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Comparison of Drop-Out between Community Model Schools

and Govt. Girls Primary School in The Punjab.

Researcher: Dr. Zahida Habib


zahidatariq_77@yahoo.com

About Author:

Dr Zahida Habib has the degree of M.Ed (Science) with major in “Chemistry and
Biology” from the Institute of Education, University of Punjab, Lahore in 1988. She also
did a diploma in Special Education (TD) in 1987 from Gung Mahal, Gulberg, Lahore.
She also earned Master degree in Punjabi from University of Punjab. She started her job
as SST in 1986 and worked for 24 years. She worked as Assistant Education Officer,
Headmistress in general education and special education. She worked in DSD as
coordination officer Lahore for 2 years. At present she is working as principal in
Education at Jounior Model School Samanabad, Lahore. She secured First position in
Punjab Public Service Commission.
In 2003, Mrs. Zahida Habib started her PhD in the discipline of Education at
University of Education, Lahore. After successfully qualifying the course requirement
currently she has completed her research project “A Comparative Study of Performance
of Community Model and Government Girls Primary Schools in Punjab”. She has
participated in number of conferences and presented papers in National and International
conferences. She got PhD degree in 2010 from University of Education, Lahore.

Abstract
Comparative research may help to assess the pace of project development, and explore
the impediments for adopting timely remedial measures. Community Model Schools were
established in 1994 under Girls Primary Education Project (GPEP). CMS were funded
by Asian Development Bank (ADB). This s research aimed to explore the role of ADB in
reducing the drop out rate and increasing the enrolment rate in Community Model
Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Punjab. The target population of the study
comprised of all Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in the
Punjab in Pakistan .However, the accessible population was three fifty schools (175

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Community Model Schools and 175 Govt. Girls Primary Schools) from thirty five
districts of the Punjab . To see difference in drop out rate and enrolment rate a sample
from each district ten Community Model and ten Govt. Girls Schools were randomly
selected.
Documentary facts were used for defining the dropout rate of Community Model Schools
and Govt. Girls Primary School in Punjab. A questionnaire of headmistress was
designed to investigate and collect data about dropout rate from school record. Data was
analyzed by using descriptive as well as inferential statistical techniques of mean,
standard deviation and t-test to compare both types of schools at 0.05 level of
significance. Results indicated that Community Model Schools showed less dropout rate
than Govt. Girls Primary Schools during the period 2001-2005.

Key words: GPEP, CMS and GGPS, Performance, Dropout rate.

Introduction

After the 18th amendment in the constitution of Pakistan education is now a provincial
matter and according to national educational policy 2009 we aimed to achieve 100
percent literacy rate. The major hindrance to achieve this target with specific reference
to Punjab province is the dropout at primary level. The present attempt is to address
the issues related to dropout and calculation of dropout rate at this level.
The situation about Primary Education in Pakistan is not better regarding girls primary
education especially in rural areas. The problem within the primary education sector is
both qualitative and quantitative. The role of the best school is very important in the
globalization of primary education in this era. There are still not appropriate facilities
to accommodate all students of school going age.
Drop out is defined as a student who left an educational institution for any reason

except death, before completion of a programme of studies and without transferring to

another school. The term was used to designate an elementary or secondary school

student who has been in membership during the regular academic year (Ahmed, 2006).

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A factor which contributes towards a high rural dropout rate in Pakistan can be

attributed to the agrarian based economy of Pakistan. Agriculture provides the main

source for Pakistan’s export earnings. In 1990, agriculture provided the highest ever

earnings towards the gross national product. Pakistan’s agriculture sector is densely

populated, with women and girls occupying 79 percent of the labor force. During times of

harvest, girls help their parents earn money for the year, thus meeting a dire need for the

family’s survival. As a result, during harvest seasons, grades 1–5 are empty in girls’

primary/elementary public schools, with the possibility that many girls will never return.

The use of girls as agricultural labor is but one indication of the state of girls’ education in

Pakistan. (Bari and Pal, 2000, Noshab, 2006, Latif, 2009).

Farah (2007) while analyzing the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey indicates

that the past decade has shown the highest dropout rates with minor fluctuations,

particularly for students transitioning from elementary to middle school.

Girls’ dropout rates are comparatively higher than those of boys in both rural and urban

areas. However, it does not take socio-cultural issues, particularly those associated with

women, into account. In addition, it overlooks the fact that most children in elementary

schools drop out of school due to family pressure to work at home or find employment as

cheap labor in farmlands during harvesting and ploughing seasons. Other contributing

factors are the family’s poverty, a lack of educational quality in the schools, and the

children’s lack of interest in school.

Education is the social process by which an individual learns the things necessary

to fit him to the life of his society. It was pointed out by Bhaskaracharyulu (2006) that the

drop out from the schools was a main hurdle in UPE. Malik (1999) said that primary

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education encounters great deficiency due to the drop out rate. The ratio of drop out

between grades 1 and 5 is 50-60%. Measures were taken in the form of compulsory

Primary Education Act for compulsory attendance, improved physical facilities,

stipends/scholarships and attractive school atmosphere. Girls education was affected the

most. A measure to counter the same for larger enrollment of girls could be in the form of

establishing separate girls schools and recruiting female teachers for far flung areas.

The drop out rate was the highest at the primary level in Pakistan. There were

certain reasons which increased the drop out rate. Yes Pakistan (2004c) gave two more

reasons for drop out as out-of-school and in-school factors. The out-of-school reason for

leaving primary schools was financial. Pakistani studies have shown that poverty was the

chief reason for forcing children out-of-school. One study of 1977 indicated that 79 % of

dropouts belong to low-income families. In these families, children also play the role of a

main source of income. Children must work to support their families or their families can

no longer afford to send them to schools. The main contributing factor towards drop out

in schools was low learning-achievement. Some children failed again and again and so

stayed in the same grade year after year. Such repetition reduced the benefits of schooling

with an increase in the cost of education. Corporal punishment in school was another

reason for drop out. In 1989, 52 % of Pakistani teachers were found to resort to physical

punishment in their classes. The students who dropped out of schools were more likely to

be unemployed and find less opportunity to utilize their skills.

According to the survey reports of 123 Community Model Schools in Faisalabad,

Bhakkar and Khanewal districts, Quality Improvement Centre GPEP-II (1997-2002) also

provided these statistics regarding the participation (admission rate) in the Nursery,

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classes. The admission (participation) of girls increased from 162.3 girls to 200.3 girls

per school. This increase was in prep class. It was 26.6 girls per school in 1997 which

increased to 52.9 girls in 2002. It was almost double; however, this increase was minor in

higher classes (0.3 girls only). In Govt. Girls Schools, the number of girl students during

three years out of the last five years increased on the average by 20.4% in each school.

This increase was also in class I. The participation rate was better in class one; however,

it could not touch the digit of 100%.

Lakshmi (2004) stated that 20% boys dropped-out because they had to help at

work; for 17% the school was too expensive 8% had to help at home while 8% thought

that the education was not useful. Sing (1994) discussed the problems what is really

needed is an improvement in the quality of education being imparted in the school and

the curricula. To mitigate high dropout rates the use of trained teacher’s methods to

engage children in learning and helping them to get high academic achievements can play

a significant role. Reigeluth and Beatty (2003) pointed out that children were left behind

in schools because:

1. They might have unfulfilled needs that boldly block or interfere with their process

of learning.

2. They might have lack of motivation to make the efforts necessary for learning.

3. They might have lack of fundamental knowledge required for promoting their

learning.

4. They might have lack of quality instruction to support their learning

A high drop out rate is a direct indicator of a poorly run school. This may be

because the school is not attractive enough for the student, or his socio economic

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condition does not allow him to attend school at a regular basis. The Community Model

School was put into operation to cater this particular affliction of the local school system.

For without countering the high drop out rate, efficient and effective educational

dispensation could never be made possible.

In our country Educational reforms have launched not only using indigenous
resource but also seeking loans from foreign agencies. The main purpose of these reforms
was to improve the teaching bearing environment especially at primary level. In our
country at elementary/primary level in girl’s schools there are two main problems i.e. (I)
high dropout rate and (ii) unable to admit 100% corresponding age group of girls. These
problems are less in urban areas as compared to rural areas.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to gather and utilize documentary data and perceptual data
from the school record in order to identify difference of dropout rate between the
Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls’ Primary School in Punjab. This study was
provided suitable information about the dropout rate in Community Model Schools and
Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Punjab along with the various causes of drop out rate and
techniques to improve the situation in this regard.

Research Questions

1. What is the difference between No. of Students enrolled in Class One five years
before in (2001) in CMS and GGPS?
2. What is the difference between No. of Students present in Class five in (2005) in
CMS and GGPS?
3. To what extent is there a difference in the dropout rate of students in CMS and
GGPS?

Methodology

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The study was a mixed qualitative and quantitative descriptive design.
The data were collected through document analysis and administrating
a questionnaire for the headmistress to collect the related data of CMS
and GGPS. A sample of 350 schools was taken as ten from each district of Punjab.
Both types of schools were taken in equal numbers, from each district. Documentary
facts were used for defining the dropout rate of Community Model Schools and Govt.
Girls Primary School in Punjab. A questionnaire of headmistress was designed to
investigate and collect data about dropout rate from school record. Data was analyzed by
using descriptive as well as inferential statistical techniques and t-test to compare both
types of schools at 0.05 level of significance. The simple random technique was used to
select the schools. The documentary analysis was made to answer the first research
questions. The answer of the second and third research question was obtained from the
responses of the headmistress questionnaires.

Data Collection Procedures

Data was collected by administering the questionnaire of headmistress. Questionnaires


were administered by the researchers personally. The response rate for the questionnaire
was 100% (n = 350)

Data Analysis Procedure

All of the administered surveys that had been received from respondents were examined.
The data was divided into two parts. The first part was covering the answer of first two
research questions. The second part showed the answer of the third research questions
and all the hypotheses of the study. The answer of the first question was discussed by the
document analysis and through the observations of these schools.

Findings and Discussion


The findings of the study were discussed according to the research questions.
Research Question 1

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What is the difference between No. of Students enrolled in Class One five years before in
(2001) in CMS and GGPS?

The answer of the first research question was discussed through the actual observations
of the both type of primary schools and documentary analysis. The difference between
No. of Students enrolled in Class One five years before in (2001) in CMS and GGPS is as
follows:
Comparison of Dropout Rate

To compare the dropout rates of the students, the data was taken from the school

record. The data consisted of number of student’s in class 1 in 2001 and number of

students in class 5 in 2005. In order to find out the dropout rate, difference in number of

students during these years was calculated. The data has been presented in the following

tables.

Table 1 Comparison of Number of Students (Class 1) in 2001 between

Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in

Punjab

Number of Community Model Schools Govt. Girls Primary Schools


Students n % N %
1-25 63 36.0 80 45.7
26-50 41 23.4 53 30.3
51-75 31 17.7 19 10.9
76-100 24 13.7 17 9.7
>100 16 9.1 6 3.4
Total 175 100 175 100
Average 46 36.44

Table 1 above compares the number of students in class one in 2001. It indicates

that 45.7% Govt. Girls Primary Schools have 1-25 number of students compared with

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36.01% Community Model Schools. 30.3% Govt. Girls Primary Schools have 25-50

number of students compared to with 23.4% Community Model Schools, while 17.7 %

Community Model Schools have 51-75 number of students in class one as compared to

10.9% of Govt. Girls Primary Schools. Moreover 13.7% and 9.1% Community Model

Schools have 76-100 and 100 and above students in class one as compared to 9.7% and

3.4 % of Govt. Girls Primary Schools.

Research Question 2
What is the difference between No. of Students present in Class five in (2005) in CMS
and GGPS?

Table 2 Comparison of Number of Students (Class 5) in 2005 between


Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in
Punjab

Number of Community Model Schools Govt. Girls Primary Schools


Students n % n %
1-25 77 44.0 150 85.7
26-50 31 17.7 19 10.9
51-75 4 2.7 3 1.7
76-100 3 1.7 2 1.1
>100 29 16.6 1 0.6
Total 175 100 175 100
Average 32.8 17.95

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Table 2 above compares the number of students in class 5 in 2005. It indicates

that 85.7 % Govt. Girls Primary Schools have1-25 number of students as compared to

44% Community Model Schools. 17.7% of Community Model Schools have 25-50

number of students as compared to 10.9% Govt. Girls Primary Schools, while 1.7% Govt.

Girls Primary Schools have 51-75 number of students in class 5th as compared to 2.7% of

Community Model Schools. 1.7% Govt. Girls Primary Schools have 76-100 students in

class 5th as compared to 1.7% of Community Model Schools.

Whereas 16.6% Community Model Schools have above 100 students in class 5th

as compared to 0.6% Govt. Girls Primary Schools in 2005. It can be viewed from the

table below that the number of students are more in Govt. Girls Primary Schools for the

class intervals (1-25), (26-50) and for class intervals (51- 75), (76-100) and above 100

students in Community Model Schools in class 5 are more.

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Research Question 3

To what extent is there a difference in the dropout rate of students in CMS and GGPS?

Table 3 Comparison of Dropout Rate between Community Model Schools and


Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Punjab

Community Model Schools Govt. Girls Primary Schools


Drop Out .n % Drop Out N %
Range Range
00-05 92 53 00-05 10 6
06-10 27 15 6-10 17 10
11-15 27 15 11-15 20 11
16-20 12 7 16-20 30 17
21-25 2 1 21-25 40 23
> 25 15 9 > 25 58 33

Table 3 above compares the drop out rate of Community Model Schools and

Govt. Girls Primary Schools. It indicates that in 53% of Community Model Schools the

drop out rate is between 0-5 as compared to 6% of Govt. Girls Primary Schools with drop

out rate 0-5. The drop out rate of 15% Community Model Schools is from 6-10 and 11-15

in comparison to 10% and 11% of Govt. Girls Primary Schools. In 7% of Community

Model Schools as compared to 17% of Govt. Girls Primary Schools the drop out rate is

from 16-20. Only one percent of Community Model Schools have drop out rate from 21-

25 as compared to 23% Govt. Girls Primary Schools. Nine percent of Community Model

Schools have drop out rate above 25 in comparison with 33% of Govt. Girls Primary

Schools.

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The above said comparison of dropout of CMS and GGPS shows that CMS have the less
dropout rate as compared to GGPS. This difference is due to the number of more teachers
and the post of SST headmistress in the CMS.
Results indicated that Community Model Schools showed less dropout rate than Govt.
Girls Primary Schools during the period 2001-2005. The research presented that the
performance of Community Model Schools is better than Govt. Girls Primary School in
Punjab.
Discussion

The important indicator of school performance was the drop out rate. It was found that
Govt. Girls Primary Schools have higher drop out rate as compared to Community Model
Schools. The main reasons for high drop out rate are school environment, teachers’
attitude and parents’ lack of interest. As Corville-Smith’s (1995) study indicates that
main reason behind the drop-out is school environment (protocol, activities, and syllabus)
and students’ attendance due to lack of attraction in these schools. According to findings
of the present study Govt. Girls Primary Schools have less attraction for students due to
its environment and consequently have higher drop out rate as compared to Community
Model Schools. Epstein et al. (1997) states that when school design and implement

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activities that focus on attendance using these types of involvement, parents and others in
the community can make a difference. If the students’ attendance and mobility is
controlled, the drop out rate will decrease. This justified the present findings because the
Community Model Schools have been established for the improvement of community
and school partnership programmes which decreased drop out rate in Community Model
Schools, whereas Govt. Girls Primary Schools fail to improve this relationship, therefore,
drop out rate did not decrease here.

Conclusion

In the light of the above discussion, it is clear that the dropout rate of student of CMS
were less than GGPS. It showed that the performance of CMS was better than GGPS in
Punjab.
On the basis of the findings of the study reported here, it is recommended that the
GGPS should be funded. In other words, more funds may be provided to GGPS for better
physical and academic facilities in these schools.

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