of South Asia – Nepal


Perspective, SAP Nepal, Dec 2001
7. National Report on Sexual Abuse, Exploitation and Trafficking of Children in Nepal –
Dec 2001, published by NGOs group jointly with Ministry of Women, Children and Social
Welfare.
8. Special Insights Development Research in Africa, Institute of Development Studies,
University of Sussex, August 20001.
9. Sacred Lives, Canadian Aboriginal Children & Youth Speak out about sexual
exploitation, Save the Children Canada
10. Rights Based Training Report on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation, Save the
Children Norway, April 2001
11. Gautam, I. The Difficulties Girls Face in Families in Ramghat and Ghusra Villages of
Surkhet District, Midwestern Nepal, published by Save the Children UK South & Central
Asia Region, May 1999
12. A study on the Psycho – Social Impacts of Violence against Women and Girls with
special focus on Rape, Incest and Polygamy, Published by Saathi / SNV, 2001

13. Paper on Children’s Final Appeal at Second World Congress on the Issue of
Commercial Sexual exploitation of Children, Yokohama, Japan 12 – 20 December 2001

14. Good practices in Combating Sexual abuse and Sexual exploitation of Children and
Youth in Asia, United Nations, Japan, and December 2001
15. Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation, Report of Government of the
Germany, November 2001
16. Early Marriage, Sexual Exploitation and The Human Rights of Girls produced by
Forum on Marriage and the Rights of women and Girls, Nov 2001

17. Child Sexual Exploitation and the Law, a contribution of UNICEF to the 2nd world
congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Yokohama, Japan, 17 –
20 Dec 2001

18. Report of National Workshop on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation, [LHRLA]
Pakistan April 2000

68
ANNEX A CHECKLIST FOR DISCUSSION

¾ What are the most happiness and most sadness events in your life after being in
school?

¾ How do you understand by children rights in your context?

¾ What sort of difficulties you faced in school [on the way and inside the school]?

¾ What is the most bitter experience you have once you come in school?

¾ How you feel towards teachers, elder students, and girls vs. boys’ behavior in to
school?

¾ How you perceive abuse, exploitation and harassment?

¾ What type of abuse, exploitation and harassment observe towards students in


school?

¾ Who are the most sufferers and vulnerable to abuse, exploitation and
harassment?

¾ What are the contributing factors for abuse, exploitation and harassment?

¾ Who is the abuser/perpetrator mostly?

¾ Why is it happening in school towards students?

¾ Were you alone when the incident happened?

¾ Do you feel such remarks are passed more in any particular day or particular
time or particular style?

¾ Did you share and ask for help from your colleagues, teachers or parents?

¾ What sorts of effects observe to girls/boys once it happen? [Physical, emotional,


social and academic]

¾ Do you want to face such abuse continuously?

¾ If you want to eliminate such things what can you do as a group of students?

¾ What sort of practical recommendations are put forward to adult authorities?

69
ANNEX B

FGD Participants As Per School, Grade and Gender

SN Name of schools Class Boys Girls Total Remarks


student
s
1. Tribhuvan Ma.Vi. Kohalpur 8 - 10 40 40 80
2. Gyanjoyity Ma. Vi Chhapargaudi 8 -10 30 30 60
3 Prabhat ma. Vi. Ggaun 8 - 10 52 29 81
4 Adarsha Ma. Vi. Ranjha 8 - 10 15 16 31
5 Ram Ma. Vi. Baizanathpur 8 - 10 11 12 23
6 Janta Ni. Ma.Vi Matihawa 6-8 15 15 30
7 Ni. Ma.Vi dalaipur, kamdi 6-8 44 37 81
8 Jaya janta Ni.Ma.Vi thapuwa 6-8 10 49 59
9 Janajoiti Pra Vi. Jhandawa 4-5 7 18 25
10 NRPV Lakhanpur 4-5 25 13 38
11 NRPV Khargarwar 4-5 10 11 21
12 Maharaja Ma. Vi. Puraina, 8 -10 15 15 30
Udayapur
13 NMV Bankatti 6-8 18 11 29
14 NRPV Puraini 4-5 13 10 23
15 Ni.Ma.Vi Basudevpur 6 -7 24 1 25
16 NRPV Kanthipur 4-5 22 11 33
17 Bhunvar Bhawani Ma. Vi Binauna 8 - 10 15 17 32
18 Siddheshowr Ma. Vi. Sidhnawa 8 - 10 20 12 32
19 Mahendra Ma. Vi matihawa 8 - 10 15 15 30
20 Ni. Ma. Vi laxmanpur 6-7 28 3 31
21 Ni . Ma. Vi Bhojpur 6-7 10 10 20
22 Ni. Ma. Vi. Chilhariya 6-7 10 10 20
23 NRPV Sarri 4-5 18 11 29
24 NRPV Kodarbetawa 4-5 24 3 27
Total: 493 399 892

70
ANNEX C List of Attendees in the FGD with Teachers, SMC members and VDC
Leaders:

Kohalpur Area

1 Tej bdr Khatri Teacher


2. Deepak jang shah SMC president
3. Bhup bdr khatri Head teacher
4. Krishna bdr giri Teacher
5. Ayadhya psd, yadav Head teacher
6. Purna psd bishokarma Parents
7. Kul; bdr khatri SMC president
8. Chandra kumar Parents
9. Gujaya tharu Parents
10. Raji Giri Teacher
11. Susma sharma Teacher
12. Gobinda psd dhakal Head teacher
13. Ram bdr pandey Head teacher
14. Indra SMC president

Udayapur Area

1. Hasnu dhobi Puraini school SMC president


2. Bijaya laxmi rana VDC chairperson
3. Shayam Bihari Gupta Head teacher of maharaja M.V
4. Tank bdr. Pun Teacher
5. Bishesworpsd yadav Teacher
6. Krishna gopal barma Teacher
7. Dil Bihari kandu Head teacher
8. Bishnu giri VDC chairman, Basudevpur
9. Raj Kumar Barma SMC chairperson, bankatti
10. Madamahusan Khan Head teacher, bankatti

Rapti area Binauna VDC for two Schools:

1. Laxman psd Tiwari Head Teacher Bhunvar Bhawani Ma. Vi.


2. Phuleshor Psd shah Teacher
3. Ms Pramila K.C School MGMT committee of NMV chilhariya
4. Ms. Bindu Khatri Women member of the VDC
5. Mr. Jit Bdr. Dangi Vice chairman of the VDC
6. Lal Bdr. Tharu
7. Top bdr. Sunar Teacher
8. Puskar K.C Teacher
9. Madan Budha Teacher
10. Buddhiram tharu Teacher
11. Jit Bdr. Tharu Teacher
12. Uttam kumar pokheral Teacher

71
13. Radha Kumari oli Teacher
14. Arun kumar tharu SMC president
15. Khegar rawat SMC member
16. Mitwari tharu Chairperson of the VDC

FGD in Laxmanpur:

1. Makabul; khan Vice president of the Laxmanpur Ni.Ma. Vi.


2. Sabir khan Parents
3. Bhupal sharma Teacher
4. Rammanahor barma Teacher
5. Siyaram yadav Teacher
6. Sobha Ram yadav Teacher
7. Dinesh chandra yadav SMC president
8. Seschandra yadav Member SMC
9. Ramdash Bishokarma SMC member
10. Gaya psd yadav Ward member
11. Ramdulariu yedav Parents

72
ANNEX D Happy and Sad Memories of Children in School:

Good practices that made


happy to children in school: Bad practices that made sad to children in school;

¾ I am happy when I met • I feel sad when my friends go to tour but I can't, when I
outside people in school am not allowed to talk and when I do not allow
and get introduced. participating.
¾ When we got many friends • When boys tease girls by throwing stone and there is a
in schools & if friends are boy who regularly quarreled with our friends and
helpful. dominate Tharu students
¾ When we learnt new things • When I don't get to play and not allowed to go to
in school schools.
¾ Get opportunity to share • When boys tease and bad behave.
our feelings with friends • Looking the discrimination between boys and girls in
¾ While I played with friends every aspect and particularly in schooling.
¾ When teacher help if I • When sending letter to girl but no response.
don't know • When there is no full period teaching
¾ When teacher play games
• When friends quarrel with each other, if friends scold me
with us.
• When things stolen and beating to smaller children
¾ If friends speak polite
language • Teasing by friends
¾ When friends help during • Teacher beating and scolding without any fault
difficult time and during • When friends use tobacco and cigarette
sickness. • Teacher are not helping when asked to learn
¾ When I got opportunity to • During rainy season, the road is difficult to school
come in school • When I failed
¾ When all close friends are • First day of school
in school. • When a boy put love letter on my bag
¾ When I got prize • While teaching, water comes in the room from roof
¾ When there is good during monsoon.
friendship with all friends. • Difficult to come in school due to bad road
¾ While extra activity was in • When my close friend don't come in school
school and my school • When I can't understand the teaching
become first • Long way to school
¾ When I became first in • When school is closed
class. • Dirty road to school
¾ When there is extra
• One boy tease me on the way to school
activities on each Friday
• While I see my friend had not been able to come in
¾ Plan International has
school due to economic problem.
helped poor children
¾ When I came to know • My friends became sick and not been able to attend
about child rights school.
¾ When there was play, • Teacher expressed that grown up girls have puberty
singing and dancing laugh (Taruni Muskaya) while we laugh in certain cases
¾ Sufficient play materials in in classroom & feel sad.
school • Teachers are not helping the weaker students and
¾ Children's activity in school focusing the brighter one only.
¾ Every day there is • Give punishment of carrying stone to girl student by

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entertainment in school teacher when late in school.
¾ When first time, I was • Teachers are scolding to students while not having with
introduced in class. school uniform but teachers are not following the same.
¾ My class boy helping me • While boys helping girls, other boys blaming that they
when other boys teasing. are fall in love and doubt on it and restriction on learning
from each other.
¾ When there is good • While secured same marks in exam with one of the boy,
teaching that means teacher said is there some thing between two of you like
teacher not irritating while “Jodi milakochhake kayho?”
questioning by students, • When my friends had written vulgar words in my
teacher respect students, copy/books during my absence in classroom.
motivate students • Teachers themselves have habits of smoking in front of
¾ When I became second in students & ask students not to smoke.
class • Developing skills of students is lacking due to insufficient
¾ I am happy on Friday materials for science class.
because on that day there • There is no facilities for first aid but during admission time, first
is teaching and fun as well aid fees has been taken
¾ Happy to come in school
• When I am weak in study
¾ If teacher teach in
• If friend beat me
understandable way
¾ When there was a new • When I have to study under tree
female teacher in our • No good teaching in English subject
school • When economic and math subject is not understood
¾ When I finished the task • When there was fighting between school boys and outside boys
given by teacher than • In quarterly exam I was fail in all subject
other students • When I had quarreling with friends
¾ Day of Shripanchami • I am unable to take part in extra activity of school
where teacher encourage • If I loose any games
and had singing and • When I don't get to play volley ball (Girl)
dancing • Outside boys dominating to students
¾ Madam encouraging me in • Elder students wants to beat and tease
front of other students • When there was quarreling between pahadiya and deshi boys
saying that you are good in • Outside people talking about school
study • Students are not in discipline
¾ Have played ground in • When my close friend left school
school.
• When I missed the attendance due to one of my friend
¾ When all teacher are in
• When friends don’t speak with me
school
¾ When I went to educational • A teacher beat us complain by many students - basudevpur
tour • Lack of play materials
¾ When I was first in the • No room to study
child right competition • When our one teacher died in road accident
¾ When teacher helped me • A teacher said to me Tharu
to come in school during • When teacher did not respond my question and become angry
sick, as I was sick due to • When I could not go to educational tour with friends
cutting my finger. • When I had to leave my primary school
¾ When there was • When teacher come in class with surti/paan
discussion about human • When I asked question to teacher, they say no time now.
rights and child rights • When head teacher come in school with full of alcohol.
¾ When I first time took part • When teacher select students by their own choice in any activity
in cultural program and

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people appreciated my • When I missed half yearly exam
song • When a man told me that you are from lower caste and why you
¾ During farewell to grade 10 come to my house?
students • When bridge was broken and could not come to school
¾ When I had attended • When I have to study in my relatives' home
school first day, there was • When we (Girls) don’t get time to do home work in home due to
children program work
¾ When this school was first • Our school building was flooded by river and we had to study
in Red cross activities under tree
¾ When teacher do equal • When head teacher was transferred
treatment with all students
• When I fell down from bicycle, other people laugh.
¾ When teachers and friends
• If I talk to girl, my friend tease me
encourage to me.
¾ When friends talk nicely. • More attention towards play than reading
• Lack of teacher in school
¾ If there is good behavior of • When I was dancing by request of teacher, friends laugh.
all students. • Lack of bench in school
• When teacher say bad things to students which hurts us
¾ When I became first in • When teacher not responding to my greeting (Namaste)
district level exam in grade • When teacher don't come in school and don't teach even they
8 are in school
¾ I have got the children's • When there is no good behavior between boys and girls on the
right as I get education way
¾ There is health post and • When other students dominate
post office near the school • Due to lack of fencing, cattle and outside people make school
¾ My friends are good and area dirt
we all play together. • When I can't get equal right as boys and many poor girls are not
¾ When teacher encourage in school
by saying syabass, good • Because of long distance, I have to miss first period
etc • No bell in time, only few subject are taught
¾ When I understand the • When I don't get opportunity to do home work at home
teaching of teacher • When parents say do not go to school today
¾ When there was a
• No school run in time
teaching on girl trafficking
• When a group of students went to complain to head teachers,
¾ When teachers respond
he did not respond in positively
the question without
becoming angry • When good teacher left school
¾ When I was allowed to • When we are not allow to use toilet in school
participate in game • When there is discrimination by caste, rich and poor, Tharu,
competition Pahadi, Deshi etc
¾ When teacher teach with • When there is problem of money to get stationary, admission,
poem, story, games and fee
¾ When we know about new • When my close friend left to another school
things from outsiders.
• When not allowed to play and to use library
• When teacher became angry
• When teacher hit me by stick and say lathuwa in front of other
friends
• Teacher beat me without my fault
• When close friend died suddenly

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• When I can't speak clear Nepali, friends tease me
• When students tease teacher/or insult their teaching
• My parents send me to study late
• When I was expelled out of class and my foot has swelling by
teachers beating

ANNEX E

Some of the Case Studies:

Swarswoti 17yrs

I am studying in 8 grade. I have mother, father, 2 sisters, and 3 brothers. I used to get up
at 4 am, cleaning inside the house and outside the house, fodder collection, prepared
food and go to school. This is my day-to-day schedule. My mother is becoming sick
since last 10 yrs but has not cured. Before I used to study in Dalaipur and after 3 grades
I am studying in this Shree Jayajanta School in Nayabasti. My sister is also study in
same school.

While studying in classroom, one day one outside boy had thrown love letter to my lap
and boy stayed in school ground. I could not read that letter, it was so vulgar and my
colleagues read that letter. That boy did not speak. In front of my colleague I loose my
prestige. Some of the friends understood to me that it was not my mistake but others are
not. After that he said Randi in school and if younger students did Namaste to me that
man ask to younger children “why you did Namaste to her”? As I did not response to his
letter he charges to me as prostitute.

This story happens to me before 4 yrs ago but still I have always anxiety, fear while go to
school. I did not speak with that man while I met to him on the way to school. Despite
having such problem I shared all story with sister and mother where they understood to
me otherwise it might be very difficult to continue my school education. Parents love to
me very much and I am very happy on this. My father work as black smith and I do not
have time to come school regularly due to workload at home. Usually in a month, 10
days did not regular in school despite such irregularity in school I am becoming success
in school regularly.

In my feelings due to such difficulties the girls have no freedom, not allow seeing
anywhere and more workload compare to boys which make very sad to me because
wherever the girls go they face same problem. Instead of support girls; society talk more
against girls and everything blame to girls without analyzing why it is happening to girls
in society.

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Devi, 15yrs, Rajena

Devi is studying in 8 grades. She has father, mother, elder brother, younger brother and
elder one elder sister and younger sister. Her elder sister did already marry by her self.
She usually get up at 6 am, fetching water, cleaning home, prepare food to family
members, study 2 hours, come to school at morning and return home and cook food for
evening as well. Her mother is not well since last 3 yrs. Father has been worked in India
as a contractor and come house in every 3-to4 yrs. Her day-to-day life is passing in that
way.

She has been studied in this school since 5 grades before that she studied in Ramghat
of Surkhet district. All her younger sister and brother are studying in 7 and 5 grade
respectively. The elder brother study in certificate in Arts in Kohalpur.

While she first joint in school she had bitter experience. There are no extra activities
since she came in school. Out of many girls she is the one who faced too much
harassment from group of 2 to 3 boys. The boys used to say murga to her and
expressed lots of vulgar words in front of girls while they fight to boys. If girls’ response
anything to them their response was “don’t say anything we will pick up you
immediately”. To them if we keep silent then it is good otherwise the girls have to listen
lots of vulgar words like Ma Gali such as machikne, uchaler laijhanchau etc. If wear
brassier or inside sameech then start to say oh! Today you wear new things in your
body, and sometime beat in backside.

While returning home those boys are also in same route to my home and if there is
windy / rainy they expressed could we catch your miniskirt and will we carry if you don’t
walk and make anger to me. In classroom while girls are studying they throw mostly the
girls sandal and books outside to classroom and asked to younger boys to bring.

If girl carry bag, boys put small stone in bag, sometimes guava that was eaten by
someone. While read health books they show the girls reproductive organ to their friend
and read loudly to make harass to girls. In her experiences, most of the teachers are
Tharu and did not take care what Pahadi students. Tharu and Pahadi students did
fighting equally but not response by teacher. If teacher is not come in class then the
boys started to tease. Mostly during interval, on the way to home, on the way to school
and if teacher absent in classroom the girls has to face lots of harassment by their boys
colleagues. All sort of behavior really don’t like to all girls including her but they have to
face such things. In her experience tharu boys never tease to girls’ only pahadi boys are
doing these things.

Devi; what she faced at school or on the way to school she never shared at home due to
what family members will say and that will be big worried for them. While share to school
teacher, few days it stop by boys but again that behavior has been continued.
Schoolteacher is not very serious and not supportive in this matter and did not take any
action to boys rather ask to girls don’t talk with them. Devi told that it is totally unfair
toward girls and create lots of tension and anxiety, which hamper in their study and
make psychological effect especially low self-esteem and no confidant to talk.

To address such things she expressed that in each school there needs to be children
forum to listen such difficulties and some one has to facilitate group of boys and girls on
what sort of behavior they like and don’ like and needs dialogue among children and

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how to monitor such things whether these are happening or not in school etc. Like wise
girls should be unite to each other and need to raise such issues.

Sila, 14yrs,
I am studying in grade 6. I have brothers and grand fathers. My father had died and
mother ran away with another man. I get up at 6 a.m., cook food, clean utensils and
wiping floors and again cook food in evening too. It takes one hour to reach Bhojpur
School from my village. So it took 2 hours per day to walk for schooling. I had already
done engagement [Magni] before 2 years. My husband is also studying in same grade
but we did not talk to each other. The saddest thing to her is missing parents and I
always became first despite having lots of household work and missing my mother and
father.

I usually do study in evening 2 hours with kerosene lamp because there is no electricity
in my village. My aspiration is if brother would continue to support my study I will
continue otherwise it will be difficult to me.

One day I was going to school. On the way to school police and one girl were talking to
each other. I met them and asked by police oh! Brother why you came by this road. I
answered that I am going to school and this is the road where I had to walk. While I
looked in back I saw one of my friends was also coming and I wait him.

Then police scold to me "why you are waiting and disturb to us"? Please go immediately
otherwise you will be beaten. After that I met my friend and came to school and shared
this story to him. While I went to classroom, I could not concentrate my study whole day
as it strike me why police talked to girl in such a way? Why police told to beat me?
What’s the wrong thing I did etc… CHAUDHARY, Boy16 Yrs

I am a girl of Tharu family. When I was 8 yrs old I used to go forest to look after
livestock. I had a dream to join day school as many of my friends were there but it was
not possible for me. I started to attend night literacy class in my village. Once I
completed literacy class I joined day school at the age of 13 yrs.

In the beginning of school life, my friends did not care as I was new and started school at
late age compare to them. With my sincere efforts I succeed to pass 3, 4 and 5 grades
with good marks. When I was in 5 grade, I faced another big challenge from my family
members. My parents discouraged to continue my school as I was not son and for
daughter they think 5 grades are sufficient. I cried with them and one of my teacher
convince to my parents to continue my education. Now I am trying very hard from my
side to secure first position in my class and continue my study. ……..7grade girl

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