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transfer during drying of Hayward kiwi fruits

(Actinidia Deliciosa Planch)

Ahmet Kaya a, Orhan Aydın a,*, Ibrahim Dincer b

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey

b

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4

Received 8 December 2007; received in revised form 10 February 2008; accepted 19 February 2008

Available online 26 February 2008

Abstract

In this paper we undertake an experimental and numerical study on heat and mass transfer analysis during drying of kiwi fruits. In the

experimental part, the eﬀects of various drying conditions in terms of air velocity, temperature and relative humidity on drying charac-

teristics of kiwi fruits are investigated. In the numerical part, the external ﬂow and temperature ﬁelds are studied using a commercial

CFD package. From these ﬁelds, the local distributions of the surface convective heat transfer coeﬃcients for the fruits are determined

to predict the local convective mass transfer coeﬃcients through the analogy between the thermal and concentration boundary layers

(known as the Chilton–Colburn analogy). In addition, the time-dependent temperature and moisture distributions for diﬀerent cases

are obtained using the code developed to investigate heat and mass transfer aspects inside the fruits. Numerical results are then compared

with experimental data and a considerably high agreement is obtained.

Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Kiwi fruit; Drying characteristic; Heat and mass transfer; Experiment; Model; CFD

tional fruit due to its high level of vitamin C and its strong

Drying is considered a simultaneous heat and mass antioxidant capacity due to a wide number of phytonutri-

transfer process. Various physical, chemical and nutritional ents including carotenoids, lutein, phenolics, ﬂavonoids

changes occur during drying of foods and are aﬀected by a and chlorophyll (Cassano et al., 2006). The cultivation of

number of internal and external heat and mass transfer kiwi fruit has expanded signiﬁcantly in Turkey particularly

parameters. External parameters may include temperature, in the Black Sea region in recent years (Ercisli et al., 2003).

velocity and relative humidity of the drying medium (air), Furthermore, kiwi fruits have very short shelf-life due to

while internal parameters may include density, permeabil- their highly perishable nature. Drying appears to be a

ity, porosity, sorption–desorption characteristics and ther- potential food preservation option to extend their stor-

mophysical properties of the material being dried. In this age/shelf-life. It is a complex process involving simulta-

regard, understanding the heat and mass transfer in the neous coupled transient heat and mass transfer. In

product will help to improve drying process parameters addition, many of the properties of the kiwi fruits, espe-

and hence the quality. cially the level of vitamin C, are aﬀected by the drying con-

ditions (Goula and Adamopoulos, 2006; Uddin et al.,

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 (462) 377 29 74; fax: +90 (462) 325 55 2001). Therefore, there is a need for some modeling studies

26.

on heat and mass transfer aspects to improve drying condi-

E-mail addresses: kaya38@ktu.edu.tr (A. Kaya), oaydin@ktu.edu.tr

(O. Aydın), Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca (I. Dincer). tions and process parameters.

0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.02.017

324 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

Nomenclature

D moisture diﬀusivity (m2/s) a thermal diﬀusivity (m2/s)

h heat transfer coeﬃcient (W/m2 K) q density (kg/m3)

hm moisture transfer coeﬃcient (m/s) l dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

H height (m) u relative humidity

k thermal conductivity (W/m K)

L length (m) Subscripts

Le Lewis number (a/D) AB gas phase

M moisture content (kg/kg, db) d drying air

n normal to surface dm dry matter

P pressure (Pa) f ﬂuid

s surface coordinate i initial

t time (h) wb wet base

T temperature (K) 1 free stream

u, v velocities in x and y direction (m/s)

x, y coordinates

Although many experimental works are conducted on In this paper, we now aim to investigate drying behavior

drying of diﬀerent fruits (e.g., Kaya et al., 2007a–c; Kaya of kiwi fruits both experimentally and numerically. The

and Aydin, in press; Karim and Hawlader, 2005; Garau experimental part includes measurement of drying data of

et al., 2006; Doymaz, 2006; Kashaninejad et al., 2007; kiwi fruits at various drying conditions (e.g., temperature,

Singh and Gupta, 2007), there are a few studies on the dry- velocity and relative humidity). The numerical part

ing kinetics of kiwi fruits: Maskan (2001) studied to com- includes the study of the external ﬂow and temperature

parison of the microwave, hot air and hot air-microwave ﬁelds using a commercial CFD package. From these ﬁelds,

drying methods for the processing of kiwi fruits in respect the local distributions of the surface convective heat trans-

to drying, shrinkage and rehydration characteristics fer coeﬃcients for the fruits are determined to predict the

obtained by the three drying techniques. Chen et al. local convective mass transfer coeﬃcients through the anal-

(2001) established the drying kinetics parameters through ogy between the thermal and concentration boundary lay-

the experiments performed on pulped kiwi fruit ﬂesh ers. Heat and moisture diﬀusion studies inside the products

spread onto a shallow metal tray (forming a layer) to sim- are performed using our own code.

ulate the process of making fruit leather. Simal et al.

(2005a) studied to evaluate alternate empirical or simple 2. Materials and methods

phenomenological models reported in literature to simulate

the drying curves of kiwi fruits, and proposed a simple 2.1. Experimental setup and procedure

model to accurately simulate the drying kinetics of kiwis

with diﬀerent geometries and at diﬀerent drying air temper- Experiments were conducted in a lab-scale convective

atures. Simal et al. (2005b) also evaluated the behavior of air-dryer as shown in Fig. 1. The experimental setup con-

kiwi fruits at diﬀerent ripening stages during drying with sists of fan, heater, air conditioner, humidiﬁer, fresh air

hot air, and on the other to propose a diﬀusional model damper, air exit damper, mixing damper, drying tray, load

to accurately simulate the drying kinetics of kiwis at diﬀer- cell, data acquisition and computer. The convective dryer is

ent maturity stages using diﬀerent air temperatures during equipped with controllers for controlling the temperature,

dehydration. Further, the quality of the dried products was airﬂow velocity and relative humidity. The rectangular-sec-

also assessed. tioned channel dimensions are 50 cm 25 cm with

Using CFD technique as a potential tool, one can solve 4000 cm length. In order to prevent the heat loss to the

complex transport phenomena problems like drying in a environment, the channels are well insulated. The mass

more cost- and time-eﬀective manner. Some comprehensive ﬂow rate of the drying air is regulated by a fan driven by

discussion of the recent literature studies on the numerical a variable speed motor to obtain air velocities in the range

studies of air drying of various moist objects has been given from 0.3 to 0.9 m/s at the entrance of the channels. Drying

by Kaya et al. (2006, 2007d, 2008). Studied include forced basket with a holding area of 40 cm 20 cm is included in

air drying of some rectangular and cylindrical moist prod- the channels. The test samples of the kiwi, which were cut

ucts. In those studies, we integrated the commercial CFD in the rectangular prism form (25 mm 25 mm 45 mm),

code solutions for the external ﬂow of drying air into our weighing about 500 g are placed in the drying basket. The

own code solving transient temperature and moisture dis- initial moisture content of kiwi is determined using the

tributions inside the moist products. OHAUS MB45 infrared moisture analyzer.

A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330 325

1- Computer, 2- Humidifier, 3-Control panel, 4- Air out damper, 5- Mixing damper, 6- Fresh air damper, 7- Fan,

8- Heater, 9- Condenser, 10- Heater, 11- Loadcell, 12- Test section, 13-Condenser unit (compressor, fan), 14-Data

acquisition system

During the experiments, the temperature changes and ing a nearly isothermal condition at 25, 35, 45, 55 and

sample weight were measured using microprocessor 65 °C. The dried samples equilibrate with the environment

thermometers (model HH21, Omega and accuracy inside the jar until no discernible weight change is

0–400 ± 0.1 °C) and load cells (model Lama, Esit, Turkey observed, when it is assumed that the equilibrium moisture

and accuracy 10,000 ± 0.01 g), respectively. All data col- is reached. It is observed from measurements using a digital

lected were recorded in every 2.5 min for temperature and balance (with a measurement range of 0–300 g and an accu-

120 min for moisture using a data logger interfaced to a racy of ±0.001 g) that the equilibrium condition is usually

personal computer. Furthermore, the velocity in the drying reached in 40 days. Finally, in the equilibrium condition,

channel was continuously measured with anemometers the equilibrium moisture content is measured using the

(hot-wire and vine type) (model 4204AM (hot-wire), infrared moisture analyzer.

4202AM (vine), Lutron HT, Taiwan with an accuracy of

0.2–20.0 ± 0.05 m/s, while the relative humidity in the test 3. Modeling

section was measured using a humidity/temperature meter

(4204AM model, Lutron HT, Taiwan with accuracy of 3.1. Modeling of external ﬂow and temperature ﬁelds

10–95 ± 1%).

The partial diﬀerential equations governing the forced

2.2. Sorption isotherm convection motion of a drying ﬂuid in a 2-D geometry

are the mass, momentum and energy conservation equa-

A static-gravimetric method (Keey, 1972) was used to tions. In the simpliﬁed case, thermophysical properties

determine sorption isotherms of kiwi fruit slices at 25, 35, are assumed to be constant. Considering the ﬂow incom-

45, 55 and 65 °C, based on the use of nine diﬀerent saturated pressible, for a two-dimensional problem, the most general

salt solutions and distilled water (LiCl, CH3COOK, K2CO3, form of the Navier–Stokes equations is summarized

MgCl2, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3, SrCl2, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4 and below:

Distilled H2O). These salts possessed a wide range of relative The mass conservation (i.e. continuity) equation is

humidity from 9.6% to 100%, respectively.

Each solution is placed into separate glass jar. The glass ou ov

þ ¼0 ð1Þ

jars which are tightly closed are then kept in an oven hav- ox oy

326 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

2 ¼ 2þ 2 ð7Þ

ou ou op o u o2 u a ot ox oy

q u þv ¼ þl þ ð2Þ

ox oy ox ox2 oy 2 1 oM o2 M o2 M

2 ¼ 2 þ 2 ð8Þ

ov ov op o v o2 v D ot ox oy

q u þv ¼ þl þ ð3Þ

ox oy oy ox2 oy 2 with the following initial and boundary conditions for both

The energy equation is cases

2 T ðx; y; 0Þ ¼ T i and Mðx; y; 0Þ ¼ M i

oT oT o T o2 T

u þv ¼a þ ð4Þ oT ð0; y; tÞ

ox oy ox2 oy 2 k ¼ hðT T d Þ;

Here, the Fluent V6.1.22 CFD package based on the ox

oMð0; y; tÞ

ﬁnite volume method is used to transform and solve these D ¼ hm ðM M d Þ at x ¼ 0 and 0 6 y 6 H

equations. The discretization scheme used is hybrid for ox

oT ðL; y; tÞ

the convective terms in the momentum and energy equa- k ¼ hðT T d Þ;

tions, and the Simple algorithm for pressure–velocity cou- ox

oMðL; y; tÞ

pling. The mesh is generated in the Gambit 2.1.6 D ¼ hm ðM M d Þ at x ¼ L and 0 6 y 6 H

preprocessor to produce a grid-independent solution. The ox

oT ðx; 0; tÞ oMðx; 0; tÞ

boundary conditions assume no-slip conditions for veloc- ¼0 ¼ 0 at y ¼ 0 and 0 6 x 6 L

ity, constant temperature on the surface of the material oy oy

being dried. oT ðx; H ; tÞ

k ¼ hðT T d Þ;

Using the temperature ﬁelds measured, the local convec- oy

tive heat transfer coeﬃcient is determined by oMðx; H ; tÞ

D ¼ hm ðM M d Þ at y ¼ H and 0 6 x 6 L

oy

oT

k ¼ hðT s T d Þ ð5Þ ð9Þ

on s

As explained previously, it is assumed that the convec-

where s is the coordinate along the surface and n is the nor- tive heat and mass transfer coeﬃcients, h and hm vary along

mal to the surface. the surface of the material. The distributions of these coef-

After the convective heat transfer (h) is determined using ﬁcients have been shown to be predicted from the Fluent

the analogy between the thermal and concentration bound- simulation. The heat and mass transfer equations given

ary layers, the convective mass transfer coeﬃcient is now by Eqs. (7) and (8) under the related initial and boundary

calculated through conditions are solved using the ﬁnite diﬀerence method.

DAB Len The details of the solution methodology may be found else-

hm ¼ h ð6Þ where Kaya et al. (2006, 2007d, 2008).

kf

the relative thermal and concentration boundary layer

thicknesses. For most applications, it is reasonable to as- Before commencing data recording in the drying experi-

sume a value of n = 1/3 (Incropera and De Witt, 2001). ments, the dryer was run for about one hour to achieve the

Note that the validity of the numerical approach desired temperature and relative humidity levels of the dry-

employed in this study has already been exhibited else- ing air. Drying process started when set conditions for the

where (Kaya et al., 2006, 2007a–d). drying air were achieved. The initial moisture content of

kiwi fruits was measured and found to be around 81% wb

3.2. Modeling of internal temperature and moisture ﬁelds (4.26 dm). Experiments were conducted for the following

ranges of the drying conditions: temperatures at 25, 30,

In this section, a numerical procedure was developed to 40, 50 and 60 °C; velocities at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s; relative

analyze heat and mass transfer through diﬀusion inside the humidity values at 25%, 40%, 55% and 70%. Drying was

object being dried with some assumptions: (i) moisture con- continued until the equilibrium moisture content is reached.

tent dependent thermophysical properties of product, (ii) Experiments were repeated at least three times for any

negligible shrinkage or deformation of product during dry- studying range in order to validate the results obtained.

ing (since it comparably lower level in convective drying Initially, the sorption isotherm representing the varia-

when compared to other drying techniques such as vacuum tion of the moisture content with the equilibrium relative

drying and microwave drying), (iii) negligible heat genera- humidity, is shown in Fig. 2. As shown, the equilibrium

tion inside product and (iv) negligible radiation eﬀects. moisture content increases with decreasing temperature.

Under the above listed assumptions, the following gov- Such behavior may be attributed to excitation states of

erning 2-D heat and moisture transfer equations can be molecules. At increased temperatures, the molecules might

written end up with an increased state of excitation, which in turn

A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330 327

0.6 5

Equilibrium moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)

U=0.3 m/s

T=35oC 4 ϕ=%25

U=0.6 m/s

T=45oC U=0.9 m/s

0.4 T=55oC

T=65oC 3

0.3

2

0.2

1

0.1

0.0 0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Fig. 2. Sorption isotherms of dried kiwi at 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 °C, 5

respectively.

T=25oC U=0.3 m/s

4 T=30oC ϕ=25%

T=40oC

results in increasing their distance apart and decreasing the

T=50oC

attractive forces between them. This leads to a decrease in T=60oC

3

the degree of water sorption at a given relative humidity

with increasing temperature. Such behavior is clearly

explained elsewhere (Jamali et al., 2006). 2

The variations of the moisture content with drying time

for varying values of the drying conditions in terms of tem-

1

perature, velocity and relative humidity of the drying air

were determined. Fig. 3a shows eﬀect of air velocity on the

time-dependent moisture content variation at u = 25% 0

and Td = 25 °C. An increase in the velocity of the drying 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

convective heat and mass transfer coeﬃcients between the 5

drying air and the fruit. As expected, increasing the temper-

ature of the drying air decreases the total drying time since ϕ=%70 T=25oC

Moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)

the heat transfer rate increases. The inﬂuence of the temper- ϕ=%40

ature on the drying behavior is better seen from Fig. 3b. Due ϕ=%25

decreased the total drying time (Fig. 3c). Decreasing the

value for u increased the diﬀerence between the concentra-

2

tions of water in the drying air and the product.

The time-dependent drying rate, DR, of the kiwi fruit

during drying process can be determined using the follow- 1

ing equation:

M t M tþDt

DR ¼ ð10Þ 0

Dt 0 20 40 60 80 100

temperature and relative humidity of the drying air, respec- Fig. 3. The variation of the moisture content with t for various Ud values

tively. Due to the moisture diﬀusion process, the drying at Td = 25 °C and u = 25% (a), the variation of the moisture content with

rate decreases with time and becomes time-dependent. t for various Td values at Ud = 0.3 m/s and u = 25% (b), the variation of

The Kiwi fruit tested did not exhibit a constant rate period the moisture content with t for various u values at Ud = 0.3 m/s and

Td = 25 °C (c).

of drying (Fig. 4). This clearly shows that the resistance to

the moisture diﬀusion within the material was negligible

small. If there was a considerable resistance, one would diﬀusion is the predominant mechanism of mass transfer.

end up with reasonably long constant-rate period. Appar- From Fig. 4a, it can be seen that for higher air velocity dry-

ently, here in this case, the entire drying process occurred ing rate is also higher. For the eﬀect of the temperature of

in the falling rate period, during which internal molecular the drying ﬂuid, similar behaviors were obtained (Fig. 4b).

328 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

ative humidity intensiﬁes drying rate. As seen from Fig. 4,

U=0.3 m/s

temperature and relative humidity of the drying air have

0.20 T=25oC

U=0.6 m/s ϕ=25%

U=0.9 m/s

0.15

DR

0.10

0.05

0.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (h)

b 1.0

T=25oC U=0.3 m/s

T=30oC ϕ=40%

T=40oC

0.8

T=50oC

T=60oC

Fig. 5. Streamlines (a) and static temperature contours (b) around the

0.6

object for Ud = 0.3 m/s and Td = 50 °C.

DR

0.4

a 50

b

T=50oC

U=0.3 m/s

0.2

U=0.6 m/s a c

40 U=0.9 m/s

0.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 30

h (W/m2K)

a b c

Time (h)

c 0.20 20

ϕ=55% T=25oC 10

0.15 ϕ=40%

ϕ=25%

0

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

DR

0.10

s (m)

0.04

b T=50oC

b

0.05

U=0.3 m/s

U=0.6 m/s a c

U=0.9 m/s

0.03

0.0

0 20 40 60 80 100

a b c

hm (m/s)

Time (h)

0.02

Td = 25 °C and u = 25% (a), the inﬂuence of Td on the variation of the

drying rate with t at Ud = 0.3 m/s and u = 25% (b), the inﬂuence of u on

0.01

the variation of the drying rate with t at Ud = 0.3 m/s and Td = 25 °C (c).

drying temperature resulted in higher drying rate. This 0.00

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

can be explained by an increasing temperature diﬀerence

s (m)

between the drying air and the product and in follows

water migration. Fig. 4c shows the inﬂuence of relative Fig. 6. Variation of h (a) and hm (b) along the surface.

A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330 329

higher inﬂuence on the drying rate of kiwi fruit than the along the surface of the object are not uniform which will

velocity of the drying air. result in non-uniform convective heat transfer coeﬃcient

In the numerical part, the external ﬂow and temperature distributions along it. Using Eq. (5), the variation of the con-

ﬁelds are predicted around the rectangular object vective heat transfer coeﬃcient, h along the surface of the

(25 mm 25 mm 45 mm) under the process of drying object is obtained for each airﬂow velocities and shown in

via the Fluent CFD code. The moist object is assumed to Fig. 6a. Then, using this knowledge, the variation of the con-

have constant wall temperature, Ti = 4 °C (since the kiwi vective mass transfer coeﬃcient, hm along the surface of the

samples to be dried was kept in a refrigerator at this tem- object can be easily determined from Eq. (6), which is illus-

perature before drying) and constant wall moisture con- trated in Fig. 6b. As seen from Figs. 6a and b, for the convec-

tent, Mi = 4.26 kg/kg (db). The following correlations by tion heat and mass transfer coeﬃcients, higher values are

various researchers (as summarized in Dincer, 1997) are obtained at the left side wall due to the upstream of the dry-

used to calculate the thermal diﬀusivity, thermal conductiv- ing air while lower values are observed at the right side wall

ity and speciﬁc heat for the kiwi fruit considered: due to the vortex shedding. Furthermore, it can be seen from

For thermal diﬀusivity: a ¼ ð0:057363M þ 0:000288ðT þ Figs 6a and b, increasing the airﬂow velocity increases the

273ÞÞ 106 m2/s, local heat and moisture transfer coeﬃcients.

For thermal conductivity: k ¼ ð0:148 þ 0:493MÞ W/m K, In addition, the temperature and moisture ﬁelds inside

For constant-pressure speciﬁc heat: cp ¼ ð0:837þ the product are predicted at diﬀerent times using the code

1:256MÞ 1000 J/kg K, and developed by the authors. As explained before, at this

The moisture diﬀusivity is take as D = 7.13 1010 m2/s point, the local distributions of the convective heat and

(Simal et al., 2005a). mass transfer coeﬃcients are used which were obtained

At the inlet, the following values are considered for the previously in the boundary conditions. The temperature

drying air: Td = 50 °C (323 K); Ud = 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s

and dry air conditions with u = 0.0%. As an example case, a 330

Figs. 5a and b illustrate the streamlines and static tempera-

ture contours around the object. As seen from Fig. 5a, wake 320

or vortex shedding region behind the object is observed when

the drying ﬂuid passes through it. The temperature gradients 310 Experimental U=0.3 m/s

Numerical T=323 K

T (K)

300

a 0.025

290

280

Height (m)

0.0125

270

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Time (min)

5

0

b

0 0.015 0.03 0.045

Moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)

4 T=323 K

Numerical

b 0.025

3

Height (m)

2

0.0125

0

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0 0.015 0.03 0.045

Length (m) Time (h)

Fig. 7. Temperature distribution inside the object at 10 min (a) and Fig. 8. Comparison between the calculated and measured center temper-

moisture distribution inside the object at 30 min (b) for Ud = 0.3 m/s and ature (a) and dimensionless moisture (b) distributions in the rectangular

Td = 50 °C. kiwi fruits.

330 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

inside the object increases with an increase in the drying Chen, X.D., Pirini, W., Ozilgen, M., 2001. The reaction engineering

time since the temperature of the drying air is higher than approach to modelling drying of thin layer of pulped Kiwifruit ﬂesh

under conditions of small Biot numbers. Chemical Engineering and

that of the object. As a result of these transient and non- Processing 40, 311–320.

uniform temperature distributions, the moisture diﬀusivity Dincer, I., 1997. Heat Transfer in Food Cooling Applications, ﬁrst ed.

which depends on the temperature will vary and in turn the Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC, pp. 303–311.

rate of the moisture diﬀusion inside the object. Figs. 7a and Doymaz, I., 2006. Drying kinetics of black grapes treated with diﬀerent

b show the temperature and moisture distributions inside solutions. Journal of Food Engineering 76, 212–217.

Ercisli, S., Esitken, A., Cangi, R., Sahin, F., 2003. Adventitious root

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moisture gradients are obtained at the left side wall due Fluent 6 User’s Guide, Fluent Inc., Lebanon, Nh.

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