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Biology Summary Sheet:


Health is a state of physical, mental and social well being. Free from disease and infirmity, balanced diet and suitably housed with proper sanitation.

Disease is a departure from good health. A malfunction in the body or mind which causes physical or mental symptoms. Impairs the normal functioning of an organism

An infectious disease is a disease caused by living organisms and can be passed from individual to individual. Eg- Malaria, HIV and TB

A pathogen is an organism which causes damage to another organism it infects. Live by taking nutrition from their host and in the process cause damage. Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses are pathogens.

A parasite is an organism which lives in or on another living organism. It gets nutrition from the host and benefits at the expense of the host. Tapeworms and Head Lice are parasites.

Bacteria: Prokaryote, reproduce rapidly, cause disease by damaging cells or releasing waste which is toxic. Eg. Cholera (Vibrio Cholerae), TB (Mycobacterium Tuberculosis)

Fungi: Lives in the skin. Release reproductive hyphae which grow on surface of skin and release spores. Cause rash and irritation. Eg.Athletes foot & Ringworm (Tinea)

Viruses: Invade cells. Take over genetic machinery and organelles. Cause cell to manufacture copies. Host cell bursts releasing Viruses. Eg.Influenza, HIV/AIDS

Malaria (parasite)

Caused by a single celled eukaryotic parasite called plasmodium.

Transmitted by Female Anopheles Mosquitoes. They carry the disease but don ʼ t cause it (called Vectors)

Feed on blood of infected person - suck up parasite gametes.

Zygotes develop in mosquito stomach- infective stages move to salivary glands.

Mosquito bites another person - injects a little saliva.

Plasmodium infects liver and multiply before passing into blood again.

Infect red blood cells.

Also passed on by unhygienic medical practices, placenta from mother to child, unscreened blood transfusions.

HIV/AIDS (Virus)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) enters body.

Attacks and destroys T helper cells in the immune system - cells which normally help prevent infection.

HIV leads to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome - Immune system deteriorates and fails due to loss of WBCs.

Left vulnerable to pathogens which may enter body - may contract a range of opportunistic infections.

These diseases are what kills AIDS suffers.

Passed on in a number of ways: Exchange of bodily fluids, Unprotected sexual intercourse, unscreened blood transfusions, unsterilised surgical equipment, sharing needles, across placenta (mother to child), Breast feeding.

Tuberculosis (Bacteria)

Lung disease caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Spread by droplet infection - When an infected person coughs/sneezes etc, tiny droplets of saliva and mucus are thrown out. Some of these droplets will contain the bacteria.

Another person may inhale these droplets and so the bacteria is now inside their bodies too.

Many people with TB don ʼ t show symptoms. But if they are weakened by another disease or malnutrition, the infection can become active. They ʼ ll show the symptoms and be able to pass on the bacteria.

Usually takes close prolonged contact with an infected person to contract TB.

Contraction is made more likely by: overcrowding, poor ventilation, poor health, poor diet, homelessness.