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# LIMITE ŞI CONTINUITATE

## 1 Limite standard. Limite fundamentale

1. f : R → R, f (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn−1 + ... + an , ai ∈ R, i = 1..n, a0 6= 0.

## lim f (x) = (sgn a0 ) · (±∞).

x→±∞
P (x) a0 xn +a1 xn−1 +...+an
2. f : R \ {x/Q(x) = 0} → R, f (x) = Q(x) = b0 xm +b1 xm−1 +...+bm
.

## (sgn ab00 )∞, if n > m

a0
lim f (x) =
x→∞  b0 , if n = m

0, if n < m.

 0, 0 < a < 1
x
lim a =
x→∞
∞, a > 1;

and

 ∞, 0 < a < 1
lim ax =
x→−∞
0, a > 1.

 −∞, a > 1
lim loga x ==
x→0
∞, 0 < a < 1;

and 
 ∞, a > 1
lim loga x ==
x→∞
−∞, 0 < a < 1;

x% π2 x& 2

## lim ctgx = −∞, lim ctgx = ∞.

x%0 x&0

7. f : R → (− π2 , π2 ), f (x) = arctgx.
π π
lim arctgx = , lim arctgx = − .
x→∞ 2 x→−∞ 2

1
8. f : R → (0, π), f (x) = arcctgx.

## lim arcctgx = 0, lim arcctgx = π.

x→∞ x→−∞

sin x tgx
(1) lim = 1; (2) lim =1
x→0 x x→0 x
arcsinx arctgx
(3) lim = 1; (4) lim =1
x→0 x x→0 x
ax − 1 ln(1 + x)
(5) lim = ln a, a > 0; (6) lim =1
x→0 x x→0 x
(x + 1)r − 1  xn 
(7) lim = r, r ∈ R; (8) lim = 0, ∀n ∈ Z, a > 1
x→0 x x→∞ ax
 1 x 1
(9) lim 1 + = e; (10) lim (1 + x) x = e.
x→∞ x x→0

## 2 Funcţii reale de variabilă reală

1. Calculaţi limitele următoarelor funcţii ı̂n punctele precizate:
x+1
(a) f : R \ {2} → R, f (x) = (x−2) 2 , x0 = 2;
2
−3x
(b) f : R∗ → R, f (x) = x |x| , x0 = 0;
 2
x − x, x ∈ Q
(c) f : R → R, f (x) =
2, x ∈ R \ Q, x1 = 2.
2. Determinaţi parametrul λ astfel ı̂ncât să existe limitele următoarelor funcţii ı̂n punctele
indicate: 
λx − 2, x ≤ 1
(a) f : R → R, f (x) =
x + 5, x > 1, x0 = 1.
 −1
e x, x > 0
(b) f : R → R, f (x) =
2x + λ, x ≤ 0, x0 = 0.

3. Determinaţi limitele:
x + cos x ln(x + 1) x2 − 2x + 5
(a) lim ; (b) lim ; (c) lim sin x;
x→∞ x x→∞ x x→∞ x3 + 4
3
(d) lim 2−x (3 + sin x); (e) lim √ sin 3x;
x→∞ x→∞ 3 x + 1

x2 − 3x + 2 x3 + 6x + 1
(f ) lim 2 ; (g) lim ;
x→2 x − 5x + 6 x→∞ (x − 1)2
arcsin(x2 + x − 2) sin(x sin(x sin x))
(h) lim ; (i) lim ;
x→−2 sin(x2 + 3x + 2) x→0 x3
1 − cos 2x 1 esin 3(x−1) − 1
(j) lim ; (k) lim (1 + sin 2x) 4x ; (l) lim ;
x→0 x2 x→0 x→1 x−1
x − sin 2x  1 tgx
 x
e +e 2x
(m) lim ; (n) lim 2
; (o) lim 2x .
x→0 x + sin 3x x→0 x x→∞ e + e3x

## 4. Folosind definiţia cu şiruri, să se arate că următoarele limite nu există:

1 1 x
(a) lim sin ; (a) lim e x−1 .
x→0 x x x→1

2
5. Determinaţi
p parametri a, b, c astfel ı̂ncât au loc identităţile:
(a) lim ( 5x + 7x3 − 8x2 − 4x − ax2 − bx − c) = 0;
4
x→∞
2
eax − cos x 3  bx x
(b) lim = ; (c) lim a + = e2 .
x→0 x2 2 x→∞ x2 + x + 1
6. Studiaţi 
continuitatea funcţiilor:
1
(1 + x) x , x > 0
(a) f (x) =
x + e, x ≤ 0.
 1
 (1 + sin x) x , x > 0
(b) f (x) = e, x = 0

(1 + arctgx), x < 0.
(
sin(x−2)
(c) f (x) = |x−2| , x 6= 2
1, x = 2.

7. Arătaţi că următoarele ecuaţii au cel puţin o soluţie ı̂n intervalele indicate:
(a) sin x + cos x = 0, x ∈ [ − π4 , π4 ];
(b) ln(1 + x2 ) + x − 1 = 0, x ∈ [ 0, 1 ];
(c) ex + x = 0, x ∈ R.

## 3 Funcţii reale de variabilă vectorială

1. Determinaţi limitele:
xy sin xy
(a) lim (x2 + xy); (b) lim √ ; (c) lim ;
(x,y)→(1,3) (x,y)→(0,0) xy + 1 − 1 (x,y)→(0,2) x
x+y 2 2 1  y x
(d) lim ; (e) lim (x + y ) sin ; (f ) lim 1 + ;
(x,y)→(∞,∞) x2 + y 2 (x,y)→(0,0) xy (x,y)→(∞,1) x
sin(x3 + y 3 ) x2 · y 3 x2 + y 2
(g) lim ; (h) lim ; (i) lim ;
(x,y)→(0,0) x2 + y 2 (x,y)→(0,0) x4 + y 4 (x,y)→(0,0) |x| + |y|
xy − 1 x2 · y x3 + y 3
(k) lim ; (l) lim ; (m) lim .
(x,y)→(3,∞) y + 1 (x,y)→(0,0) x2 + y 2 (x,y)→(0,0) x2 + y 2

## 2. Folosind definiţia cu şiruri, să se arate că următoarele limite nu există:

xy x−y x y 2 + 2x
(a) lim ; (b) lim ; (c) lim ; (d) lim ;
(x,y)→(0,0) x2 + y 2 (x,y)→(0,0) x + y (x,y)→(0,0) x − y (x,y)→(0,0) y 2 − 2x

## 3. Studiaţi continuitatea funcţiilor:

(
sin(x3 +y 3 )
x2 +y 2
, (x, y) 6= (0, 0)
(a) f (x, y) =
0, (x, y) = (0, 0).
(
x2 ·y 3
x2 +y 2
,(x, y) 6= (0, 0)
(b) f (x, y) =
0, (x, y) = (0, 0).