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Week 1 Exercise

1) Outline the advantages and disadvantage of database approach

Advantages of the Database Approach:
1. Data Independence:
The data is held in such a way that changes to the structure of the database do not effect any of the
programs used to access the data.
2. Consistency of Data:
Each item of data is held only once therefore no danger of item being updated on one system and
not on another.
3. Control over Redundancy:
In a non-database system, the same information may be held on several files. This wastes space and
makes updating more time-consuming. A database system minimizes these effects.
4. Integrity of Data:
The DBMS provides users with the ability to specify constraints on data such as making a field
entry essential or using a validation routine.
5. Greater Security of Data:
The DBMS can ensure only authorized users are allowed access to the data.
6. Centralized Control of Data :
The Database Administrator will control who has access to what and will structure the database
with the needs of the
7.More Information Available to Users :
Users have access to a wider range of data that was previously held in separate departments and
sometimes on incompatible systems.
8. Increased Productivity:
The DBMS provides an easy to use query language that allows users to get immediate response
from their queries rather than having to use a specialist "programmer" to write queries for them.
Whole department in mind

= Disadvantages of the Database Approach =

1. Larger Size:
More disk space is required and probably a larger and more powerful computer.
2. Greater Complexity:
For optimum use the database must be very carefully designed. If not done well, the new system
may fail to satisfy anyone.
3. Greater Impact of System Failure:
"All eggs in one basket."
4. More Complex Recovery Procedures:
If a system failure occurs it is vital that no data is lost.

2) Discus the advantage and disadvantage of File base system (Flat system).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Flat Database File System
Although flat file database system is the legacy database concept but you are amaze to know its still
used in some modern system include Microsoft Windows and Linux for storing of system
configuration. Let explore the flat database system advantages and disadvantages.

• Easy to understand.
• Easy to implement.
• Less hardware and software requirements.
• Less Skills set are required to hand flat database systems.
• Best for small databases.

• Less security easy to extract information.

• Data Inconsistency
• Redundancy
• Sharing of information is cumbersome task
• Slow for huge database
• Searching process is time consuming

3) Define the following relational database key and give examples
1 Composite key
2 Primary key
3 Candidate key
4 foreign key
4) What is the relationship between data and information in respect of a database?

5) Explain the basic concepts of data modelling

6) Discus the function of Database Management System?

7) Explain and give example the three Level Database Architecture

8) What is entity?
1 are something about which a company wants to store data
2 a table and relationship of a database
3 rows and columns of a table
4 All the Above

9) Explain the two database integrity and give example?

10) What does it mean a business rule in datamodelling?

11) What is SQL and give me one

example of it's importance.

12) SQL has 3 types of operations, what are they, give examples

13) What is SQL QUERY, explain how SQL queries are executed (give example)

14) What SQL keyword specifies columns? What are the 3 points to remember when using
15) When would you use the WHERE clause?

16) What are some of the comparison operators? Give an example.

17) What are some of the Logical Operators? Give examples?

18) What is data redundancy, data redundancy leads to data anomalies, describe such anomalies
give examples.

19) Explain the difference between connectivity and cardinality?

20) Explain reclusive relationship and give example?

21) Why do we use assumption when drawing ER diagram

22) Read the following topics

Views, Grant
RDBMS/file system
Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus
Database Architecture
SQL Operation
Data modelling (not design but understanding in data modelling
Database transaction