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Kauno technologijos universitetas

Stanislovas SAJAUSKAS

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES

(CREEPING WAVES)

Kaunas Technologija 2004

UDK 534

Sa79

S. Sajauskas. Longitudinal surface acoustic waves (Creeping waves). Monograph. Kaunas: Technology, 2004, 176 p.

Surface acoustic waves of new type, such as surface longitudinal or creeping acoustic waves propagating on the surface of the isotropic solid surface are described in this monograph. The peculiarities of those waves are researched theoretically and experimentally comparing them with transversal surface (Rayleigh) waves. Longitudinal surface acoustic wave application to nondestructive tests, measurements, in UHF electronics, and their seismic evidence are surveyed. Longitudinal surface acoustic waves exciting in ultrasonic frequency band are discussed also; the results of experimental research are given.

Reviewers:

Prof. Habil. Dr. E. L. Garška (Vilnius University) Prof. Habil. Dr. L. Pranevičius (Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas) Prof. Habil. Dr. S. Rupkus (Kaunas University of Technology)

Translated into English language by L. Ancevičienė

ISSN 9955-09-777-9

© S. Sajauskas,

2004

In memoriam of my Mother

Elzbieta VISKAČKAITĖ-SAJAUSKIENĖ

C O N T E N T S

SYMBOLS

 

7

PREFACE

11

1

INTRODUCTION

13

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

19

2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

23

2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

34

2.2.1 LSAW exciting by X-cut quartz crystal

34

2.2.2 Y-cut quartz crystal method

35

2.2.3 Periodical mechanical linear structure method

36

2.2.4 Angular method

36

2.2.5 Electromagnetic acoustic method

41

2.2.6 Thermo-acoustic method

42

3

LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

44

3.1 LSAW usage in nondestructive testing

44

3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and mechanical constants

48

3.2.1 Sound velocity measurements

48

3.2.2 Measurement methods of elasticity constants

53

3.2.3 Measurement of surface hardness characteristics with LSAW

56

3.3 LSAW in seismology

60

3.3.1 Seismic waves and their velocity

60

3.3.2 Simulation of seismic phenomena

63

4

LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

67

4.1 Angular-pulse method

67

4.1.1 Equipment of immersion research

71

4.1.2 Calibration of anglular measurement device

73

4.2 Pulse-time method

75

4.2.1

Experimental equipment for the prism research method

76

 

CONTENTS

4.2.1.1 Influence of ultrasound attenuation in prism

79

4.2.1.2 Research of angular transducer acoustic contact

83

4.2.1.3 Research of transducer with variable angle

85

4.1.4.4 Constructions of double angular transducers

89

4.1.4.5 Influence of diffraction to the effectiveness of LSAW exciting

90

4.3

Experimental SAW research

95

4.3.1 LSAW and TSAW comparative research

95

4.3.1.1 LSAW and TSAW propagation on the rough

surface

99

4.3.1.2 SAW interaction with the corner

106

4.3.2 Research of SAW propagation on the cylindrical surface

111

4.3.2.1 SAW propagation on the convex surface

111

4.3.2.2 SAW propagation on the concave surface

118

4.3.3 Investigations of LSAW excitation by piezoelectric grating

119

4.3.4 Investigations of LSAW and TSAW excitation by pulse laser

127

4.3.5 Lamb waves exciting by LSAW and TSAW transducers

131

4.3.6 Investigation of mechanical tension in sheet products by symmetrical Lamb waves

135

REFERENCES

142

APPENDIXES

151

SUMMARY (In English)

170

SUMMARY (In Lithuanian)

172

S Y M B O L S

Latin

A amplitude

A L

A T

A LSAW

A TSAW

c L

c LW

amplitude of bulk longitudinal wave

amplitude of bulk transversal wave

amplitude of longitudinal surface acoustic wave (LSAW)

amplitude of transversal surface acoustic wave (TSAW)

velocity of bulk longitudinal wave

velocity of Lamb wave

c

LW velocity of symmetric Lamb wave

s

c LSAW

c

LSAW

c SAW

c T

c TSAW

c

velocity of LSAW

velocity of LSAW propagating on cylindrical surface

velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAW)

velocity of bulk transversal wave

velocity of TSAW

c

TSAW velocity of TSAW propagating on cylindrical surface

c

c 0

velocity of imerse liquid

D

diameter

d

distance; thickness

E

Young module

E

LSAW

energy of LSAW

E

TSAW

energy of TSAW

e

= 2.73

natural logarithm base

f

frequency

G

shear module

h

depth

I 0

light intensity

K

amplification coefficient

k = 2π/λ

wave number

k L

k LWs

bulk longitudinal wave number

symmetrical Lamb wave number

SYMBOLS

k T

k SAW

k

bulk transversal wave number SAW number

cylindrical LSAW number

cylindrical TSAW number

distance

wave path

k

c

LSAW

c

TSAW

l

l n

N pulse number

R Earth radius

S attenuation

t

T i

T xx , T xz , T zz

time delay time mechanical tension components

particle displacement vector

voltage, voltage amplitude

particle displacement vector component along the surface

particle displacement vector component across the surface particle vibration speed along x axis particle vibration speed along z axis comparative acoustic impedance penetration depth of SAW penetration depth of LSAW penetration depth of TSAW

r

U

U

r

U

r

U

L

T

v x

v z

Z 0

Z p

Z LSAW

Z TSAW

Greek

α

damping coefficient

α 0

light absorption coefficient

α

c

LSAW

α

c

TSAW

damping coefficient of cylindrical LSAW

damping coefficient of cylindrical TSAW

β

angle of corner

β L

bulk longitudinal wave reflection angle

β T

bulk transversal wave reflection angle

SYMBOLS

γ L

γ T

ϑ

I

ϑ

cr

II

ϑ

cr

Λ

λ

λ

λ Ls

λ LSAW

λ TSAW

µ

ξ n

ξ Sx

ξ Sz

ξ t

ξ x

ξ z

ρ

ρ b

ρ g

τ i

bulk longitudinal wave refractive angle bulk transversal wave refractive angle

Laplacian operator; absolute uncertainty

SAW incidence angle

first critical angle

second critical angle

laser radiation wavelength acoustic wavelength Leme constant symmetric Lamb wavelength wavelengths of LSAW wavelengths of TSAW

Poisson’s ratio particle vibration amplitude square to the surface tangentiale particle vibration amplitude of Lamb wave normale particle vibration amplitude of Lamb wave particle vibration amplitude along the surface particle vibration amplitude along x axis particle vibration amplitude along z axis density density of basalt density of granite pulse length

ϕ potential of longitudinal SAW component

ψ potential of transversal SAW component

ω angular frequency

Abbreviations

AFCh

Amplitude–Frequency Characteristic

BLW

Bulk Longitudinal Wave

BTW

Bulk Transversal Wave

FFT

Fast Fourier Transformation

SYMBOLS

LW

Lamb Wave

FPRF

Finite Pulse Response Filter

LSAW

Longitudinal Surface Acoustic Waves

NDT

Nondestructive Testing

PC

Personal Computer

SAW

Surface Acoustic Waves

SHF

Super High Frequency

TSAW

Transversal Surface Acoustic Waves (Rayleigh Waves)

UVH

Ultra High Frequency

PREFACE

Surface acoustic waves (SAW) comprise a class of widely encountered ultrasonic phenomenon in nature. Alfred Nobel Prize laureate Lord Rayleigh was the first to describe them in his work on surface ground motion during seismic events at the end of the 19 th century. As a result, SAW propagating on the surface of solids are named as Rayleigh waves. Since Rayleigh’s days, many types of surface waves were discovered. They propagate in isotropic solids, also in crystals, as well as piezoelectric materials, manifesting not only in free surfaces, but also in the boundaries of joined media, when a solid is overlayed with another thin solid, or a liquid film.

The theory and practice of SAW that flourished in the second half of the twentieth century were motivated by ultra high frequency (UHF) electronics, inherent possibilities in miniaturization, and demand to create acousto-electronic SAW devices. Useable frequency range for SAW devices in UHF acousto-electronics now exceeds 10 10 Hz (10 GHz). The main interest for microelectronics lies in micro- miniaturization. However, the frequency range of interest also turns out to be an impediment to acousto-electronics: the length of waves exceeds the atomic distances of solids some 100 times, resulting in complex technological manufacturing obstacles. The only solution here is to search for new materials and special crystal cuts where SAW would propagate with the higher phase velocity, much greater than that of Rayleigh waves. Promising results in this field were realized at the Kaunas University of Technology (KTU) when new types of SAW, longitudinal surface acoustic waves (LSAW), were shown to exist. LSAW propagate in materials with small Poisson ratios at a maximal phase velocity, exceeding even the content of longitudinal wave velocity. Using pseudo-longitudinal surface acoustic waves by acousto- electronic resonance filter in crystals of lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ), lithium tantalum (LiTaO 3 ), and lithium tetraborate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 ), it was possible at KTU to increase the desired frequency range of the phase velocity to 5 GHz.

PREFACE

This study is the result of an extensive experience at the Prof. K. Baršauskas Ultrasonic Science Center and the Department of Electronics Engineering of the Kaunas University of Technology.

I wish to thank my colleagues Dr. Virgilijus Minialga and Dr. Naglis

Sajauskas for their assistance while experimenting with LSAW; Dr. Algimantas Valinevičius, the Chair of Electronics Engineering Department; reviewers of the text, Prof. Habil. Dr. Liudvikas Pranevičius, Prof. Habil. Dr. Evaldas Leonardas Garška, Prof. Habil Dr. Stasys Rupkus for their valuable comments and advices. I also convey special thanks to the Chair of the KTU Research Planning Committee, Prof. Habil. Dr. Alfonsas Grigonis, and the Chair of KTU Senate Scientific Committee, Prof. Habil. Dr. Algirdas Žemaitaitis for their significant assistance in publishing this study.

I am also very appreciative to my friend A. V. Dundzila for productive

discussions and technical assistance translating the book into English

language.

Prof. Habil. Dr. S. Sajauskas

1

INTRODUCTION

Surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating without attenuation in free solid surfaces were discovered and described by Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) [1] at the end of the 19 th century. Lately they became an irreplaceable instrument in acousto-electronics, material science, nondestructive ultrasonic testing, and seismic research. Since Rayleigh waves are nondispersive (their phase velocity does not depend on frequency), and their attenuation in solids is zero, they are suitable especially in nondestructive testing (NDT). Rayleigh waves are used to discover surface defects, to determine the depth and degree of thermal hardening, residual stresses, and to evaluate the quality of surface finishing. Usually the characteristics of subject materials are determined by measuring SAW velocity and attenuation, two acoustic parameters directly affected by mechanical and chemical surface attributes.

Distinct types of SAW were discovered researching SAW propagation in other media than the free solid body surface. A. Love found and described in 1911 transversal SAW on the surface of a solid body covered by a thin layer of material of different acoustic properties. Today they are called Love waves. Dispersion is a significant characteristic of Love waves. Their phase velocity is always less than the velocity of transversal waves in a solid body and greater than the velocity in a solid mass.

First described by H. Lamb in 1916, Lamb waves constitute a case of Rayleigh SAW propagating in a thin plate. Although different from Rayleigh waves, they are of dispersive nature. They can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical (flexible), and their velocity depends not only on frequency, but also on the thickness of the plate. In literature Lamb waves sometimes are referred to as normal waves of vertical polarization. Another type of normal waves propagating in plates are the tangential normal waves (of horizontal polarization, transversal), in cases when the plate surface does not deform during propagation.

1

INTRODUCTION

Another category of electro-acoustic waves named after their founders,

J. L. Bleustein and J. V. Gulyaev, differ from Rayleigh waves by

propagating in some piezoelectric crystals but to depths of hundreds of wavelengths. The phase velocity here is less than that of transversal waves propagating in the same direction in the piezo-crystals.

Surface waves propagating at the junction of two solids were found by

R. Stoneley and are named after him. Stoneley waves are nondispersive

and their penetration depth is approximately equal to the wavelength. Their phase velocity is always less than bulk longitudinal and transversal wave velocities in boundaries of solid bodies.

The application of SAW in information processing devices (ultrasound signal delay lines, wave band filters, signal branching, phase tommy- bars) stimulated scientists of this sphere to develop broadly scientific research. The subtlest effects, such as features of SAW propagation in irregular surfaces, characteristics of Rayleigh pseudo-waves propagating on the surface bordering with liquid, SAW diffraction’s, reverberation’s regularities were investigated and SAW gyroscopic effect in piezoelectrics was found, SAW wave interferometers were generated and those waves were visualized by the help of laser technique. World famous scientists, such as B. A. Auld [2, 3], G. S. Kino [4, 5], L.M. Brekhovskich [6], W. P. Mason [7], R. M. White [8] and others [9-19] made significant strides here.

In Lithuania SAW waves were investigated at the Ultrasonic Research Laboratory established by Professor K. Baršauskas. L. Sereikaitė- Juozonienė was the first to describe in 1972 the new type SAW, different from Rayleigh waves [20, 21]. They were the longitudinal surface acoustic waves (LSAW) in accordance to their physical origin that dominated their longitudinal (tangential) vibration component. Recognizing this distinction, Rayleigh surface acoustic waves could be called transversal surface acoustic waves – TSAW. (The suggestion is made with due respect to Lord Rayleigh’s accomplishments, it simply articulates similarities and differences of the waves). After TSAW discovery for a long time there was an ongoing debate regarding any practical application because of their inherent damping.

1

INTRODUCTION

For example, I. Viktorov denied SAW existence altogether [22-25]. But significant works by L. Juozonienė and S. Sajauskas (Lithuania) [26- 34], J. C. Couchman and J. R. Bell (USA) [35], I. Yermolov, N. Razygraev and others (Russia) [36-42], I. A. Ehrhard, H. Wüstenberg and M. Kröning (Germany) [43-47], Charleswort and J. A. G. Temple (USA) [48] not only demonstrated the new type of surface waves, but also entrenched international acceptance of the new phenomenon. Ultrasonic testing with LSAW presently is included in procedural manuals at most major companies [49] and international standards. Two doctoral theses [50, 51] and a habilitation [52] have been defended on investigations of LSAW properties and usage.

Incidentally, many contradictory propositions published by some researchers were either repudiated or confirmed by experiments with enhanced instrumentation and capabilities of personal computers. For example, there were issues regarding the existence of LSAW in materials with the Poisson ratio µ > 0.26 or where LSAW velocity was greater than that of BLW; or because of attenuation in LSAW propagation on a surface covered by a layer of liquid.

Possibilities are being investigated to apply LSAW in nondestructive testing that allow examination of coarse surfaces, as well as surfaces inside liquid and gas tanks or pipes, and nuclear reactors. LSAW are less suitable in material science when measuring elasticity constants; also in seismology with ideal models of earthquakes when evaluating the destructive nature of seismic LSAW around epicentre.

SAW main types may be divided into two groups: LSAW in isotropic materials and in monocrystals (Fig. 1.1). This classification is not comprehensive because some pseudo-waves can propagate only in piezoelectric monocrystals, while others also in non-piezoelectric materials. In addition to Rayleigh waves propagating in piezoelectric monocrystals (in literature they are sometimes called pseudo-Rayleigh waves), also pseudo-Love, pseudo-Stoneley, or pseudo-Lamb wave types are known to spawn.

1

INTRODUCTION

SAW PROPAGATING IN ISOTROPIC SOLIDS

1 INTRODUCTION SAW PROPAGATING IN ISOTROPIC SOLIDS RAYLEIGH WAVES (TSAW) LSAW STONELEY WAVES LOVE WAVES LAMB

RAYLEIGH WAVES

(TSAW)

LSAW

STONELEY WAVES

LOVE WAVES

LAMB WAVES

NORMAL

WAVES

SAW PROPAGATING IN MONOCRYSTALS

PSEUDO-RAYLEIGH WAVES
PSEUDO-RAYLEIGH
WAVES

SEZAWA WAVES

BLEUSTEIN-GULYAEV

WAVES

PSEUDO-STONELEY

WAVES

PSEUDO-LOVE

WAVES

PSEUDO-LAMB

WAVES

PSEUDO-NORMAL

WAVES

Fig. 1.1.

Classification of surface acoustic waves

In this case, a feature of all acoustic waves in piezoelectric materials should be noted. They cause not only mechanical deformations, but also related changes in electric charge. It can be said that propagating electroacoustic waves may be viewed as a particular field of

1

INTRODUCTION

acoustoelectronics science. Acousto-electronics evolved after 1965, when R. White and F. Wolmer invented new type converters for exciting SAW on piezoelectric surface [53]. Electrode converters created a revolution in this sphere of research because modern microelectronics technology could be applied in their manufacturing. This permitted to reduce the size and price of acusto-electronic devices, and made them more reliable. High equivalent quality (to 12000, low losses (7-10 dB), and high parameter stability allow using diphase SAW resonators in the design of very stable generators and filters of required frequency characteristics. The frequency passbandwidth of wave band filters can be of 0.01 to 0.5 percent, with their approximate rectangular shape.

On the other hand, with the spread of acousto-electronics, the new types of waves were discovered, such as the gap waves which propagate on both sides of a narrow crack in piezoelectric crystal. Their propagation parameters may be managed by imposing an electric field on both sides of the gap. One more type of acousto-electric waves are the Sezawa waves. They are excited by transformation reflecting Rayleigh pseudo- waves. Their phase velocity is much greater than that of pseudo- Rayleigh waves [54, 55]. These waves may be called pseudo- longitudinal surface waves. Depending upon monocrystals (LiNbO 3 , LiTaO 3 ), their velocity and attenuation may vary. The phenomenon is influenced by monocrystal cut and directional UHF propagation with respect to crystallographic axes. In literature these waves are known as longitudinal surface acoustic waves, surface waves of horizontal polarization, leaky SAW, and others.

Besides acousto-electric waves, the acousto-magnetic waves are to be noted. They propagate in magnetic materials where mechanical vibrations are related to movement of magnetic charge. Their properties may be controlled by magnetic field.

Also, it should be mentioned that, even in isotropic solids, if their surface is non-planar (cylindrical or spherical), or covered with a layer of other solid (metalization), or a liquid, TSAW (Rayleigh) and LSAW may acquire other properties and become nonhomogeneous, eradiating,

1

INTRODUCTION

dispersive. For this reason such waves are called transversal and longitudinal surface acoustic pseudo-waves.

Surface acoustic phenomenon in solids varies greatly. Only LSAW propagating in isotropic solids will be considered here, nevertheless touching upon some application possibilities of longitudinal pseudo- waves. Principal attention will be focused in particular on experimental research of LSAW physical properties, and their use in ultrasonic technology.

2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

L. Sereikaitė-Juozonienė was the first to describe the longitudinal surface acoustical waves (LSAW) [20,21]. Measuring velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) with an ultrasonic interferometer, she observed a strange side effect. At times apparently a “false” value of surface wave phase velocity differed appreciably from Rayleigh wave velocity and turned out to be near the bulk longitudinal wave (BLW) velocity value. Investigating the reason, it was determined that the fact was due to the surface manifestation associated with the angle of incidence to the solid of BLW. Such incidence angle, also called the first critical angle, is equal to the angle of refracted longitudinal wave. Creeping along the surface of a solid, the BLW excites LSAW. The observed phenomenon was published in the scientific journal “Ultrasound” (In Russian) [20]. This unexpected, apparently “present at the surface” physical manifestation attracted scientific interest from all over the world. However, the phenomenon was not recognized as a discovery in the former USSR [56] because of doubts by an expert I. Viktorov. Nevertheless, such doubts did not mislead other scientists.

The “boom” of LSAW research in the world started around 1976 and is continuing to the present day. Independent researchers validated previously published experimental results [35–37], thus confirming the existence of LSAW. Furthermore, they determined LSAW distinct features, such as the phase propagation velocity being near the longitudinal wave velocity value and side bulk transversal wave (BTW) propagation [36]. The discovery of LSAW was explained as an inevitable phenomenon when propagating waves, LSAW, are faster than the waves of some other, transversal, type (the Tcherenkov effect in SAW acoustics). Using ultrasonic angular transducer data was obtained about diffraction influence to the LSAW excitation effectiveness. Similarly, influence of small surface irregularities to LSAW propagation, as well as the longitudinal distance of LSAW

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

propagation up to 300 mm was recorded. Subsequently, experimental work yielded transversal wave transformation to the secondary LSAW, excited in the other surface of a flat sample [37]. These experimental results appeared at approximately the same time with theoretical works of I. Viktorov [22–25] the latter arguing that LSAW was only a theoretical fiction, having no practical application because their propagation path length does not exceed one wave length! Naturally, such a case may foster only philosophical discussion. Bitter debate in scientific media showed that conclusions of a famous theoretician were wrong, I. Viktorov having ignored not only results obtained by L. Sereikaitė-Juozonienė but also those announced by other researchers (I. Jermolov, N. Razygraev). Two divergent positions, one expounded by I. Viktorov [24] and another by I. Jermolov [38], about the place of LSAW in the context of surface waves and nondestructive testing appeared. I. Viktorov maintained [24] that the “effluent” surface waves propagate in the boundary with a liquid layer and dissipate rapidly. While I. Jermolov [38] analysed the development and effectiveness of nondestructive, ultrasonic testing theory and practice and LSAW practical application possibilities.

L. Sereikaitė-Juozonienė published the article on the LSAW theory in 1980 [27]. With classical wave analysis, using Helmholtz equations and Rayleigh equation solutions, she calculated amplitudes of LSAW normal and tangential vibrations and presented prospects for LSAW applications. Subsequently L. Basatskaja and I. Jermolov in their article [40] (by the way, published before L. Juozoniene’s [27]) solved the same equations with Fourier integrals, calculated longitudinal and transversal LSAW component directional characteristics and their dependence on the product f·D, where f is frequency, D the diameter of disk piezo-crystal. It was shown that varying this product value, it was possible to alter the LSAW excitation effectiveness and its propagation direction.

Presently a number of works appeared dealing with practical LSAW applications, on special LSAW ultrasonic transducers, and describing their construction as well as technical characteristics [41, 42, 54]. These are angular transducers where the prism is made of material featuring a small sonic velocity and damping, e. g., Plexiglass (c L = 2670 m/s).

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

It should be noted that while researching LSAW, LSAW application ideas were being patented quickly as well. The first inventions using LSAW for nondestructive testing were registered in 1975 [26, 57]. Several inventions were announced by L. Sereikaitė-Juozonienė and S. Sajauskas on LSAW applications to materials science in measurements of physical mechanical constants [29, 30, 32, 34] and velocities of acoustic waves [28, 31, 33]. The group of A. Erhard, H. Wüsterberg, M. Krönung, E. Shulz and others began their work on LSAW in 1981 in Germany. Having patented a LSAW transducer, they broadly researched LSAW use in nondestructive testing, quality control of austenitic welding seams [45–47], described the secondary LSAW energized on inner surfaces of vessels, and researched applications for inner surfaces of nuclear reactor component's [44]. For their work A. Erhard and M. Krönung were awarded the prestigious Berthold prize in 1984. Surface longitudinal wave applications by other authors are known on nuclear reactors and inner pipe walls [49, 57–59].

Practical issues of LSAW usage, such as LSAW transducers [61–64], wave testing methodology [65–68], development of standards [69] subsequently received appreciable attention by world scientists.

Research of LSAW forms generated some nuisances in communication due to redundant but different terminology for the same phenomenon, e.g. longitudinal surface acoustical waves. Thus the term “creeping waves” got entrenched in Western literature [43–48, 57, 58, 63–68], denoting the wave characteristic to propagate not on the surface as Rayleigh waves do, but a bit deeper and with weaker surface interaction. Meanwhile, other authors tended to emphasize maximal LSAW velocity, calling them Kőpfwellen in German, golovnyie volny in Russian [36, 38, 41, 42]. This term was borrowed from seismology where the fastest seismic signal pulses are known as primary waves. Interestingly, in other publications the same authors call LSAW as longitudinal pre-surface waves (prodolnyje podpoverchnostnye volny in Russian). Still several others call them L CR critically reflected longitudinal waves [70].

Even though inside solids LSAW eradiated BTW in certain acute angle [22–24], but to call them leaky surface acoustic waves

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

(vytekajushchiesia poverchnostnyje volny in Russian) is a gross misnomer. The issue remains that LSAW are not the only ones to lose energy (by eradiating, leaking) during propagation; energy losses are manifested also in other heterogeneous surface waves. For instance, Rayleigh type waves, TSAW, propagating through either uneven or smooth surface that borders with a liquid or its layer, propagate longitudinal waves sidewise and this is also leaking process. Precisely because of such a peculiarity Rayleigh waves propagating on the surface bordering with a liquid are called pseudo-Rayleigh waves. Moreover, it may be noticed that the English term leaky surface acoustic waves”, leaky SAW, also are called SAW. They propagate in certain cut anisotropic piezoelectric monocrystals of LiNbO 3 , LiTaO 3 ,

Li 2 B 4 O 7 .

The term “creeping waves(Kriechwelle in German, polzuchie volny in Russian) precisely brings to mind one albeit not essential

characteristic to propagate near the surface. However, since “to creep”

is to move slowly or timidly, a mistaken impression about the velocity

is produced as well. On the contrary, these surface waves propagate most rapidly, their phase velocity c LSAW can be even greater than that of c L, velocity of the BLW. For no other reason in this work we will use the term longitudinal surface acoustic waves, LSAW, emphasizing the underlying difference of such waves from the others such as Rayleigh’s, the transversal surface acoustic waves (TSAT). In addition, this essential distinction underlines the differences in main physical properties of LSAW and Rayleigh (TSAW) waves, such as phase velocities (c LSAW c L ; c TSAW c T , where c T is the BTW velocity) and

excitation angles (the first critical angle

critical angle

I

ϑ

cr

by LSAW and the second

II

ϑ

cr

by TSAW).

Let it be noted that LSAW are mostly applied in nondestructive testing, using experimental research in SAW excitation, signal identification, acoustic geometry, and other practical considerations. Meanwhile, LSAW physical characteristics were researched only theoretically and there are almost no publications on experimental phase velocity and attenuation measurements, LSAW transformation into other type

2.1

LSAW and TSAW theory

waves, and research about other types of propagation. There are no attempts to employ experimental methods to metrology, material science, nor seismology. In seismic events these waves manifest a startling destructive force near the epicentre when the seismic focus is not deep. Typically in scientific literature LSAW are not uniquely identified; they are enfolded with BLW, denoted by the letter P (in English primary wave), mostly called head wave.

Thus, according their origin and behaviour, LSAW are similar to TSAW (Rayleigh waves) and, in particular, constitute a Rayleigh wave antipode because of many opposite characteristics. In order to underline physical similarities and differences, in this book Rayleigh waves will be called transversal surface acoustic waves (TSAW), the term better suited for comparative analysis.

2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

Theoretically LSAW and TSAW are described analyzing bulk longitudinal waves (BLW) refraction in solid body. Generally, when incident wave is plane and does not diffract, in the boundary between two solid body forms not only reflected from the boundary and refracted in the second body longitudinal waves are composed but also transversal waves (Fig. 2.1) with the propagating angles described by the Snell’s law:

Fig. 2.1.

'

T ' A β T L ϑ β L γ T γ L
T
'
A
β T
L
ϑ
β L
γ T
γ L

A

First solid body

' A β T L ϑ β L γ T γ L A First solid body

"

A

L

"

T

A

Second solid body

Transitions of BLW in the boundary of two solid bodies

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

sin

ϑ

=

sin

β

T

sin

=

γ

L

sin

=

γ

T

 

'

'

''

''

,

c

L

c

T

c

L

 

c

T

(2.1)

where ϑ is the longitudinal wave incidence angle, β L and β T are the angles of reflected BLW and excited bulk transversal waves (BTW) in the first solid body; γ L and γ T are the angles of refracted BLW and

excited BTW in the second solid body;

BLW and BTW waves in the first body; BLW and BTW in the second solid body.

c

'

L

c

''

L

and

and

c

'

T

c

''

T

are the velocities of are the velocities of

The total reflection can occur in the second solid body if

,

when refracted wave (BLW or BTW) creeps along the boundary line (Fig. 2.2). The total reflection incidence angle of BLW is called the

first critical angle

'

''

''

c

L

> c > c

T

L

I

ϑ

cr

and is equal to

I

ϑ

cr

= arcsin

c

'

L

c

''

L

;

(2.2)

the total reflection angle of BTW is called the second critical angle and is equal to

II

ϑ

cr

II

ϑ

cr

= arcsin

c

'

L

c

''

T

.

(2.3)

The condition

the first material is liquid,

body is usually from organic material where the sound propagates in low speed (organic glass, polystyrene, kind of nylon) [71]. The additional condition to the first solid body, essential in ultrasonic wave band is minimal sound damping.

). If two bodies are solid, the first

always fulfilled in immersion case (when

'

''

''

c

L

> c > c

T

L

'

A

T

= 0

2.1

LSAW and TSAW theory

The longitudinal wave that has fallen in the first solid body to the first

critical angle

, BLW creeping along the surface of the second solid

body, excites LSAW in it (Fig. 2.2 a). Similarly, the longitudinal wave

, BTW creeping along the

that has fallen to the second critical angle

surface of the second body, excites TSAW there (Fig. 2.2 b).

I

ϑ

cr

II

ϑ

cr

' I β A ϑ T T cr ' A L β L First solid
'
I
β
A
ϑ
T
T
cr
'
A
L
β L
First solid body
AL 0
ALSAW
Second solid body
γ L = 90°
γ T
''
A
T

a)

II β L ϑ ' cr A T β T ' A L AL 0
II
β L
ϑ
'
cr
A
T
β T
'
A
L
AL 0
First solid body
ATSAW
Second solid body
γ T = 90 0

b)

Fig. 2.2.

Diagrams of LSAW (a) and TSAW (b) exciting by angular method

The harmonic wave of ω frequency propagation along the surface of homogeneous ideal isotropic solid body bordering with vacuum (Fig. 2.3) would be studied further.

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

Vacuum y x Solid body z
Vacuum
y
x
Solid body
z

Fig. 2.3.

Co-ordinate system on the solid surface

The motion of such body is described by the equation [72, 73]

ρ

2

r

U

d t

2

=

G

r

U

+

(

λ

+

)

r G grad divU ,

(2.4)

r

where U

is the particle displacement (shift) vector; t is the time, ρ

density; λis Leme constant; G is shear module,

=

2

2

2

x

2

y

2

z

2

+

+

is the Laplacian operator.

Having resoluted shift vector

along the surface and

and vectorial ψ potentials

r

U

=

r

U

L

+

r

U

T

into two components:

r

U

L

r

U

T

across the surface, associated with scalar ϕ

r

U

r

U

L

T

=

grad ϕ,

(2.5)

=

rotψ ,

(2.6)

two independent equations [70]

2.1

LSAW and TSAW theory

ρ

2

r

U

L

t

2

(

'

λ

+ 2 G

)

r

U

L

ρ

2

r

U

T

t

2

G

r

U

T

= 0

= 0,

are obtained from Eq. (2.4).

Potentials ϕ and ψ are the solutions [73] of wave equations

2

ϕ

+

2

ϕ

=

1

2

ϕ

 

x

2

2

ψ

+

2

z

2

ψ

=

c

2

L

t

2

,

1

2

ψ

x

2

2

z

 

c

2

T

t

2

.

(2.7)

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.10)

Potentials ϕ and ψ on the surface of free solid body depend only on co- ordinates x and z and are expressed by equations [6, 73]:

 2 2  ϕ = A exp − z k − k + i
2
2
ϕ
= A
exp
− z
k
− k
+ i k x −
(
ω
t
)
L
2
2
ψ =
B exp
iz
k
k
+
i kx
(
−ω
t
);
T
 

where

ρ is the number of BLW, k L ' = λ + 2 G ρ
ρ
is the number of BLW,
k L
'
= λ
+ 2 G
ρ
is the number of BTW,
k T
G

; (2.11)

(2.12)

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

k L < k < k T , ω is the angular frequency, A = const, B = const.

The amplitudes of solid body particles vibration along x and z axes are:

ξ

x

ξ

z

=

=

ϕ

ψ

x

z

ϕ

+

ψ

z

x

,

(2.13)

.

(2.14)

Having solved those wave equations, the natural (Rayleigh) equation of the sixth order [27] is got and has the form

2 ) 6 16(1 − r m + 8(2 r where k m = k
2
)
6
16(1 − r
m
+
8(2
r
where
k
m =
k
T
is the number of BLW,
k
c
L
T
r =
=
k
T c
L

2

3)

m

+

m

4

8

2

is the number of BTW.

1

− =

0,

(2.15)

 

(2.16)

(2.17)

As it is shown in [27], this equation for the real solid bodies has only one real radical

m

2

=

k

2

c

T

=

k

T

c

TSAW

(2.18)

2.1

LSAW and TSAW theory

that describes TSAW, propagating in solid bodies (0.26 < µ < 0.5) and one complex radical

k c T m = 1 = c k T LSAW
k c
T
m
=
1 =
c
k T
LSAW

(2.19)

that corresponds LSAW; where

, k 2 is the TSAW number; c TSAW is the TSAW

phase velocity; c LSAW is the LSAW phase velocity;

is the standard attenuation

coefficient for the wavelength λ LSAW .

m

1

= n

1

+ in

2

,

n 1

= k

1

k

T

= c

T

=

c

LSAW

( 1
(
1

c

+

LSAW

iα

1 )

c LSAW

, α

LSAW

=

n

2

T = c LSAW ( 1 c + LSAW i α 1 ) c LSAW ,

n

1

The complex character of phase velocity

even in perfect material is the damped surface wave. This “natural” LSAW attenuation is induced by BTW eradiation into solid body propagating along the surfaces. LSAW attenuation coefficient depends on Poisson’s ratio µ, when µ > 0.26 and grows together [27].

shows that LSAW

c LSAW

The vibration velocity components of solid surface layer along x and z axis on the LSAW are described by formulae [27]:

v x

v z

 2 2  = ikA exp − z k − k + i (
2
2
= ikA
exp
− z
k
− k
+ i
( kx −
ω t
)+ 
L
 
2
2
2
2
2 k
k
k
k
k
L
T
2
v 2
+
A
exp
iz
k
2
k
+
kx
(
T −
2
v 2
)
k
− 2
k
 
T
2
2
2
2
(
=− k
− k
A
exp
− z
k
− k
+ i kx −
ω t
)− 
L
L
2
2
2
2 k
k
− k
L
A
exp
2
2
iz
k
k
+
kx
ω t
.
T −
2
2
k
− 2
k
T

ω

t

,

(2.20)

 

(2.21)

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

The surface tensions in LSAW are:

[ ( 2 2 )( ' ) 2 ] × Txx = 2 G k
[
(
2
2
)(
'
)
2
] ×
Txx
=
2
G
k
k
λ
2
G
k
L
L
2
2
×
A
exp
z
k
k
+
i
( kx
ω t
)+ 
T
2
2
2
2
2
4
iGk
k
k
k
k
T
L
+
×
(
2
2
)
k
− 2
k
T
2
2
×
A
exp
 i 
z
k
k
+
kx
ω
t
,
T
 
2
2
2
2
=
2iGkA
k
k
exp i kx
ω
t
+
z
k
k
T xz
L
T
2
2
(
)
− exp
  − z
k
− k
+ i kx −
ω
t
L
,
[
2
2
] A
2
2
(
T =
2
Gk
(
λ
+
2
G k
)
exp
− z
k
zz
L
− k
+ i kx −
L

×

2 2 2 2 2 4 iGk k − k k − k T L
2
2
2
2
2
4 iGk
k
k
k
k
T
L
×
(
2
2
)
k
− 2
k
T
2
2
A
exp
 i 
z
k
k
+
T
kx
 

ω

t

.

(2.22)

(2.23)

ω

t

)

(2.24)

2.1

LSAW and TSAW theory

The material point of surface body surface (z = 0) in LSAW propagating in ideal solid surface is described by (2.20) and (2.21) formulae. It moves in ellipse trajectory with major axis pointed parallel to the surfaces; so tangential (to the direction of x axis) vibration component ξ x is bigger than normal (to the direction of z axis) component ξ z (Fig. 2.4, a).

ξ z

ξ z ξ x z a) b)
ξ z
ξ x
z
a)
b)

ξ x

z
z

c)

Fig. 2.4.

Movement trajectory of the surface point (a) and its vibration amplitude dependence on depth z during LSAW propagation by the normal (b) and tangential (c) directions

LSAW penetration depth in z axis direction does not exceed 2λ L ; so LSAW energy is concentrated in the layer of particular thickness near the surface of solid body. It is dependent to LSAW that maximal density of acoustic energy (E LSAW ) max is not on the surface wall (z = 0), but a bit deeper.

The material surface point moves in the ellipse trajectory when TSAW propagates on the surface of ideal isotropic body surface, but its major axis differently than in LSAW case is perpendicular to the surface, so the amplitude of normal vibrations is bigger than tangential (ξ z >ξ x ) (Fig. 2.5, a).

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

TSAW maximal density of acoustic energy (E TSAW ) max is on the surface of solid body (z = 0) and so it differs from LSAW.

Theoretical research shows that LSAW phase velocity c LSAW is Poisson’s ratio µ function also to the materials with µ < 0.32, c LSAW >c L .

The penetration depth of

not

the

LSAW and TSAW commonly does

wavelength

(

≈ , z LSAW λ LSAW →0 ξ x z , ξ x z
,
z LSAW
λ LSAW
→0
ξ x z
,
ξ x
z

exceed

surface

≈ z TSAW λ TSAW ξ x z , → 0 ξ z ξ x
z TSAW
λ TSAW
ξ x z
,
→ 0
ξ z
ξ x

).

ξ z z
ξ z
z

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 2.5.

Movement trajectory of the surface point (a) and its vibration amplitude dependence on depth z during TSAW propagation by the normal (b) and tangential (c) directions

The main characteristics of LSAW and TSAW (given in comparative Table 2.1) allow understanding the differences of those waves that determine the sphere of their use and availability for solving different acoustic problems.

2.1

LSAW and TSAW theory

Table 2.1.

The main LSAW and TSAW characteristics

N

 

Property

 

LSAW

   

TSAW

 

1

2

Angular exciting conditions(ϑ max )

Propagation nature:

ϑ max =

I

ϑ

cr

E

LSAW

 

Solid body

 

ϑ max =

II

ϑ

cr

 

direction

λ LSAW z
λ
LSAW
z
LSAW

LSAW

 

ETSAW

λ TSAW
λ
TSAW

TSAW

TSAW

localization

 

BTW

 
 

z

E

LSAW

 

ETSAW

 

attenuation

 
α LSAW > 0
α LSAW > 0
 
α TSAW = 0
α TSAW = 0
 

x

 

x

α LSAW > 0, when 0.26 < µ < 0.5 α TSAW 0, when µ 0

α TSAW 0

 

wave interaction with the surface

Weak

 

Strong

3

Trajectory of

Ellipse with the major axis perpendicular to the surface

Ellipse with the major axis parallel to the surface

particle vibration

4

Components of the surface particle vibrations

ξ x > ξ z

 

ξ x < ξ z

 

5

Velocity

c LSAW c L

c TSAW c T

6

Vibration amplitude change character, receding from the surface

Exponential attenuation, penetration depth

 

Exponential attenuation, penetration depth

 

z

LSAW

ξ

,

x z

λ

LSAW

>

0

λ

TSAW

 

z

TSAW

ξ

,

x z

λ

TSAW

<

0

λ

LSAW

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

LSAW in isotropic solids can be excited in the same ways as TSAW [9, 73], but the efficiency of LSAW and TSAW exciting differs greatly. LSAW has “natural” attenuation depending on solid body properties (Poisson’s ratio, solidity, fragility), the most active methods and rather sensitive ultrasonic transducers must be used for their exciting.

The classical ultrasonic frequency band SAW exciting methods are:

exciting by X-cut quartz crystal attached to the edge of

solid body; exciting by Y-cut quartz crystal having acoustic contact

with the surface; exciting by the oscillating periodical line structure;

exciting by the angular transducer;

exciting by electromagnetic acoustic method;

exciting by thermo-acoustic method.

2.2.1 LSAW exciting by X-cut quartz crystal

The vibrant quartz surface excited edge in the range of the right angle propagates spherical transversal and LBW that propagating along the free surface can excite not only TSAW but also LSAW, when X-cut quartz crystal will be attached to the edge of the right angle (Fig. 2.6 a).

Fig. 2.6.

45° P SAW SAW
45°
P
SAW
SAW

a)

P

SAW b)
SAW
b)

SAW exciting by X-cut quartz crystal P

2.2

LSAW exciting and receiving methods

Unfortunately, only rather weak LSAW can be excited by this method because only a small part of piezo-crystal acoustic energy becomes LSAW energy [74]. The efficiency of exciting is the biggest when quartz crystal makes 45° angle with the surface, but because of the small contact area and small vibration amplitudes of quartz piezo- crystal, such case of exciting is not sufficiently efficient and is used rarely. Sometimes for enlargement of piezoelectric transducer vibration amplitude are used more effective piezo-crystals (lithium niobate LiNbO 3 , barium titanate BaTiO 3 , or plumbum-zirconium-titanate piezoceramics PZT).

Exciting by piezo-crystal, attached to the right angle wall near the edge perpendicular to the exploratory surface is one version of the use of this method (Fig. 2.6, b) [75]. Yet even having used the modification of this method for special LSAW exciting [25], the authors could not register LSAW on the free surface of quartz sand [76]. So, X-cut quartz method, as non-efficient, does not fit for LSAW exciting.

2.2.2 Y-cut quartz crystal method

Two SAW propagating into opposite sides (x and –x directions) are excited near the edge quivering Y-cut quartz crystal acoustically contacting with the solid body (agglutinated, edged through the viscous liquid, e.g., epoxy) (Fig. 2.7).

P SAW SAW x BTW z
P
SAW
SAW
x
BTW
z

Fig. 2.7.

SAW exciting by Y-cut quartz crystal P

Such SAW (TSAW and LSAW) exciting method is non-efficient because in this case the most part of acoustic energy falls on the BTW.

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

2.2.3 Periodical mechanical linear structure method

SAW transducer formed from piezo-crystal and periodical linear structure is used for LSAW exciting by this method (Fig. 2.8). Electrodic SAW type exciting method in piezo-materials is simulated by such transducer. Periodical mechanical stresses with dimensional frequency are equal to surface wavelength λ SAW and are formed on isotropic solid body by such transducer.

P PS SAW SAW x z
P
PS
SAW
SAW
x
z

Fig. 2.8.

SAW exciting by linear periodical vibration structure, where P is piezo-crystal, and PS is periodical structure

Nevertheless, the great progress in the sphere of precision mechanics allows producing precise periodic structures, suitable for exciting SAW of hundreds of megahertz frequency [77]; the energetic efficiency of such transducers is small because of inevitable losses associated with diffractive bulk wave propagation into solid body. Besides, LSAW and TSAW are excited at the same time using this method, so the acoustic energy is lost and its efficiency diminishes.

2.2.4 Angular method

Periodical mechanical stresses on the solid surface are designed by angular method just in the same case as by periodic linear vibration system but much more simpler. The angular methods can be:

immerse (liquid prism); solid body prism.

2.2

LSAW exciting and receiving methods

Solid body, analyzed by immerse method, is plunged into a liquid (e.g. water) and a plane ultrasonic wave is oriented to its surface by acute angle ϑ. So, the periodical mechanical tension area with the length depending on the dimension of piezo-crystal and fixed incidence angle ϑ are formed on the solid surface. SAW (LSAW and TSAW) are exited

on the surface if the ultrasonic incident critical angles (

or

(

I

ϑ = ϑ

cr

ϑ

= ϑ

cr

) are set.

II

The advantage of immerse method is that the ultrasonic incidence angle to the surface can be easily changed. The ultrasonic velocity in liquids is always less than BLW velocity in solids (in water c = 1480 m/s, when T = 20°C), so not only LSAW but also TSAW can be excited almost in all solids (also in plastics). One of the mentioned advantages is less ultrasonic wavelength in liquid; so ultrasonic wave diffracts less (is more “plane”) when piezo-crystal has constant transverse dimension of invariable frequency. Such directional characteristic of ultrasonic transducer is narrower and this is very actual carrying out angle research.

The immerse method has several shortcomings also. One of the major shortages is that ultrasonic attenuation in liquids is bigger than in solids and for this reason the efficiency of SAW in high (megahertz) frequency exciting is becoming weaker. TSAW excited on the surface of plunged into liquid investigative solid body (product) becomes inhomogeneous wave (pseudo-Rayleigh wave), eradiating side bulk waves into immerse liquid in its propagation path. The damped TSAW loses the main advantage with regard to LSAW. The angular transducers with liquid prisms are constructed for the elimination of those shortcomings. This is the combination of immerse and prism methods useful because BTW do not propagate in liquid prism and the inner reverberations of transducers can be easier reduced. The construction of such prisms is complex, especially when prism has the variable angle.

The working principle of solid body prism method is similar to immerse method, but the triangular solid body prism with the attached

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

piezo-crystal on one edge and creating plane BLW is used there. The other prism edge is attached to the solid surface through thin liquid layer (usually motor oil) that makes the acoustic contact in the place where SAW is excited (Fig. 2.9). It would be simple to achieve h << λ (where h is the thickness of the layer, λ is the bulk wave length in liquid) in the case when the research is carried out in comparably low ultrasonic frequency range (megahertz) and then the coefficient of bulk acoustic wave crossing the liquid layer becomes close to zero.

In order to excite LSAW, prism must be made from the material with

the longitudinal wave velocity

must be met in order to

in investigative solid

excite TSAW. Prism is usually made of plastics (c L of Plexiglass is 2680 m/s, c L of nylon is 2680 m/s, c L of polystyrene is 2320-2450 m/s) [76] and this allows exciting not only LSAW but TSAW also.

c

L lower than longitudinal wave velocity

c

'

L

< c

''

T

'

c

''

L

. The condition

Piezo-crystal ϑ Prism d c L SAW N x z
Piezo-crystal
ϑ
Prism
d
c L
SAW
N
x
z

Fig. 2.9.

SAW angle exciting method, where N is bulk wave incidence point and d is the cross size of piezo-crystal

The appropriate angles of LSAW and TSAW exciting by prism method are the same as if exciting by immerse method. The maximal TSAW transducer sensibility is achieved when piezo-crystal’s front point of eradiated BLW projection to the surface coincides with the prism angle (Fig. 3.9) as prism surface damps TSAW. While it is not relevant to LSAW because it weakly interacts with the surface propagating not on

2.2

LSAW exciting and receiving methods

the surface but a bit deeper and the attached prism has a little influence (does not damp). While, SAW is excited not only to the x direction but to the opposite also, but practically TSAW amplitude to the –x direction is 30-40 dB and in the case of LSAW is 25 dB less than to +x direction.

The transducers with variable angle must be used for exciting LSAW and TSAW in unknown or with different acoustic properties solids having the same transducer. Having evaluated the sound velocity dependence change in solids on temperature, the variable angular transducer would allow the precise fixing of the most effective exciting angles of LSAW and TSAW after the change of the temperature. The variable angular transducers are especially useful for NDT or measurements alternately using SAW of different type (LSAW and TSAW) [26, 28, 32]. The transducers of different structure variable angle are used in practice [51, 65]. The cylindrical polystyrene prism with the polystyrene slipper and adjusted piezo-crystal can be used for the change of ultrasonic incidence angle (Fig. 2.10).

ϑ Piezo-crystal Slipper l( ϑ ) Prism SAW N Fig. 2.10. Prism SAW transducer with
ϑ
Piezo-crystal
Slipper
l( ϑ )
Prism
SAW
N
Fig. 2.10.
Prism SAW transducer with variable angle

This transducer is superior because acoustic wave access to solid body point N does not change its place changing the incidence angle ϑ. It is especially convenient for measurement the distances by SAW. But it has several shortcomings. The principal shortages are:

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

changing the position of the slipper 2, the couplant (motor oil) removes under it, and the quality of acoustic contact changes; that determines instability of research for SAW and reduces the reliability of the results;

the front part of solid prism with the thickness d acoustically damps SAW (especially TSAW);

the prism damping part area l depends on incidence angle ϑ (l = l(ϑ)), so SAW attenuation varies without forecast if SAW excitation angle ϑ is changed.

Variable angular SAW transducer of better construction (simplified company’s Krautkramer-NDT transducer’s [65]) is shown in Fig. 2.11

[51].

Lateral bulk wave Prism Scattering surface Couplant structure ϑ Piezo-crystal Cylindrical body cSAW N
Lateral bulk wave
Prism
Scattering surface
Couplant
structure
ϑ
Piezo-crystal
Cylindrical body
cSAW
N

Fig. 2.11.

Simplified SAW transducer’s construction of variable angle

This SAW angular transducer consists of Plexiglass prism with the hole where the cylindrical figure piezo-crystal header from the same material is set. The plane is milled in the header till the axial line with the agglutinated piezo-crystal made from PZT piezoceramics. The entire empty cavity and a narrow gap between the body (prism and cylindrical header) are filled with couplant (silicone oil). The bulk plane ultrasonic wave crosses the cylindrical insert into prism almost without losses because acoustic contact is made between two concentric cylindrical surfaces of the same material and the thickness of the

2.2

LSAW exciting and receiving methods

couplant layer is << λ. Exciting SAW by the angular method a part of bulk acoustic wave reflects to the solid prism and attenuates propagating in it or is scattered because of multiplex reflection on the structures formed on the prism surface.

The described SAW transducer has several advantages, such as: good acoustic contact persistent stable changing incidence angle ϑ; minimal acoustic energetic losses because of the change of incidence angle ϑ; right geometry. The only shortage is the dependence of acoustic energy access to the researched solid surface point N of incidence angle ϑ that yet has no reason when the measurements are conducted in the same solid; so, the acoustic properties remain constant when the fixed optimum incidence angle is ϑ = const.

It should be noted that the efficiency of LSAW exciting by universal angular transducer couldn’t be optimal, because angle is always

(c T < c L ). The transducer’s sensibility material of prism should

be chosen so that

ϑ <ϑ

cr

cr

I

II

I

ϑ

cr

= 45° for maximal LSAW.

2.2.5 Electromagnetic acoustic method

The non-contact electromagnetic acoustic method is broadly applied for SAW exciting in magnetic materials. Using this method the coil is set in magnetic field near the surface and it is excited by alternating electric current. Generated alternating magnetic field on the surface of metal creates vortex current that interacting with extra-enclosed constant magnetic field excites SAW because of acoustomagnetic phenomenon [78]. The surface of electrically nonconducting materials is metallized for exciting vortex SAW [79]. This method is broadly applied in NDT for the railing and carriage wheels [80].

The biggest shortcomings of electromagnetic acoustic transducers are that the sensibility in comparison to piezoelectric transducers is in two ranks less and the resistance to electromagnetic interference is small.

2

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

2.2.6 Thermo-acoustic method

Thermo-acoustic method originated and had spread together with lasers that can establish electromagnetic (luminous) fluxes of concentrated high energy. They can heat the solid surfaces locally and during the very short time. The solid surface (e.g. metal) during few nanoseconds can be heated even to the melting point when the electromagnetic density is high. Very high temperature and mechanic stress gradients generating metal deformations propagating in solid body in the shape of sound (ultrasonic) waves [81–84] are designed by short pulse (duration τ i = 10…30 ns) of pulsed lasers (e.g. Nd:YAG laser, wavelength Λ = 1.06 µm, ruby – Λ = 0.694 µm). Linear optical lattice [85], composed of unique width transparent and non-transparent tapes set alternately and after lightening by powerful laser with the periodical mechanical tensions can be used for exciting harmonic SAW. Harmonic SAW is excited on the surface by this method if the lattice period is equal to the surface wavelength.

Space laser pulse is designed on solid surface while mechanical tension (pressure) pulse in non-modeled; its shape is shown in Fig. 2.12.

If τ i << l/α 0 c, where α 0 is the surface light absorption coefficient, c is sound velocity in solid body, so the intensity of Gauss form laser pulse is

I

0

f

()

t

= I

0

exp

[

(

/

t τ

i

)

2

],

(2.25)

where f is the frequency; t is the time; τ i is laser pulse duration.

Pressure pulse front length ~l/f is designed on the solid surface, if α 0 = const in broad frequency range f (Fig. 2.12, curve 1). Pressure pulse front on the dielectric surface is described by exponent exp(α 0 cτ i ) (Fig. 2.12, curve 2).

2.2

LSAW exciting and receiving methods

The advantage of acoustic wave exciting by laser method in comparison to others is that the analysis can be done in a distance, even in transparent environment without the influence on the exploratory surface. The precise acoustic measurements on NDT in hostile environment and also in vacuum placed objects can be done by it. But in many cases of pulse measurements, several types of acoustic waves (BLW, BTW, LSAW and TSAW) with the signals that can coincide regarding the time are exited simultaneously; the signals of slower waves can be summed with the inner reflections of faster waves. This deforms the dimensional signal form and for this reason the precision of the measurements becomes lower. Besides, the problems of signal interpretation and identification in small or complex objects can arise.

and identification in small or complex objects can arise. Fig. 2.12. Pressure gradient form induced by

Fig. 2.12.

Pressure gradient form induced by pulse laser on the solid surface [86]: 1 – highly mechanically damping surface; 2 – free dielectric surface

In this regard LSAW in many cases being the quickest wave has great advantage because its signals come into recipient the first and LSAW measurements cannot be disturbed. Laser exciting method allows performing precise comparative LSAW and TSAW velocity and attenuation measurements.

3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

According to theory (Chapter 2), velocities on solid isotropic surfaces essentially differ from velocities previously attributed to TSAW, Rayleigh waves. Until LSAW discovery, LSAW were registered only in seismograms, and were viewed rather disapprovingly as potentially destructive mechanical energy. Nowadays LSAW are used as handy SAW, generated by special means, such as ultrasonic transducers or laser pulses. Unique LSAW features facilitate quantitatively different results in otherwise traditional SAW applications, such as nondestructive ultrasonic testing. LSAW also opened new fields offering original, qualitative findings.

More expansive LSAW use, in conjunction with bulk acoustic waves (longitudinal, transversal) and also with SAW of a different type, such as TSAW, opens new possibilities. Just as TSAW (Rayleigh waves) are used widely in microelectronics for novel UHF devices, LSAW use in this area is also promising [87–93]. UHF-type LSAW devices are of bigger parameters because of high LSAW propagation speed in piezoelectric materials (c LSAW > c TSAW ); it allowed broadening the range of device processing to 2,5–5 GHz [89, 90, 94]. By the way, analogous LSAW waves in crystals UHF in SAW technique frequently are called pseudo-Rayleigh waves (pseudo-SAW) or leaky SAW. At times, rarely they are called longitudinal leaky SAW [91, 92]. Since the object of our research lies in isotropic solids, propagation of LSAW in crystals will not be considered to any extent in this work.

3.1 LSAW usage in nondestructive testing

NDT with LSAW is based on their distinct properties as compared to TSAW. As can be seen in Table 2.1, LSAW and TSAW differ in many properties and propagation characteristics. Phase velocity is an important parameter here: the value of TSAW phase velocity is close to

3.1

LSAW usage in nondestructive testing

BTW value while LSAW velocity is similar to that of BLW. The fact is due to different LSAW and TSAW excitation conditions. In solids,

LSAW-impacted surface particles move with trajectory of ellipse which semimajor axis is parallel to the solid surface (Fig. 2.4). While in the case of TSAW the semimajor axis of ellipse is square to the surface (Fig. 2.5).

Very important LSAW characteristic in NDT practice is self-eradiation. LSAW loses a part of its energy (i.e. damps) because propagating LSAW even in free solid surface eradiates BTW receding from the surface deeper into the solid.

Otherwise, this property is used for exciting secondary LSAW (LSAW II) by side waves in the other (inner) surface of exploratory shell (Fig. 3.1).

I ϑ Angular transducer cr LSAW I d Defect BTW Shell
I
ϑ
Angular transducer
cr
LSAW I
d
Defect
BTW
Shell

Fig. 3.1.

LSAW II

Registration of inner surface defects by secondary LSAW II on an inner surface of a solid shell

It is known that SAW penetration depth is z p (1.2-1.4)λ p ; where index p signifies surface wave. 97% of wave acoustic energy is concentrated in the layer of z p thickness. SAW propagates deeper

3

LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

than TSAW because c LSAW > c TSAW and λ LSAW > λ TSAW . Energetic maximum in LSAW is not on the surface but in particular depth (0.1λ LSAW ). This is one more fundamental difference between TSAW and LSAW that can give new LSAW application opportunities. The assumption to use LSAW for the NDT of near surface layer is LSAW property to propagate near the surface layer. LSAW is not sensitive to the surface mechanical state (coarseness, corrosion, and paint) because of this property and this is especially useful while exploring coarse thread surfaces (Fig. 3.2).

LSAW transducer DEFECTOSCOPE Solid surface LSAW Defect a) LSAW transducer Welding seal DEFECTOSCOPE LSAW Defect
LSAW transducer
DEFECTOSCOPE
Solid surface
LSAW
Defect
a)
LSAW transducer
Welding seal
DEFECTOSCOPE
LSAW
Defect
b)
LSAW transducer
DEFECTOSCOPE
Defect
Thread surface
LSAW
c)

Fig. 3.2. NDT using LSAW: a) the pre-surface defect; b) the crack under the welding seal; c) the defect under the thread surface