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Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330


www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng

Experimental and numerical investigation of heat and mass


transfer during drying of Hayward kiwi fruits
(Actinidia Deliciosa Planch)
Ahmet Kaya a, Orhan Aydın a,*, Ibrahim Dincer b
a
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey
b
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4

Received 8 December 2007; received in revised form 10 February 2008; accepted 19 February 2008
Available online 26 February 2008

Abstract

In this paper we undertake an experimental and numerical study on heat and mass transfer analysis during drying of kiwi fruits. In the
experimental part, the effects of various drying conditions in terms of air velocity, temperature and relative humidity on drying charac-
teristics of kiwi fruits are investigated. In the numerical part, the external flow and temperature fields are studied using a commercial
CFD package. From these fields, the local distributions of the surface convective heat transfer coefficients for the fruits are determined
to predict the local convective mass transfer coefficients through the analogy between the thermal and concentration boundary layers
(known as the Chilton–Colburn analogy). In addition, the time-dependent temperature and moisture distributions for different cases
are obtained using the code developed to investigate heat and mass transfer aspects inside the fruits. Numerical results are then compared
with experimental data and a considerably high agreement is obtained.
Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Kiwi fruit; Drying characteristic; Heat and mass transfer; Experiment; Model; CFD

1. Introduction Kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa Planch) is a highly nutri-


tional fruit due to its high level of vitamin C and its strong
Drying is considered a simultaneous heat and mass antioxidant capacity due to a wide number of phytonutri-
transfer process. Various physical, chemical and nutritional ents including carotenoids, lutein, phenolics, flavonoids
changes occur during drying of foods and are affected by a and chlorophyll (Cassano et al., 2006). The cultivation of
number of internal and external heat and mass transfer kiwi fruit has expanded significantly in Turkey particularly
parameters. External parameters may include temperature, in the Black Sea region in recent years (Ercisli et al., 2003).
velocity and relative humidity of the drying medium (air), Furthermore, kiwi fruits have very short shelf-life due to
while internal parameters may include density, permeabil- their highly perishable nature. Drying appears to be a
ity, porosity, sorption–desorption characteristics and ther- potential food preservation option to extend their stor-
mophysical properties of the material being dried. In this age/shelf-life. It is a complex process involving simulta-
regard, understanding the heat and mass transfer in the neous coupled transient heat and mass transfer. In
product will help to improve drying process parameters addition, many of the properties of the kiwi fruits, espe-
and hence the quality. cially the level of vitamin C, are affected by the drying con-
ditions (Goula and Adamopoulos, 2006; Uddin et al.,
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 (462) 377 29 74; fax: +90 (462) 325 55 2001). Therefore, there is a need for some modeling studies
26.
on heat and mass transfer aspects to improve drying condi-
E-mail addresses: kaya38@ktu.edu.tr (A. Kaya), oaydin@ktu.edu.tr
(O. Aydın), Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca (I. Dincer). tions and process parameters.

0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.02.017
324 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

Nomenclature

cp constant pressure specific heat (J/kg K) Greek symbols


D moisture diffusivity (m2/s) a thermal diffusivity (m2/s)
h heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K) q density (kg/m3)
hm moisture transfer coefficient (m/s) l dynamic viscosity (Pa s)
H height (m) u relative humidity
k thermal conductivity (W/m K)
L length (m) Subscripts
Le Lewis number (a/D) AB gas phase
M moisture content (kg/kg, db) d drying air
n normal to surface dm dry matter
P pressure (Pa) f fluid
s surface coordinate i initial
t time (h) wb wet base
T temperature (K) 1 free stream
u, v velocities in x and y direction (m/s)
x, y coordinates

Although many experimental works are conducted on In this paper, we now aim to investigate drying behavior
drying of different fruits (e.g., Kaya et al., 2007a–c; Kaya of kiwi fruits both experimentally and numerically. The
and Aydin, in press; Karim and Hawlader, 2005; Garau experimental part includes measurement of drying data of
et al., 2006; Doymaz, 2006; Kashaninejad et al., 2007; kiwi fruits at various drying conditions (e.g., temperature,
Singh and Gupta, 2007), there are a few studies on the dry- velocity and relative humidity). The numerical part
ing kinetics of kiwi fruits: Maskan (2001) studied to com- includes the study of the external flow and temperature
parison of the microwave, hot air and hot air-microwave fields using a commercial CFD package. From these fields,
drying methods for the processing of kiwi fruits in respect the local distributions of the surface convective heat trans-
to drying, shrinkage and rehydration characteristics fer coefficients for the fruits are determined to predict the
obtained by the three drying techniques. Chen et al. local convective mass transfer coefficients through the anal-
(2001) established the drying kinetics parameters through ogy between the thermal and concentration boundary lay-
the experiments performed on pulped kiwi fruit flesh ers. Heat and moisture diffusion studies inside the products
spread onto a shallow metal tray (forming a layer) to sim- are performed using our own code.
ulate the process of making fruit leather. Simal et al.
(2005a) studied to evaluate alternate empirical or simple 2. Materials and methods
phenomenological models reported in literature to simulate
the drying curves of kiwi fruits, and proposed a simple 2.1. Experimental setup and procedure
model to accurately simulate the drying kinetics of kiwis
with different geometries and at different drying air temper- Experiments were conducted in a lab-scale convective
atures. Simal et al. (2005b) also evaluated the behavior of air-dryer as shown in Fig. 1. The experimental setup con-
kiwi fruits at different ripening stages during drying with sists of fan, heater, air conditioner, humidifier, fresh air
hot air, and on the other to propose a diffusional model damper, air exit damper, mixing damper, drying tray, load
to accurately simulate the drying kinetics of kiwis at differ- cell, data acquisition and computer. The convective dryer is
ent maturity stages using different air temperatures during equipped with controllers for controlling the temperature,
dehydration. Further, the quality of the dried products was airflow velocity and relative humidity. The rectangular-sec-
also assessed. tioned channel dimensions are 50 cm  25 cm with
Using CFD technique as a potential tool, one can solve 4000 cm length. In order to prevent the heat loss to the
complex transport phenomena problems like drying in a environment, the channels are well insulated. The mass
more cost- and time-effective manner. Some comprehensive flow rate of the drying air is regulated by a fan driven by
discussion of the recent literature studies on the numerical a variable speed motor to obtain air velocities in the range
studies of air drying of various moist objects has been given from 0.3 to 0.9 m/s at the entrance of the channels. Drying
by Kaya et al. (2006, 2007d, 2008). Studied include forced basket with a holding area of 40 cm  20 cm is included in
air drying of some rectangular and cylindrical moist prod- the channels. The test samples of the kiwi, which were cut
ucts. In those studies, we integrated the commercial CFD in the rectangular prism form (25 mm  25 mm  45 mm),
code solutions for the external flow of drying air into our weighing about 500 g are placed in the drying basket. The
own code solving transient temperature and moisture dis- initial moisture content of kiwi is determined using the
tributions inside the moist products. OHAUS MB45 infrared moisture analyzer.
A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330 325

1- Computer, 2- Humidifier, 3-Control panel, 4- Air out damper, 5- Mixing damper, 6- Fresh air damper, 7- Fan,
8- Heater, 9- Condenser, 10- Heater, 11- Loadcell, 12- Test section, 13-Condenser unit (compressor, fan), 14-Data
acquisition system

Fig. 1. The schematic of the convective dryer.

During the experiments, the temperature changes and ing a nearly isothermal condition at 25, 35, 45, 55 and
sample weight were measured using microprocessor 65 °C. The dried samples equilibrate with the environment
thermometers (model HH21, Omega and accuracy inside the jar until no discernible weight change is
0–400 ± 0.1 °C) and load cells (model Lama, Esit, Turkey observed, when it is assumed that the equilibrium moisture
and accuracy 10,000 ± 0.01 g), respectively. All data col- is reached. It is observed from measurements using a digital
lected were recorded in every 2.5 min for temperature and balance (with a measurement range of 0–300 g and an accu-
120 min for moisture using a data logger interfaced to a racy of ±0.001 g) that the equilibrium condition is usually
personal computer. Furthermore, the velocity in the drying reached in 40 days. Finally, in the equilibrium condition,
channel was continuously measured with anemometers the equilibrium moisture content is measured using the
(hot-wire and vine type) (model 4204AM (hot-wire), infrared moisture analyzer.
4202AM (vine), Lutron HT, Taiwan with an accuracy of
0.2–20.0 ± 0.05 m/s, while the relative humidity in the test 3. Modeling
section was measured using a humidity/temperature meter
(4204AM model, Lutron HT, Taiwan with accuracy of 3.1. Modeling of external flow and temperature fields
10–95 ± 1%).
The partial differential equations governing the forced
2.2. Sorption isotherm convection motion of a drying fluid in a 2-D geometry
are the mass, momentum and energy conservation equa-
A static-gravimetric method (Keey, 1972) was used to tions. In the simplified case, thermophysical properties
determine sorption isotherms of kiwi fruit slices at 25, 35, are assumed to be constant. Considering the flow incom-
45, 55 and 65 °C, based on the use of nine different saturated pressible, for a two-dimensional problem, the most general
salt solutions and distilled water (LiCl, CH3COOK, K2CO3, form of the Navier–Stokes equations is summarized
MgCl2, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3, SrCl2, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4 and below:
Distilled H2O). These salts possessed a wide range of relative The mass conservation (i.e. continuity) equation is
humidity from 9.6% to 100%, respectively.
Each solution is placed into separate glass jar. The glass ou ov
þ ¼0 ð1Þ
jars which are tightly closed are then kept in an oven hav- ox oy
326 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

The momentum equations are 1 oT o2 T o2 T


   2  ¼ 2þ 2 ð7Þ
ou ou op o u o2 u a ot ox oy
q u þv ¼ þl þ ð2Þ
ox oy ox ox2 oy 2 1 oM o2 M o2 M
   2  ¼ 2 þ 2 ð8Þ
ov ov op o v o2 v D ot ox oy
q u þv ¼ þl þ ð3Þ
ox oy oy ox2 oy 2 with the following initial and boundary conditions for both
The energy equation is cases
 2  T ðx; y; 0Þ ¼ T i and Mðx; y; 0Þ ¼ M i
oT oT o T o2 T
u þv ¼a þ ð4Þ oT ð0; y; tÞ
ox oy ox2 oy 2 k ¼ hðT  T d Þ;
Here, the Fluent V6.1.22 CFD package based on the ox
oMð0; y; tÞ
finite volume method is used to transform and solve these D ¼ hm ðM  M d Þ at x ¼ 0 and 0 6 y 6 H
equations. The discretization scheme used is hybrid for ox
oT ðL; y; tÞ
the convective terms in the momentum and energy equa- k ¼ hðT  T d Þ;
tions, and the Simple algorithm for pressure–velocity cou- ox
oMðL; y; tÞ
pling. The mesh is generated in the Gambit 2.1.6 D ¼ hm ðM  M d Þ at x ¼ L and 0 6 y 6 H
preprocessor to produce a grid-independent solution. The ox
oT ðx; 0; tÞ oMðx; 0; tÞ
boundary conditions assume no-slip conditions for veloc- ¼0 ¼ 0 at y ¼ 0 and 0 6 x 6 L
ity, constant temperature on the surface of the material oy oy
being dried. oT ðx; H ; tÞ
k ¼ hðT  T d Þ;
Using the temperature fields measured, the local convec- oy
tive heat transfer coefficient is determined by oMðx; H ; tÞ
D ¼ hm ðM  M d Þ at y ¼ H and 0 6 x 6 L
oy
oT
k ¼ hðT s  T d Þ ð5Þ ð9Þ
on s
As explained previously, it is assumed that the convec-
where s is the coordinate along the surface and n is the nor- tive heat and mass transfer coefficients, h and hm vary along
mal to the surface. the surface of the material. The distributions of these coef-
After the convective heat transfer (h) is determined using ficients have been shown to be predicted from the Fluent
the analogy between the thermal and concentration bound- simulation. The heat and mass transfer equations given
ary layers, the convective mass transfer coefficient is now by Eqs. (7) and (8) under the related initial and boundary
calculated through conditions are solved using the finite difference method.
 
DAB Len The details of the solution methodology may be found else-
hm ¼ h ð6Þ where Kaya et al. (2006, 2007d, 2008).
kf

where Le is the Lewis number representing a measure of 4. Results and discussion


the relative thermal and concentration boundary layer
thicknesses. For most applications, it is reasonable to as- Before commencing data recording in the drying experi-
sume a value of n = 1/3 (Incropera and De Witt, 2001). ments, the dryer was run for about one hour to achieve the
Note that the validity of the numerical approach desired temperature and relative humidity levels of the dry-
employed in this study has already been exhibited else- ing air. Drying process started when set conditions for the
where (Kaya et al., 2006, 2007a–d). drying air were achieved. The initial moisture content of
kiwi fruits was measured and found to be around 81% wb
3.2. Modeling of internal temperature and moisture fields (4.26 dm). Experiments were conducted for the following
ranges of the drying conditions: temperatures at 25, 30,
In this section, a numerical procedure was developed to 40, 50 and 60 °C; velocities at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s; relative
analyze heat and mass transfer through diffusion inside the humidity values at 25%, 40%, 55% and 70%. Drying was
object being dried with some assumptions: (i) moisture con- continued until the equilibrium moisture content is reached.
tent dependent thermophysical properties of product, (ii) Experiments were repeated at least three times for any
negligible shrinkage or deformation of product during dry- studying range in order to validate the results obtained.
ing (since it comparably lower level in convective drying Initially, the sorption isotherm representing the varia-
when compared to other drying techniques such as vacuum tion of the moisture content with the equilibrium relative
drying and microwave drying), (iii) negligible heat genera- humidity, is shown in Fig. 2. As shown, the equilibrium
tion inside product and (iv) negligible radiation effects. moisture content increases with decreasing temperature.
Under the above listed assumptions, the following gov- Such behavior may be attributed to excitation states of
erning 2-D heat and moisture transfer equations can be molecules. At increased temperatures, the molecules might
written end up with an increased state of excitation, which in turn
A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330 327

0.6 5
Equilibrium moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)

0.5 T=25oC T=25oC

Moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)


U=0.3 m/s
T=35oC 4 ϕ=%25
U=0.6 m/s
T=45oC U=0.9 m/s
0.4 T=55oC
T=65oC 3

0.3

2
0.2

1
0.1

0.0 0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Equilibrium relative humidity Time (h)

Fig. 2. Sorption isotherms of dried kiwi at 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 °C, 5
respectively.
T=25oC U=0.3 m/s

Moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)


4 T=30oC ϕ=25%
T=40oC
results in increasing their distance apart and decreasing the
T=50oC
attractive forces between them. This leads to a decrease in T=60oC
3
the degree of water sorption at a given relative humidity
with increasing temperature. Such behavior is clearly
explained elsewhere (Jamali et al., 2006). 2
The variations of the moisture content with drying time
for varying values of the drying conditions in terms of tem-
1
perature, velocity and relative humidity of the drying air
were determined. Fig. 3a shows effect of air velocity on the
time-dependent moisture content variation at u = 25% 0
and Td = 25 °C. An increase in the velocity of the drying 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

air results in decreasing drying times as a result of increasing Time (h)


convective heat and mass transfer coefficients between the 5
drying air and the fruit. As expected, increasing the temper-
ature of the drying air decreases the total drying time since ϕ=%70 T=25oC
Moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)

4 ϕ=%55 U=0.3 m/s


the heat transfer rate increases. The influence of the temper- ϕ=%40
ature on the drying behavior is better seen from Fig. 3b. Due ϕ=%25

to the increasing mass transfer, decreasing the value for u 3


decreased the total drying time (Fig. 3c). Decreasing the
value for u increased the difference between the concentra-
2
tions of water in the drying air and the product.
The time-dependent drying rate, DR, of the kiwi fruit
during drying process can be determined using the follow- 1
ing equation:
M t  M tþDt
DR ¼ ð10Þ 0
Dt 0 20 40 60 80 100

which is graphically shown in Fig. 4 with varying velocity, Time (h)

temperature and relative humidity of the drying air, respec- Fig. 3. The variation of the moisture content with t for various Ud values
tively. Due to the moisture diffusion process, the drying at Td = 25 °C and u = 25% (a), the variation of the moisture content with
rate decreases with time and becomes time-dependent. t for various Td values at Ud = 0.3 m/s and u = 25% (b), the variation of
The Kiwi fruit tested did not exhibit a constant rate period the moisture content with t for various u values at Ud = 0.3 m/s and
Td = 25 °C (c).
of drying (Fig. 4). This clearly shows that the resistance to
the moisture diffusion within the material was negligible
small. If there was a considerable resistance, one would diffusion is the predominant mechanism of mass transfer.
end up with reasonably long constant-rate period. Appar- From Fig. 4a, it can be seen that for higher air velocity dry-
ently, here in this case, the entire drying process occurred ing rate is also higher. For the effect of the temperature of
in the falling rate period, during which internal molecular the drying fluid, similar behaviors were obtained (Fig. 4b).
328 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

0.25 humidity on the drying rate. As expected decreasing the rel-


ative humidity intensifies drying rate. As seen from Fig. 4,
U=0.3 m/s
temperature and relative humidity of the drying air have
0.20 T=25oC
U=0.6 m/s ϕ=25%
U=0.9 m/s

0.15
DR

0.10

0.05

0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (h)

b 1.0
T=25oC U=0.3 m/s
T=30oC ϕ=40%
T=40oC
0.8
T=50oC
T=60oC
Fig. 5. Streamlines (a) and static temperature contours (b) around the
0.6
object for Ud = 0.3 m/s and Td = 50 °C.
DR

0.4
a 50
b
T=50oC
U=0.3 m/s
0.2
U=0.6 m/s a c
40 U=0.9 m/s

0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 30
h (W/m2K)

a b c
Time (h)

c 0.20 20

ϕ=70% U=0.3 m/s


ϕ=55% T=25oC 10
0.15 ϕ=40%
ϕ=25%

0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
DR

0.10
s (m)

0.04
b T=50oC
b
0.05
U=0.3 m/s
U=0.6 m/s a c
U=0.9 m/s
0.03
0.0
0 20 40 60 80 100
a b c
hm (m/s)

Time (h)
0.02

Fig. 4. The influence of Ud on the variation of the drying rate with t at


Td = 25 °C and u = 25% (a), the influence of Td on the variation of the
drying rate with t at Ud = 0.3 m/s and u = 25% (b), the influence of u on
0.01
the variation of the drying rate with t at Ud = 0.3 m/s and Td = 25 °C (c).

For higher values of the moisture content, increase in


drying temperature resulted in higher drying rate. This 0.00
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
can be explained by an increasing temperature difference
s (m)
between the drying air and the product and in follows
water migration. Fig. 4c shows the influence of relative Fig. 6. Variation of h (a) and hm (b) along the surface.
A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330 329

higher influence on the drying rate of kiwi fruit than the along the surface of the object are not uniform which will
velocity of the drying air. result in non-uniform convective heat transfer coefficient
In the numerical part, the external flow and temperature distributions along it. Using Eq. (5), the variation of the con-
fields are predicted around the rectangular object vective heat transfer coefficient, h along the surface of the
(25 mm  25 mm  45 mm) under the process of drying object is obtained for each airflow velocities and shown in
via the Fluent CFD code. The moist object is assumed to Fig. 6a. Then, using this knowledge, the variation of the con-
have constant wall temperature, Ti = 4 °C (since the kiwi vective mass transfer coefficient, hm along the surface of the
samples to be dried was kept in a refrigerator at this tem- object can be easily determined from Eq. (6), which is illus-
perature before drying) and constant wall moisture con- trated in Fig. 6b. As seen from Figs. 6a and b, for the convec-
tent, Mi = 4.26 kg/kg (db). The following correlations by tion heat and mass transfer coefficients, higher values are
various researchers (as summarized in Dincer, 1997) are obtained at the left side wall due to the upstream of the dry-
used to calculate the thermal diffusivity, thermal conductiv- ing air while lower values are observed at the right side wall
ity and specific heat for the kiwi fruit considered: due to the vortex shedding. Furthermore, it can be seen from
For thermal diffusivity: a ¼ ð0:057363M þ 0:000288ðT þ Figs 6a and b, increasing the airflow velocity increases the
273ÞÞ  106 m2/s, local heat and moisture transfer coefficients.
For thermal conductivity: k ¼ ð0:148 þ 0:493MÞ W/m K, In addition, the temperature and moisture fields inside
For constant-pressure specific heat: cp ¼ ð0:837þ the product are predicted at different times using the code
1:256MÞ  1000 J/kg K, and developed by the authors. As explained before, at this
The moisture diffusivity is take as D = 7.13  1010 m2/s point, the local distributions of the convective heat and
(Simal et al., 2005a). mass transfer coefficients are used which were obtained
At the inlet, the following values are considered for the previously in the boundary conditions. The temperature
drying air: Td = 50 °C (323 K); Ud = 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s
and dry air conditions with u = 0.0%. As an example case, a 330
Figs. 5a and b illustrate the streamlines and static tempera-
ture contours around the object. As seen from Fig. 5a, wake 320
or vortex shedding region behind the object is observed when
the drying fluid passes through it. The temperature gradients 310 Experimental U=0.3 m/s
Numerical T=323 K
T (K)

300
a 0.025

290

280
Height (m)

0.0125
270
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Time (min)

5
0
b
0 0.015 0.03 0.045
Moisture content (kg H2O/kg dm)

Length (m) Experimental U=0.3 m/s


4 T=323 K
Numerical

b 0.025

3
Height (m)

2
0.0125

0
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0 0.015 0.03 0.045
Length (m) Time (h)

Fig. 7. Temperature distribution inside the object at 10 min (a) and Fig. 8. Comparison between the calculated and measured center temper-
moisture distribution inside the object at 30 min (b) for Ud = 0.3 m/s and ature (a) and dimensionless moisture (b) distributions in the rectangular
Td = 50 °C. kiwi fruits.
330 A. Kaya et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 88 (2008) 323–330

inside the object increases with an increase in the drying Chen, X.D., Pirini, W., Ozilgen, M., 2001. The reaction engineering
time since the temperature of the drying air is higher than approach to modelling drying of thin layer of pulped Kiwifruit flesh
under conditions of small Biot numbers. Chemical Engineering and
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uniform temperature distributions, the moisture diffusivity Dincer, I., 1997. Heat Transfer in Food Cooling Applications, first ed.
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to the upstream of the drying air. Gambit 2 User’s Guide, Fluent Inc., Lebanon, Nh.
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Singh, B., Gupta, A.K., 2007. Mass transfer kinetics and determination of
by Karadeniz Technical University Research Fund under effective diffusivity during convective dehydration of pre-osmosed
Grant No. 2004.112.003.01 and the Turkish Republic carrot cubes. Journal of Food Engineering 79, 459–470.
Prime Ministry State Planning Organization (DPT) under Simal, S., Femenia, A., Garau, M.C., Rossello, C., 2005a. Use of
Grant No. 2003K120750. exponential, Page’s and diffusional models to simulate the drying
kinetics of kiwi fruit. Journal of Food Engineering 66, 323–328.
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