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Defect name Description Causes

Lack of side wall fusion Failure of weld metal to fuse to Current too low, travel speed too high, incorrect torch
weld preparation angle, oxide film on prep. Surfaces, inadequate joint
cleaning, weld preparation too narrow.
Lack of inter-run fusion Failure of weld metal to fuse to Current too low, travel speed too high, incorrect torch
preceding run angle, inadequate inter-run cleaning.
Lack of root fusion Root bead fully penetrated but Current too low, voltage too low, travel speed too high, root
not fused to root face face too thick, root gap too wide, incorrect touch angle,
inadequate cleaning.
Poor restart (cold start) Lack of fusion beneath weld Incorrect welder technique
start position (see section 7.4.1),poor earthing.
Lack of penetration Failure to achieve the Current too low, travel speed too high, incorrect torch
minimum penetration specified angle, incorrect weld prep.
by design
Insufficient (lack of)root penetration Failure of weld metal to Current too low, travel speed too fast, root face too thick,
penetrate fully root faces root gap too small, incorrect torch angle, misalignment
Excess penetration Unacceptable protrusion of the Current too high, travel speed too slow, root gap too wide,
root bead root face too thin
Root or face undercut Notch parallel to weld at weld Current too low, travel speed too fast ,incorrect torch
at weld toe. Prevalent at top angle, inadequate cleaning
edge of PB fillet
Excess convexity Excess weld metal on the face Current too low, voltage too low,
of a
Excess weld metal (excess cap height) Butt or fillet weld Incorrect torch manipulation
Incomplete fill (face concavity or Insufficient weld metal fill Poor welder technique, travel speed too fast, current too
missed edge). Insufficient throat in giving groove on weld face low, incorrect torch positioning
fillet welds resulting in insufficient throat
Root concavity Root pass ‘sucked back’ to Current too high, root gap too wide, root face too thin
give a shallow groove
Burn-through Localised loss of weld pool in Current too high, travel speed too slow,
root root face too thin, root gap too large
Overlap (roll-over) Weld metal that has rolled over Weld bead too large, current too high, travel speed too
at the edges and not fused to slow, prevalent in horiz. Vert. Welds, inadequate cleaning
the parent metal. May be face
or root
Porosity Gas entrapped in weld metal Dirty consumable, poorly cleaned or dirty weld
giving a cavity. May be face or preparations, contaminated shield gas, contaminated
root (hydrogen containing)parent metal –especially castings,
oxide film on parent metal, porous gas hoses, leaks in gas
delivery system, condensation, poor joint design trapping
gas (see chapter 2)
Worm-hole (piping) Elongated gas cavity formed Excessive current, travel speed too slow
by solidification of large weld
Crater pipe Elongated cavity in the weld Incorrect welder technique-lack of crater fill
Solidification cracking Cracks in weld produced Incorrect choice of filler metal, failure to pre parathion,
during welding crack susceptible parent
Crater cracking Short longitudinal or star- Incorrect welder technique, lack of crater fill
shaped crack in finish crater

Liquation cracking Cracking In the HAZ or in Incorrect Filler metal, crack sensitive parent metal, high
previously deposited weld restraint ,high heat input (see chapter 2)
Oxide entrapment Oxide films trapped within the Oxide films in or on parent metal, oxide films in or on
weld metal filler metal ,oxygen in shield gas, poor gas shielding,
inadequate cathodic cleaning
Puckering Excessive oxide entrapment Poor gas cover, very high weld current
from weld pool turbulence

Tungsten or copper inclusions Accidental contact of the Poor welder gas technique, incorrect mechainsed set-up
electrode (TIG) or contact
Stray arc strike Accidental arcing outside weld Welder carelessness
Spatter Droplets of weld metal Poor welder technique, incorrect weld parameters
expelled from weld pool
Under flushing Thinning below design Excessive grinding