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General

Underwater Motion

Model Test for Underwater Motion

Hull Form Design

Propeller Design

4

Operational Concepts of the Torpedo

Fixed Wing

Surface Ship

Rotary Wing

Submarine

Submarine

5

Torpedo Composition

Acoustic Head

Exercise Head Section Section Section

6

Heavyweight Torpedo Lightweight Torpedo

limited by

Diameter 21inch/19inch 12.75inch

launch tube

limited by

Length < 6.5m < 2.8m

launch tube

Surface Ship/

Target Submarine

Submarine

Launching Surface Ship/ASROC/

Submarine

Platform Rotary Wing/Fixed Wing

Wire-guidance

Guidance Fire & Forget

/Fire & Forget

Warhead Bulk Bulk → Shaped Charge

7

in 1980s in 1990s in 2000s

Torpedo Torpedo in 2010s (ASROC)

in the Future in 2000s

8

engineering

① The field of fluid mechanics

: estimating the state of fluid particles in the

neighborhood of a torpedo

② The field of maneuverability

: estimating the underwater motions due to

the hydrodynamic & hydrostatic pressure

acting on a torpedo body

9

Engineering

High Speed

• Highly Loaded Propeller

• Nano-Material

Low Noise Level

• Self Noise

• Radiated Noise

Cavitation Performance

• Nose Cavity

• Propeller Cavity

Water Entry

Maneuverability & Stability

10

engineering such as

Empirical Formula based on Database

Numerical Method such as CFD

Model Tests

Underwater Motion Analysis

5. It would be used for

Underwater Motion Simulation

Hull Form Design

Propeller Design

12

The approach to estimate the underwater

motion of a torpedo is based on the 6-DOF

equations of motion.

The equations are based on Newton’s laws

of motion defined in the Euclidean space.

The equations are the plant equations for:

• hull form design

• controller design

• trajectory simulation

13

Coordinate Systems

Space Fixed Coordinate

O X(North)

Y

p

x/u

o

q

Coordinate r

z/w

14

F D(mUG)/Dt

M D(I)G/Dt

External Forces Space Fixed Coordinate Body Fixed Coordinate

X

m u qw rv xG q 2 r 2 yG pq r zG rp q

mv ru pw y r p z qr p x pq r

Hydrodynamic 2 2

Forces & Moments Y G G G

G

2 2

G G

Hydrostatic Forces

& Moments I x p I z I y qr m yG w pv qu zG v ru pw

/ K

xG yG rp q zG xG qp r yG zG r 2 q 2

Propulsion Forces

& Moments I y q I x I z rp mzG u qw rv xG w pv qu

M

/ yG zG pq r xG yG rq p zG xG p 2 r 2

Control Forces &

Moments I z r I y I x pq mxG v ru pw yG u qw rv

N

zG xG qr p yG zG pr q xG yG q 2 p 2

15

Thrust

m u = X u u + X u u + X T ( W B) sin

Inertia Damping Control Static

force force force force

m w

uq = Z q q + Z w w

+ Z q q + Z w w + Z e e + ( W B) cos cos

I x p = K p p K r r + K p p K r r + K v v + K v v

+ K r r K e e r e l y B B cos cos + z B B sin cos

I y q = M w w

16

T( , , )

cos sin sin sin cos cos cos sin sin sin sin cos

sin sin cos sin cos sin cos cos sin sin cos cos

T 1 ( , , )

cos cos cos sin sin sin cos sin sin cos sin cos

cos sin cos cos sin sin sin sin cos cos sin sin

sin sin cos cos cos

17

Equilibrium State

The equations of motions are decomposed into

equilibrium state equations & perturbed equations.

W-B = Lift(Body) + Control Force

Moment(Body) = Control Moment + xBBcos(Restoring Moment)

Lift Force

Control Force x

B

0

0 W

z

18

Xu coso (WB) sino +XT = 0

Zw sino +Ze o (WB) coso = 0

xBB coso + (Mw +zB B) sino + Me o = 0

1

Z e x B B ( W B) M e

o tan

Z e M w z B B Z w M e

Z w sin o ( W B) cos o

o

Z e

X T X u cos o ( W B) sin o

19

Vertical Plane

m u X u u X u u ( W B) cos o

m w

cos o Z w w

Z w w Z q

Z q Z e e ( W B) sin o

I y M w w M q

M w w M q M e e x B B sin o z B B cos o

Horizontal Plane

m v cos o r Yv v Yv v Yp

Yp Yr r ( W B) cos o Y r r

I x

K v v K v v K p

K p K r r z B B cos o K r r K p p

I z r N v v N v v N p

N p N r r x B B cos o N r r

20

coefficients

Detailed Design

Phase

Validation Phase

22

for underwater motion;

① Free Running Model Test

: to validate the design results of underwater

motion.

: to modify the hydrodynamic forces &

moments.

② Captive Model Test

: to estimate the hydrodynamic forces &

moments.

23

FRM test makes use of a self-propelled scale

model of the vehicle fitted with all

appendages and remote control.

The Area of Works

• to evaluate turning performance & course

keeping stability.

• to estimate hydrodynamic coefficients using

system ID techniques.

24

The major scale law is Froude number(U/(gL)1/2)

very expensive

test vehicles for the torpedo development

25

Captive model test makes use of a towed

scale model of the vehicle fitted with all

appendages.

The hydrodynamic forces & moments

generated by a vehicle’s hull are measured

and the results are analyzed to estimate

hydrodynamic coefficients through

regression techniques.

The major scale law for underwater vehicle

test is Reynolds number(UL/).

26

In captive model test, the model is tested

over a suitable range of important variables

such as propeller RPM, drift angle, yaw rate,

yaw acceleration and rudder angle.

The propeller will usually exert an important

influence on the hydrodynamic coefficients.

Therefore, model tests to determine these

coefficients should be conducted with

propellers operation.

27

To estimate the underwater motion of the

torpedo, we have performed model tests

such as

V-PMM Test

29

Design Objectives

The following three are primary in all

designs and should be sustained throughout

the whole design process.

① the product should perform the functional

purpose of the customer.

② the design should be suitable for construction

within the capability of the technology and

resources available.

③ the cost should be acceptable to the customer.

30

the field of system integrations.

At the beginning of design phase, the hull

shape should be proposed first prior to the

other design results.

For hull form design, system & subsystem

requirements should be analyzed and integrated

to find the optimal solutions.

Each designer of other parts can start to design

its components and arrange them in a space or

on the shape using these modified requirements.

31

Requirements Initial Hull Form Design

-Constraint Analysis

-Designs for Candidates

Req. Analysis -Static & Dynamic Analysis

-Verification

Concept Study

-Analysis of Trade-off

-System & Subsystem Spec.

-Detailed Design

Generation

-Detailed Analysis

-Constraints Build-up

-Verification

-Investigation of Candidates

Sea Trial(Validation)

32

Concept Study(sample)

① Battery & motor spec. by estimating drag, efficiency,

operating concept and so on.

② Effective horse power(PE) can be estimated from drag.

③ Motor Power(PM) & battery power(PB) can be obtained

using PE & efficiency.

④ Battery energy can be estimated using battery power(PB)

and operation time.

Battery Motor

Bearing Propeller

33

Hull Form

3

1 2

considering speed, endurance, launch tube, arrangement of

inner components and so on.

2) If the total length of the torpedo and the length of the curved

parts at nose section & tail section were determined, the

parallel middle body could be easily defined with the length &

diameter.

3) Therefore the main concern in hull form design can be laid on

determine nose shape(1), tail shape(2) & control fin

shape(3).

34

-Nose Design-

Constraints

Hydrodynamics

Sensor • Laminar-Turbulent

Transition Structure &

Characteristics Integrity

• Sensor Shape • Cavitation

• Flow Separation • Impact

• Uniform Thickness • Length, Diameter

of the Molding

35

-Nose Design-

There are two representative nose shapes.

① Conformal Nose Shape

② Flat Nose Shape

and acoustic sensors from a system’s point

of view.

36

-Nose Design-

Flow Analysis

Flow analysis is needed to check the flow

separation, cavitation & water entry impact.

Example of viscous flow analysis

: RANS(Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equation

37

-Nose Design-

Cavitation Analysis(1)

Nose cavitation inception condition is closely

related to operational speed and depth.

It can be estimated by analyzing the surface

pressure.

Speed

38

-Nose Design-

Cavitation Analysis(2)

The cavity shape & its effects can be

estimated by using two-phase flow analysis

1.4

such as VOF.

1.2 Analysis, Ca=0.5

Analysis, Ca=0.4

1 Analysis, Ca=0.3

Analysis, Ca=0.2

0.8 Data, Ca=0.5

Data, Ca=0.4

0.6 Data, Ca=0.3

Data, Ca=0.2

0.4

Cp

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

s/d

Experiment by Rouse and McNown(1948) Diffuse Interface Method

39

-Nose Design-

Cavitation Analysis(3)

For designed hull form, cavitation inception

points and cavity shape can be verified

through model tests in a cavitation tunnel.

40

-Nose Design-

When LWT enter the water, large impact

forces act on nose. H/W such as acoustic

sensors can be damaged by impact forces.

Impact Pressure

41

-Nose Design-

At the variable atmosphere tank, the impact

force can be measured and the water entry

phenomenon can be observed.

42

-Tail Design-

Constraints

Structure & Integrity

• Inner Space for the

Motor & Actuators

• Outer Space for Fins

Hydrodynamics • Length, Diameter

• Low Drag

• Separation

• Inflow at the Propeller

P: 0.630.750.800.860.920.920.950.970.980.991.041.041.071.121.151.211.231.281.371.44

43

-Tail Design-

Flow Analysis

Flow analysis is needed to check the

separation point at the tail and to analyze

inflow condition at propeller plane.

44

-Tail Design-

The inner space of tail cone.

• If the space is small, motor and actuator cannot be arranged

• The system can be unstable due to moving the gravity and

buoyancy center.

The digital mock-up tool to check the space

Motor

Actuator

Arrangement of the Motor and Actuators

45

Constraints

Motion Characteristics

• Static & Dynamic Stability

• Minimum Splay Angle

• Minimum Attack Angle

• Maximum Movable Rudder Angle

• Rudder Torque

• Turn Rate

• Reduction of Tip Vortex • Length, Diameter

• Interaction with Propeller • Consider Additional

• Low Drag/High Lift Appendages

• Low Flow Nose

46

Because it is desirable to have a degree of

dynamic stability to motion, torpedo needs

to have large surfaces at the tail.

The large area is associated with dynamic

stability but it is not necessary for

maneuvering. Thus a common design

compromise adopted is to provide flaps at

the after leading edge of fixed fins or all

movable surface.

47

48

① Cruciform Arrangement

: The configuration at the stern with vertical

rudders and horizontal elevators

② X-Stern

: Two pairs of control surfaces are arranged at 45

to the horizontal & vertical planes through the

axis of hull.

Cruciform X-Stern

49

Flow Analysis

to estimate the control forces

to know the influence of the fin tip vortex

to check the flow separation.

50

The maximum value of rudder torque should be

found for the actuator specification.

• in case of lower estimation

: Overload at actuator Decrease angular velocity Actuation

time delay Unstable closed-loop condition

• in case of higher estimation

: It is difficult to find the high power and small actuator.

In initial design stage, the maximum torque is

estimated empirically and in detailed design state,

the torque model test is conducted.

Challenges

• low aspect ratio wings

• dynamic effects on rudder torque

-turn rate : ~150/sec at unloaded condition

51

Asymmetric Hull Form CRP Twisted Fins

•UUV

of gravity & using control fins

52

-System Design-

Integration of System

① Integrate the subsection design results

② Recalculate the weight distribution and buoyancy.

③ Arrange the equipments & check the interference

using 3-D digital mock-up.

④ Build the equations of motion.

53

-System Design-

: We determine the weight distribution tolerance by

checking floating state of exercise torpedo, stability

& equilibrium state.

Exercise

shut

War shut

54

-Dynamic Analysis-

Equilibrium State

: the example of the equilibrium angle of attack and

the equilibrium elevator angle on the level flight.

20.0

Tht0

Delta0

10.0

Tht0, Delta0 [deg]

0.0

-10.0

-20.0

-0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15

xcg [m]

55

-Dynamic Analysis-

57

Vehicles

Large Roll

It is used for low speed vehicles such as a

submarine & a self-propelled ACM

58

① Open contra-rotating propeller

② Pump Jet

59

Design Requirements Selection of the Propeller Type

Dimensions

Model Testing in

Towing Tank & Cavitation Tunnel

Radiated Noise

Estimation

At-sea Evaluation

Thank you!

Naval Systems R&D Institute

61

of Motion in Initial Design Phase

Model Test System System

& CFD Design Simulation

Hull Form

DB

Design

Nonlinear Eqn Analysis Analysis

Controller

Design

62

Stability

: a torpedo’s capability to reestablish its

original undisturbed motion mode in all or

separate kinematic parameters.

Controllability

: a torpedo’s capability to execute commands

proceeding from the control system to the

torpedo control surfaces.

The more stable, the less controllable.

63

Stability Modes

Disturbance

Original Path

Disturbance

Original Path

Directional Stability

Disturbance

Original Path

Positional Stability

64

The comparisons of estimated sway forces with

those from experimental results.

Y` Y`

65

CFD Results

Numerical Tank : simulation of captive model test

66

of Motion in Detailed Design Phase

Captive Model Test

Linear/ Controller

V-PMM Nonlinear Eqn Design

Design Design

Coning Motion

Stability System

Rotating Arm Analysis Simulation

Controllability

CFD Analysis

67

motion are used to plan the sea trial

test or to analyze the results.

2. If the sea trial tests have performed

according to the well-defined procedure

and there are some disagreements

between the simulated variables of

motion and the measured, the

equations of motion should be modified

using system identification techniques.

68

System Identification

SI is the technique to develop mathematical

models of vehicles from their dynamic

responses to control forces.

When the system ID techniques are used to

estimate the hydrodynamic coefficients,

“simultaneous drift phenomenon” could

occur. In other words, there is a problem of

non-uniqueness or identifiability.

physical intuition

69

: Extended Kalman Filter

Measured

Original

Identified

p

Damping Coef.

iteration Time

coefficients

70

: Maximum Likelihood Method based on

Nelder & Mead Simplex method

Measured

Original

Identified

p

Damping Coef.

iteration Time

coefficients

71

: Genetic Algorithm

Measured

Original

Identified

p

Damping Coef.

Time

iteration

coefficients

72

Based on the physical intuition and empirical

formula, Nelder & Mead simplex method

gives the most reasonable results in this case.

Kp Kp

Test & Mead Formula Test & Mead Formula

73

V-PMM

: Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism

The area of works

Resistance Test

Static Test

Control Surface Test

Dynamic Test

Roll Motion Test

74

V-PMM test is very useful to obtain velocity-

dependent derivatives.

Surge force

Pitch Moment

V0 &q

Heave force

e

w

75

Dynamic Test

In dynamic test, added mass coefficients can

be obtained using pure heave motion and

pure pitch motion.

ao

o

76

Devices

77

0.0005 0.0005

0.00025

0.00025

N` 0

N'

Y'

Y`

-0.00025

a=0

a=4

a=0 -0.00025 a=8

a=4

a=12

a=8

-0.0005 a=-4

a=12

a=-8

a=-4

a=-8

Rudder Angle(deg.) Rudder Angle(deg.)

Sway force vs. Rudder angle Yaw moment vs. Rudder angle

78

Defects

1) V-PMM tests are typically performed in the

linear range.

2) It has some problems to obtain the

coupled coefficients.

3) The results of roll motion tests are not

trustable.

79

Concepts

Model

U = R

Rotating Arm

R

Axis fixed

in Tank

80

estimate the underwater motion in the

nonlinear range.

2. It can provide not only estimation of

hydrodynamic forces and moments at

large value of , v, R but also

information on the cross coupling

between these three parameters.

81

Variables

Turning Rate(=V0/R)

: the only way to vary at constant linear

speed is to vary R.

Drift Angle

Propeller RPM

Control Surface Deflection Angle

82

Tare Test

In order to move the model along a circular

path at constant speed, a radial force and

gravity force must be applied through the

balance.

The best way to account for the centrifugal

force tares would be set the model at the

required condition, make a run in air,

submerge the model, make a run, and

subtract the results in air from the

submerged results.

83

84

Y` N`

Sway force vs. Drift angle Yaw moment vs. Drift angle

85

Defects

1) A specialized facility of substantial size is

required.

2) Acceleration coefficients cannot be determined

as the flow field is steady with respect to the

model.

3) The model must be accelerated and data must

be obtained a single revolution.

4) In order to obtain values of Yr, Nr, Yv, and Nv at

=0, data at small values of are necessary.

86

submergible such as a torpedo can

consist of simultaneous rolling, pitching

and yawing.

2. In combined roll, pitch & yaw, the cross

flow velocity varies in magnitude and

direction along the length of the hull.

This introduces coupling effects which

may be important in certain situations.

87

the hydrodynamic forces and moments

acting on the submergible is essential.

• there are no practical theoretical methods to

predict these coupling effects.

• the general test facilities cannot duplicate

the combined rotations

a new test facility is needed.

88

model during the test.

5. In coning motion test, the model, set at an

angle of attack, is rotated about horizontal axis

while being towed on a straight course in a

towing tank.

6. The longitudinal axis of the model describes

the surface of a cone and the model

experience these combination of motions such

as roll, pitch, yaw and angle of attack.

89

Devices

Side View

90

0.00

K -0.02

K`

coning

VPMM

empirical

-0.04

p'

91

Defects

1) Since the sting is used to mount the model,

there are some difficulties to use

propulsion system and control surface.

2) Acceleration coefficients cannot be

determined as the flow field is steady with

respect to the model.

92

generated by the customer.

Max. Speed

Launching Platform : Diameter/Length/Weight

Max. Operation Depth

Min. Launching Water Depth

Manufacturing simplicity – cost

Detection Probability

….

93

description to a more specific performance

description by analyzing the requirements.

Example : Detection Probability

Detection Capability

Reality

Contradictions

Torpedo Dynamics : Speed/Turn rate/…

94

descriptions of possible solutions to the

requirements.

2. It will constitute the next level of description of

the torpedo. The description will include a

selection of equipments, estimates of size,

power and configuration.

3. By analyzing and integrating this description,

the hull form designers can set up

specifications and constraints for the hull

form design.

4. At the end of the concept study phase, a

couple of design candidates will be

investigated for further study.

95

DB Initial Hull Form Design Verification

Constraints

Analysis System Design

CFD Analysis

•Integration of

Subsection Subsections

Design •Weight Model Test

Distribution (V-PMM)

•Study of •Eqns of Motion

Candidates

•Shape design Analysis of Static

& Analysis & Dynamic

Characteristics

96

Initial

Design Detailed Hull Form Design Considerations

Results

Selection of the Radiated

most promising System Design

Noise

design

•Integration of

Subsections Flow

Subsection •Weight Noise

Design tolerance

•Eqns of Motion

•Design of Model Test Cavitation

Detailed Shape

•Detailed CFD Analysis of Static

Analysis & Dynamic

Characteristics ……

97

liquid at a constant temperature due to

pressure reductions.

98

Types of Cavitation(1)

① Traveling Cavitation

Traveling cavitation is composed of individual

transient cavities which form in the liquid and

move with along with the liquid as they expand,

shrink, and then collapse.

the low pressure region and start to collapse

shortly after they enter the high pressure region.

99

Types of Cavitation(1)

① Bubble Cavitation

The simplest of cavitation structures should be

the activation and collapse of individual nuclei as

they are converted into and out of a low

pressure region.

Nuclei

• concentration : 10~100/cm3

• Size : 10~100m

100

Types of Cavitation(2)

② Sheet Cavitation

In many situations bubble cavitation will suddenly

form a vapor field separation zone.

The state of boundary layer preceding the cavity

will be reflected in the surface texture of the cavity

appearing glassy when laminar or rough when

turbulent.

101

Types of Cavitation(3)

③ Cloud Cavitation

Cavitation occurring with the unstable closure of

sheet cavities and other highly turbulent flows

form large assemblies of bubbles that collapse

violently.

Similar structures form in mixing or shear layers

where cavitation occurs in vortices within

turbulence.

102

Types of Cavitation(4)

④ Vortex Cavitation

Vortex cavitation forms in the high shear zones

inside vortices. (tip cavitation)

A little pressure distribution changes on the body

103

① effects that modify the hydrodynamics of

the flow

② effects that increase the noise

③ effects that produce damage on the solid

boundary surfaces

of the flow

104

• Thrust – efficiency

• Cavitation performance – inception point

• Physical size – weight

• Torque balance

105

Trend in propeller

Design Consideration

• Powering – Speed, Efficiency

• Radiated Noise

CR propeller

106

107

Advantage Disadvantage

Better flow control at the More difficult to design

propeller More difficult to manufacture

Better torque balance More weight

Better off-design

performance – less sensitive

to the body

Slightly smaller diameter

More Quiet

More Efficient

Passive Obstacle Avoidance

108

① Pre-Swirl

stator in front of rotor

torque balance at a single operating point

quieter than other pump jets

simpler than CR pump jet

for the high speed submarine

109

② Post-Swirl

stator behind rotor

torque balance at a single operating point

more efficient than pre-swirl pump jet

simpler than CR pump jet

for the torpedo

110

③ Contra-Rotating

two rotors, each rotating in counter-direction

torque balance at all operating points

efficiency & cavitation performance are better

than other pump jets.

more complex then other pump jets

• CR Motor or Gear Box

• CR Shaft

for the torpedo

111

Platform

Submarine Torpedo

Country

Sea-Wolf (SSN) MK 48 (HWT)

US

Virginia (SSN) MK 50 ALWT (LWT)

Swiftsure (SSN)

Spearfish (HWT)

UK Trafalga (SSN)

Stingray (LWT)

Vanguard (SSBN)

ROK

Blue Shark (LWT)

Le Triomphant

France MU-90 Impact (LWT)

(SSBN)

112

① Diameter

The larger, the better

Limited by the hull diameter or so

② RPM

The slower, the better

Need to consider the motor performance

③ No. of blades

Consider the vibration from blade passing(unsteady force)

Consider the manufacturing cost

Usually over 5. odd number preferred

113

① Frictional Drag

: the longitudinal components of the forces

acting on the body due to tangential sheer

stresses

② Residual Drag

: the longitudinal components of the forces

acting on the body due to normal pressure

stresses

: form drag/pressure drag

114

Empirical Formulae

- Frictional (ITTC)

115

Wake Fraction(w)

The propeller operates in the wake of the hull. There

the velocity is generally retarded to a degree

depending on the fullness of the hull and the position

of the propeller.

The boundary layer of the hull will be thicker and thus

the wake retardation of the hull will be larger.

The mean retardation of the wake behind the hull is

measured by the wake fraction w.

(w = 1-UA/U)

116

Thrust Reduction(t)

In the effect of propeller on the hull, the

suction of the propeller generally reduces

the pressure at the stern and hence

increases the drag force.

The portion of this increase is called thrust

reduction.

117

Empirical Formulae

118

1

.51773

Y .59894

.65868

.71833

.77792

.83747

0.8 .89698

.96139

VOA

0.813225

0.76589

0.718555

0.67122 0.6

0.623885

0.57655

Va

0.529215

0.48188

Z 0.434545

0.4

0.38721

Hub(Body) 0.339875

0.29254

0.245205

0.19787

0.150535 0.2

0

0 90 180 270 360

Theta

inflow field (wake) on propeller plane

119

120

(3D) 17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 1 | FORWARD VANE GRID | FORWARD VANE WAKE GRID (3D) 17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 2 | AFTER VANE GRID | AFTER VANE WAKE GRID

(3D) 17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 1 | FORWARD VANE GRID | FORWARD VANE WAKE GRID (3D) 17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 2 | AFTER VANE GRID | AFTER VANE WAKE GRID

Y

Z

Z

X Y

X

Z

Z X X

Y

121

122

123

Quasi-steady analysis(1)

distribution on suction side distribution on pressure side

124

Quasi-steady analysis(2)

0.20

4 blade

5 blade

6 blade

0.15 7 blade

8 blade

9 blade

T'/T

10 blade

0.10

11 blade

0.05

0.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Harmonic

125

126

Near hub At the mid span Near duct

rotor and stator at various radial location

127

128

129

Flow Noise

Machinery noise

Propeller noise

One of main noise source of underwater weapon system

Increase in being-detection

Decrease in detection capability

130

① Blade Rate Noise

Non-uniform wake field

High Skew Propeller /

Increase of the number of blades

② Vibration Noise

Unbalancing

Cavitation

131

③ Singing Noise

Karman Vortex Shedding

-resonance with the natural freq. of the structure

Tonal Frequency

④ Cavitation Noise

High Speed, Low Depth

tip vortex, back, face, hub vortex

132

Dominant noise source

Increase 10~20dB of noise level

Covers a wide range of radiated noise

spectra from 5Hz to 100kHz

133

① Blade Shape Design

Wake adapted

Highly skewed

Tip unloading

Increase of the number of blades

Ring Rotor Pump Jet

② Material

Al-alloy

High damping material – FRP, GRP, MMC

FRP: Fiber Reinforced Plastic

GRP: Graphite Reinforced Plastic

MMC: Metal Matrix Composite

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