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Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

CHAPTER 6- COORDINATE GEOMETRY

6.1 DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS

y y
Q (x 2 , y 2 )
2
y 2 - y 1
y
P(x 1 , y 1 )
1
x 2 - x 1

How to obtain the formula?

x

To find the distance or length of PQ, use the concept of Pythagoras’ Theorem.

PQ

2

= (x

2

x )

1

2

+ ( y

2

y )

1

2

Therefore: D =

(x 2

x )

1

2 + ( y

2

y )

1

2

where D is distance.

Example 1:

The distance point A(6, 3t) and point B(12, -t) is 10 units. Find the possible values of t.

Solution: 2
2
10
=
(12
6)
+
(
t
3 )
t
2
2
100
= 6
+
(
4 )
t
Square the both sides
2
100
= 36
+
16 t
2
16
t
= 64
t
2 = 4
t
= ± 2

Example 2:

Point A(h, 2h) and point B(h -3 , 2h + 1) are two points which are equidistant from the origin. Find the value of h.

Solution: (h 0)

2

+ (2h 0)

2

= (h 3 0)

2

+ (2h +10)

2

Page | 60

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis 2
2
2
2
h
+
(2
h
)
=
(
h
3)
+
(2
h
+
1)
2
2
2
2
h
+
4 h
=
h
6
h
+
9
+
4
h
+
4
h
+
2
2
5
h
=
5
h
2
h
+
10
2
h =
10

h = 5

EXERCISE 6.1

1

1. Find the perimeter of triangle ABC with points A(2, 1), B(4, 5) and C(-2, 8).

2. The points (-3, -5) lies on the circumference of a circle with centre (2, 1). Calculate the radius of the

circle.

3. Given that the distance between points A(1,3) and B(7, k) is 10 units . Find the possible value of k.

4. Given point A( 1, 7) and B(p, 2) and the distance between the points A and B is 13 units. Find the value of p.

6.2 DIVISION OF A LINE SEGMENT Line segment is a line that has distant.

6.2.1 Mid-point The formula to find mid-points is just the same as we have learned in Form Two that is:

2

,
2

(

x

,

y

)

= (

x

1

+

x

2

y

1

+

y

2

)

Example:

Given C(2, 5) is the mid-point of the point B(h, 3) and point D(-4, k). Find the values of h and k.

Solution:

Use the formula,

2 =

4

+ h

5 =

k + 3

 2 2 h − 4 = 4 k + 3 = 10 h = 8 k = 7

EXERCISE 6.2.1

1. The coordinates of A and B are (m, 5) and (6, n) respectively. Find the values of m and n if the mid-

point of the points is (4, 10).

2. The coordinates of M and N are (4, 2) and (6, 5) respectively. Find the mid-point of these two points.

3. The coordinates of X and Y are (-1, b) and (a, 7) respectively. Find the values of a and b if the mid-

point of the points is (1, 2).

Page | 61

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

6.2.2 Point which divides a line segment in the ratio m: n

y 2 - y

y- y 1

P(x 1 , y 1 ) n
X(x, y)
m
x- x 1
x 2 - x Q (x 2 , y 2 )
y 2 - y

y- y 1

If the line PQ moves downwards, it will reach the horizontal line. From that we know that:

x

x

1

m

=

x

2

n

nx

nx

x

(

(

x

x

x

1

)

n

=

m

(

x

2

x

mx

mx

2

mx

2

)

x

nx

mx

n

1

mx

+

=

=

nx

1

2

+

m

=

+

nx

1

)

+

=

nx

mx

2

1

+

m

+

n

If the line PQ moves upwards, it will reach the vertical line

y

y

1

m

=

y

n

ny

ny

(

y

2

y

n

=

( )

y

+

m

y

1

ny

my

+

n

1

y =

ny

1

m

my

ny

1

=

ny

my

2

(

2

+

1

+

=

=

)

+

y

2

y

my

my

2

my

2

m

+

n

)

Hence, the formula to find the point that divides the line segment in ratio m : n is (
x
,
y
)
= 
,
m
+ n
m
+ n

nx

1

+ mx

2

ny

1

+ my

2

When m = n , the point will be the midpoint of the line segment.

Page | 62

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Example:

Find the coordinates of point P that divides the straight line that joins E(-6, 10) and F(4, -5) in the ratio 2: 3

Solution:

m: n = 2 : 3

 ( x , y )  nx =   1 + m + mx n 2 , ny 1 m + + my n 2     P(x, y) =   (3)( − 6) + (2)(4) (3)(10 ) + (2)( − 5)   2 + 3 , 2 + 3   P(x, y) =   − 18 5 + 8 , 30 − 5 10   

= (2,4)

E(-6, 10) o
2
P(x, y)
o
3
o

F(4, -5)

EXERCISE 6.2.2

1. Point R divides the line segment joining J(-1, -7) and Q(10 ,7) internally in the ration PR: RQ = 1: 3. Find

the coordinate of R.

2. The points P(t, 2t), Q(2a, b) and R(4a, 3b) are on a straight line. Q divides PR internally in the ratio 1: 4.

Show that b = 6a .

3. Given points A(k, 5), B(0, 3) and C(5, 4). Find the possible values of k if the length of AB is twice the

length of BC.

6.3 AREA OF POLYGONS

6.3.1 Area Of Triangle C(x 3 , y 3 )
B(x 2 , y 2 )
A(x 1 , y 1 )
K
L
M

How to obtain the formula?

The area of ABC = Area of trapezium ACLK + Area of trapezium BCLM - Area of trapezium ABMK

Page | 63

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

=

=

=

1

3

2

1

2 3

1

[

2 3

x

[

x

(

y

+ y

1

y

y

3

3

+

+

)(

x

x

3

3

x

3

y

y

1

1

x

1

x

x

1

1

)

+

y

y

1

1

1

2

(

x

x

y

2

1

1

y

y

3

3

+ y

3

+

x

+

x

)(

2

2

y

y

x

2

2

2

x

+

+

x

x

2

2

3

)

y

y

3

3

1

2

x

x

(

3

3

y

y

y

1

2

2 =
1 (
2
y
+
x
y
+
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
)
x 1
2
2
3
3
1
2
1
3
2
1
3
=
1 [(
2
x
y
+
x
y
+
x
y
)
(
x
y
+
x
y
+
x
y
)]
1
2
2
3
3
1
2
1
3
2
1
3
1
x
x
x
x
1
2
3
1
=
Area of ∆ ABC =
2
y
y
y
y
1
2
3
1
1
=
[(
x
y
+ x
y
+ x
y
)
(
x
y
+ x
1
2
2
3
3
1
2
1
3
2

y

2

The formula of the area of triangle is

 1 x x x y y 2 3 2 3 x 1 2 y 1 1 y 1

6.3.2 Area of Quadrilateral The formula of the area of quadrilateral is

+ y

2

x

x

3

3

)(

x

y

y

3

3

2

x

(

x

x

2

1

)

2

y

y

2

2

+

x

x

2

Simplify

+ x

1

y

3

)]

2

y

y

1

 1 x x x x 2 3 4 y y y 2 3 4 x 1 2 y 1 1 y 1 1
=
(
x y
+ x y
1
2
2
3
2
Example 1:

+ x y

3

4

+ x y

4

1

)

(

x y + x y

2

1

3

2

+ x y

4

3

+ x y

1

4

)

1

x

+

x

1

1

y

y

1

1

x

+

x

1

1

y

y

2

2

)

)

Find the value of m if the point P(m, 2), Q(4, -3) and R(-2, 5) lie on a straight line.

Solution:

Method 1- Using Concept Area Of Triangle 1 m
4 − 2
m
2 − 3
2
5
2

= 0

The area of a straight line is zero.

Page | 64

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

 ( − 3 m + 20 − 4) − (8 + 6 + 5 m ) = 0 − 3 m + 16 − (14 + 5 m = 0 − 3 m + 16 − 14 − 5 m ) = 0 − 8 m + 2 = 0 − 8 m + 2 = 0 − 8 m + 2 = 0 8 m = 2 1 m =

4

Method 2 Using the concept of gradient of straight line

m

m

QR

QR

=

=

3

5

4

8

6

(

2)

= −

4

3

m

2

PQ

(

=

m

3)

QR

= −

4

4

4

m

m

m

4

=

1

16

1

m =

4

= −

3

15

Point P, Q and R lie on the

same line, so

m PQ

= m

QR

Example 2:

Find the possible values of k if the area of triangle with vertices A (9, 2), B(4, 12) and C(k, 6) is 30 unit 2

Solution: 1
9
4
k
9
= 30
2
2
12
6
2
(108
+
24
+
2
k
)
(8
+
70
10 k
= 60

12 k

+ 54)

= 60

Page | 65

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

(i) 70 10k = −60

10

k = 1

k =

10

(ii) 70 10k = −60

10

k =

130

k = 13

The modulus sign will always result a

positive number. If

result 60, there will be two values of k. If the value of k is 1, the value in the modulus is 60. If the value of k is 13, the value in the modulus is -60 and at last becomes 60 because the modulus sign will always result a positive number.

70 10 k

would

Example 3:

Find the area of quadrilateral KLMN given K (1, 3), L(-1, 2) and M(-4, -3) and N(6, -9). Solution:
1
x
1 x
x x
x
2
3
4
1
2
y
y y
y
1 y
2
3
4
1
1 1
1
− 4
6
1
=
2 3
2
3
− 9
3

=

=

=

 (2 + 3 + 36 + 18) − ( − 3 − 8 − 18 − 9) 59 − ( − 38) 53 + 38 1
=
97
2
=
48 .5
unit
EXERCISE 6.3

2

1. Find the possible values of p if the area of triangle with the vertices D(p, -p), E(1, 0) and F(-3, 6) is 10 unit 2 .

2. Find the area of the rhombus PQRS if the coordinates of the points P, Q and R are (6, 4). (8, 7) and (-6, 3) respectively.

3. The points G(4, -2), F(1, 1) and H(-2, p) lie on a straight line. Find the value of p.

4. Find the area of the triangle PQR if the coordinates of the vertices are:

 (a) P(1, 3), Q (4, 2) and R (7, 0) (b) P(-2, 5), Q (7, -2) and R (-3, 1) (c) P(-1, -5),Q (1, -4) and R(-1, -3)

Page | 66

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

6.4 EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE

6.4.1

x-intercept and y-Intercept of a straight line y
b
0
a

x

1. The line intersects with the x-axis at a and the line intersects with the y-axis at b

2. a is called x-intercept and b is called y-intercept.

EXERCISE 6.4.1

1. Determine the x-intercept for the following straight lines:

(a)

(b)

(c)

x y

+

2 3

3x 4 y 9 = 0 y = 6x 6

=

1

2. Determine the y-intercept for the following straight lines:

(a)

(b)

x 1

+

y

=

1 5

5x 7 y 14 = 0

(c) 3y = 5x 6

6.4.2

(i)

The Gradient of a Straight Line  (ii) (iii)

(iv)

Page | 67

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Finding the gradient (m) of a straight line y
− y
1-
2
1
m =
x
− x
2
1
Example:

y A(0,5)
0
B(0, 4)
y
− y
2
1
m =
x
− x
2
1
5
− 0
=
m AB
0
− 4
5
= −

2-

y

4 (0, b)
0
(a, 0)
b − 0
m
= 0 − a

x

x

Page | 68

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

= −

b

a

Hence,

m = −

x

int

ercept

y

int

ercept

Example:

y A(0,5)
0
B(0, 4)
y
− int
ercept
m =
x
− int
ercept

5 = −
m AB
4
3-
m = tanθ
Example:
y
A(0,5)
5
θ
0
4
B(0, 4)

x

x

Page | 69

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

m

m

AB

AB

= tanθ

= −

5

4

EXERCISE 6.4.2 Find the gradient of the following points.

 (a) A (2, 3) and B (4, 5) (b) M (-3, 1) and N (4, -2) (c) P (2, 3) and Q (4, 3) (d) C (2, 5) and D (2, 8) (e) F(0, 6) and G( 3, 0)

6.4.3 The Equation of a Straight Line

1-General Form The equation of general form is ax + by + c = 0

Example:

Given the equation of a straight line is 2 y = 4x + 5 . Change the equation into the general form.

Solution:

2y = 4x + 5 4x 2y + 5 = 0

2-Gradient Form The equation of gradient form is y = mx + c where m is the gradient and c is y-intercept

Example:

Given the equation of a straight line is 2 y = 4x + 5 . Determine the gradient and the y-intercept of

the straight line.

Solution:

2y = 4x + 5

 5 y = 2x + 2 Hence, the gradient of the straight line is 2 while and the y-intercept of the straight line is 5 . 2

Page | 70

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

3-Intercept form

 The equation of intercept form is x + a

y

b

= 1

where a is x-intercept and b is y-intercept.

Example:

Given the equation of a straight line is 2 y = 3x + 6 . Convert the equation into the intercept form.

Hence, state the x-intercept and y-intercept of the straight line.

Solution:

2y = 3x + 6

=

3 x

3

x

+

+

y

2

y

2

6

= 1

6

6

x

y

+

2

x

3

y

+

2

3

= 1

= 1

Hence, the x-intercept of the straight line is -2 and y-intercept of the straight line is 3.

Example:

Find the equation of the straight line which has a gradient of -3 and passes through the mid-point of the line joining A (1, 4) and B(7, -2).

 Solution: Mid-point of AB = 

7

+

1

,

4

+

2

(

2)

= (4,1)

2

The equation of the straight line which has a gradient of -3 and passes through (4, -1) is

y

1

= − 3

x

4

1

=

12

3

x

y

3x + y 13 = 0 or y = −3x +13

Use the general point (x, y) and specific point (4, -1) to find the gradient of the line and it is equal to the given gradient.

EXERCISE 6.4.3

1. Write each of the following equations to intercept form. Hence, state the gradient of the straight line.

 (a) 2x + y − 4 = 0 (b) x − 3y = 6 (c) 4x + 3y = 2 (d) 2x + 3y = 1

2. Find the equation of the straight line which has a gradient of -2 and passes through point B (7, -2).

Page | 71

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

6.4.4 The Point of intersection of two Straight lines

1. When two lines intersect, the point of intersection lies on both lines.

2. This means the coordinates of the point satisfy both the equations of the lines.

3. Therefore, we need to solve the equation simultaneously in order to determine the point of

intersection.

Example 1:

The straight line which has a gradient of 2 and passes through the point (4, -1) intersects with the straight line x + y = −6 at the point P. Find the coordinates of the point P.

Solution:

First of all, we have to find the equation of the straight line.

 y − ( − 1) = 2 y x − 4 + = 1 2 x − 8 2 x − y = 9 1 x + y = −6 2 1 + 2 , 3 x = 3

x = 1

Substitute x = 1into

2(1)

y = − 7

y

=

9 1

,

Hence the coordinates of P is (1, -7)

Example 2:

The straight line x + y 4 = 0 and 2x + 3y 11 = 0 intersect at point A. Find the equation of the

straight line which passes through the point A and point B (5, 2).

Solution:

 x + y − 4 = 0 2 x 2x + 3y −11 = 0 + 2 y − 8 1 = 0 2 - , y − 3 = 0 y = 3 1
2

Page | 72

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Substitute y = 3 into

2

2

x = 1

x

x =

+

2(3)

2

8

=

0 1
,

Hence the coordinates of A is (1, 3)

m

m

AB

AB

=

2

3

5

1

= −

1

4

The equation of the straight line that passes through point A and B is

 y − 3 1 = − x − 1 4 We can write the equation in any form. Either the general form or 4 y − 12 = 1 − x 1 13 intercept form or gradient form. x + 4 y −13 = 0 or x + 4 y = 13 or y = − x + 4 4

EXERCISE 6.4.4

1. Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the line 4x + 3y 11 = 0 and 2x 6 y +17 = 0 .

2. Find the points of intersection of the following pairs of straight lines.

(a) x 5y 2 = 0 2x y + 5 = 0

(b) y

= 2x + 4 y = x + 5

3. Find the equation of that is parallel to the line y = 2x + 5 and passing through the point of

intersection of lines 2x y 9 = 0 and x + 2y = 2 .

6.5 PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR LINES Parallel Lines

1. When two lines are parallel, they have the same gradient. B
A
P

Q

2. If line AB and line PQ are parallel, so

m

AB

= m

PQ

.

Page | 73

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Example:

The straight line AB passes through the point (6, 3) is parallel to the straight line PQ. Given point P (0, 2) and point Q(4, 0). Find the equation of the straight line AB.

Solution:

First of all, we have to find the gradient of straight line PQ

m PQ

= −

=

1

2

2

4

m

m

AB

AB

= m

PQ

=

1

2

The equation of the straight line that passes through point (6, 3) is

y

3

x

6

= −

1

2

2

y

6

=

6

x

x + 2 y 12 = 0 or x + 2 y = 12 or

y = −

We can write the equation in any

form. Either the general form or

1

2 intercept form or gradient form.

x + 6

Perpendicular Lines y
B
m
1 m
2
θ
α
A
C

x

1. Given that line AB and BC are perpendicular to each other.

2. We already know m = tanθ .

m

1

=

tanθ

BC

m

2

=

tanα

AB

= = −

AB

BC

Page | 74

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

3.

When

m

1

× m

2

=

m 1

× m

2

= −

1 BC
AB
× −
AB
BC

Hence, if two lines are perpendicular to each other, then the product of their gradient is 1.

Example:

Given the straight line y = tx 9 and y = 2x + 3 is perpendicular to each other. Find the value of t.

Solution:

y

m

y

m

= 2x + 3 = 2

1

= tx 9 = t

2

× m

m

2

2

1

×

2

= −

1

t

t = −

t = −

1

2

= − 1

1

Use the concept

EXERCISE 6.5

1. The equation of the straight line PQ is 6x 8x + 7 = 0 . Each of the following straight line is parallel to

PQ. Find the value of t in each case.

(a) tx + 4 y 6 = 0

y

=

t

(b)

x +

8

2

(c) 2x ty 1 = 0

2. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through point B (2, -5) and perpendicular to the

straight line y = −3x + 1 .

3. PQRS is a rhombus with P (0, 5) and the equation of QS is y = 2x + 1. Find the equation of diagonal of

PR.

4. Find the value of h if the straight line y hx + 2 = 0 is perpendicular to the straight line

5y + x + 3 = 0 .

5. Given that the equation of the line PQ is 2 y = 3x +15 and point Q lies on the y-axis. Point R is (4, 1)

lies on line QR. Find the equation of QR if the line PQ and QR are perpendicular to each of other.

Page | 75

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

6.6 LOCUS OF A MOVING POINT

Locus represents the path followed by a moving point with the reference to one or more fixed points, satisfying certain conditions.

6.6.1 Equation of Locus

Equidistant from a fixed point y
P (x, y)
3 unit
A (1, 1)

The equation of locus is

x 2
2
(
x
1)
+
(
y
1)
=
3
Square the both sides
2
2
(
x
1)
+
(
y
1)
=
9
2
2
x
2
x
+
1
+
y
2
y
+
1
=
9
2
2
x
+
y
2
x
2
y
7
=
0

Equation of locus is actually involving the distance between two points. So we have to use the formula of the distance between two points to find the equation of locus. There is no specific formula to find the formula to find the equation of

locus.

In this case, P is the moving point such that its distance is always 3 unit from point A.

Equidistant from two fixed points Find the equation of the locus of a moving point P such that its distance from the point A (1, 2) and point B (3, 4) are equal. B (3, 4)
P(x, y)
locus
A (1, 2)
 AP = BP ( x − 1) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = ( x − 1) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = ( x x 2 − 2 x + 1 + y 2 − 4 y + x 2 + y 2 − 2 x − 4 y + 5 = 4 x + 4 y − 20 = 0 x + y − 5 = 0 x

3)

=

2

2

4

x

+

x

2

3)

+

2

y

(

2

(

+

y

6

x

6

y

4)

2

+

x

9

+

8

y

2

y

+

4)

2

Square the both sides

y

+

16 8

25

Page | 76

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

Constant ratio between two fixed points Find the equation of locus of a moving point R such that its distance from the point E (4, 3) and the point F (1, 5) is in the ration 3: 1. RE
3
=
RF
1
3 RF
= RE
2
2
2
2
Square the both sides
3
(
x
1)
+
(
y
5)
=
(
x
4)
+
(
y
3)
2
2
2
2
9(
x
2
x
+
1
+
y
10
y
+
25)
=
x
8
x
+
16
+
y
6
y
+
9
2
2
2
2
9
x
18
x
+
9
+
9
y
90
y
+
225
=
x
8
x
+
16
+
y
6
y
+
9
2
2
8
x
+
8
y
10
x
84
y
+
209
=
0

EXERCISE 6.6

1. Given the point A (0, 3) and the point B (1, 4).Find the equation of locus of a moving point Q such that AQ= 2QB.

2. Given A (5, -2) and B (2, 1) are two fixed points. Point Q moves such that the ratio of AQ: QB = 2: 1.

Show that the equation of the locus of point Q is

x

2

+ y

2

2

x

4

y

3

=

0

.

3. P is a moving point such that its distances from the points A(2, 5) and B(0, 3) is in the ratio of 2: 1. Find the equation of locus P.

4. N is a locus which moves in such a way that NP=NQ. Given that P and Q are coordinates (-3, 6) and (6,- 4) respectively, find the equation of locus N.

5. Show that the equation of the locus of a point that moves in such way that is distance from a fixed

point (3, -1) is 6 units, is by

x

2

+ y

2

6

x +

2

y

26

CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISE

1. Given the equation of straight lines AB and CD are

x

6

=

+

0

.

y

k

=

1 and 2x + 3 y 4 = 0 respectively, find

the value of k if AB is perpendicular to CD.

2. The coordinates of the point A and B are (-2, 3) and (7, -3) respectively. Find

 (a) the coordinates of C given that AB: BC = 1: 2. (b) the equation of the straight line that passes through B and is perpendicular to AB.

3. ABCD is a parallelogram with coordinates A (-2, 3), B (3,4), C (2, -1) and D (h, k).

 (a) Find the value of h and k. (b) Find the equations of the diagonals AC and BD. (c) State the angle between the diagonals AC and BD. (d) Find the area of the parallelogram ABCD.

Page | 77

Chapter 6- Coordinate Geometry

Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

4. P, Q and R are three points on a straight line. The coordinates of P and R are (-2, 3) and (3, 5)

respectively. Point Q lies on the y-axis. Find

(a) the ratio PQ: QR

(b) the coordinates of point Q

5. H is a point which moves such that its distance from point P (1, -2) and Q (-3, 4) is always equal. Show

that the equation of the locus H is given by the equation 2x 3 y + 5 = 0 .

6. Find the equation of straight line that passes through point P( 1 -2) and parallel to

7. In diagram below, PRS = 90° .

4x – 2y = 8. y
P(−6,9)
S
Q
3
0
R
Find
(a)
the coordinates of R
(b)
the ratio of PQ: QR
(c)
the equation of RS.

x

8. Diagram below shows a triangle BCD. The point A lies on the straight line BD.\ y
D(17,k)
A(13,8)
C(−1,7)
B(5,2)
x
0
Find
(a)
the value of k
(b)