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TOOL AND CUTTER


GRINDING

This booklet has been published to

assist the operators of Jones-Shipman

Tool & Cutter Grinding Machines. It

will, however, be of service to operators

of similar types of machines of other

manufacture.

A. A. Jones & Sh i pman,. Ltd.


Head Office and Works:
Narborough Road South .. Leicester.
Telephone: 33222 (8 lines) Telegrams: "Chuck. Leicester."
LONDON OFFICE:
MURRAY HOUSE. 5 VANDON STREET. BUCKIN.GHAM GATE. S.W.1.
Telephone: WHitehall 0508
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IN DEX
Page
Preface 3
Practical Advice to the Operator 4
Cylindrical grinding 5
Internal grinding 6
Surface grinding 7
Truing and Dressing grinding \vheels 8
Mounting and Balancing grinding wheels 9
Dust extraction 10
Coolant supply 11
Selection of grinding wheels 12
British Standard wheel marking system 13
Grinding wheel recommendations . . 1 4 to 1 9
Cemented carbide tools and cutters 1 8, 1 9
Grinding wheel speeds 20
Clearance angles 21
Setting gauges 22
Linear setting 23
Clearance angle setting gauge 24
Direct setting from Cutter Head 25
Tooth rests . . 26
Indexing 26
Clearance angle setting chart 27
Reamer clearance table 28
Clearance angle setting chart for angular cutters 29
Grinding peripheral teeth on a Side and Face Milling Cutter 3 0, 3 1
Grinding the side teeth on a Side and Face Milling Cutter . . 32, 3 3
Grinding Helical :\Iilling Cutters . . 34, 3 5
Grinding large Inserted Tooth Cutters 36, 3 7
Grinding Angle Cutters 38, 39
Grinding the flutes on Form Cutters 40, +1
Reamer Grinding 42 to +5
Hob Grinding Attachment 46, 47
Radial Grinding and vVh.eel Forming Attachment 48, 49
Tap Relief and Flute Grinding Attachments 50
Lathe and Planer Tools 5 1 to 56
Decimal and Millimetre Equivalents 57
Jones- Shipman :Model 3 1 0 Cutter and Tool Grinder 58
"J & S-Aldridge" Milling Cutters, Reamers and Taps 59
J & S Small Tools 60


1 ;
TOOL AND CUTTER
GRINDING
The subject of Tool and Cutter Grinding is most
complex, due not only to the great variety of tools
and cutters, but also to the various methods by
which these can be ground. There are, however,
certain basic principles which must be adhered to,
but the ultimate success of producing accurate and
correctly ground cutters depends mainly on the
skill and initiative of the operator.

The illustrations and information gIven m the


following pages, whilst brief, will be of great
assistance to the operator. The various methods
of setting up the machine, for dealing with the
majority of cutters which will be met with in every
day use, are dealt with. These will also form a
basis from which to work when other types of
cutters are to be ground.
'"

There are certain types of tools and cutters which


necessitate the use of special attachments, such as
radius grinding, tap relief grinding, etc. These
attachments when ordered are provided with
separate instructions.

We should like to take this opportunity of recording our thanks for the
information and data provided by The Carborundum Co. Ltd., Trafford
Park, Manchester, also the Universal Grinding Wheel Co. Ltd., Stafford,
and the Norton Grinding Wheel Co. Ltd., Welzcyn Garden City, Herts.

3
Practical Advice to the Operator
Though the machine may not belong to you, with it you earn your living, so treat
it kindly, keep it clean and well oiled. It will repay you with untiring and trouble­
free service and a high and accurate output. Neglect it, and it will become a
nightmare to you.

THE MACHINE.
(1) Study your machine and understand the purpose and effect of every handle
and handwheel, and the value of the graduations on the handwheels or dials.
(2) Ascertain the position of every lubrication point and see that all get the
required quantity of the correct oil regularly.
(3) See that the oil in the wheclhead and the traverse gear box is maintained at
the correct level with the oils recommended by the machine manufacturers.
(4) Keep a special eye on the spindle, which should always run warm up to
a temperature at which it is just possible to lightly lay the hand on the
bearings for a short period.
(5) A spindle which runs too cool has too much clearance and will cause chatter
marks on the work.

( 6) Always warm up the machine before commencing to grind or to dress the


wheel. 1
(7) Avoid getting spots of oil on the grinding wheel.

(8 ) Keep all water and oil off the driving belts.

(9) See that all belts run at their correct tension.


( 1 0) Always use endless belts; belt fasteners cause chatter marks on the work.

(11) Clean out the coolant settling tank every week. At the same time clean
out the insides of the wheel guards.

THE GRINDING WHEEL.


( 1 2) Select the correct wheel according to the recommendations given II1 this
booklet (see pages 14 to 1 7) .
(13) Mount and true the wheel a s described o n pages 8 and 9.
( 1 4) See that it runs within its correct speed as specified on page 20.
N.B .-When you replace a small worn wheel with a large new one, do not
forget to change back to the original spindle speed.
( lS) Do not bump the wheel into the work when starting to grind-take it
gently, otherwise a series of burnt spots will appear around the work due to
wheel bounce. Even if the spots do not show, they will be there beneath
the surface, and spalls or blisters will occur when the article- has been put
into service.
( 16) Dress the wheel carefully and often, in accordance with the instructions
on page 8, but never use a cut greater than .00 1 " per pass_ Remember it
is a diamond, not a turning tool.

______________--____--____...
c���=-=-______�.
�,______ .4.
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i
Cylindrical Grinding
Tool and cutter grinding machines are not intended normally for precision cylindrical,
internal and surface grinding, although pmdsion is made for these operations to be
carried out within limitations.
A motor driven workhead is essential for cylindrical and internal grinding, and
coolant supply is recommended.

(1) See that the mach­


ine centres are in
good condition and
seat perfectly in
their spindles. If
they have been re­
moved, wipe any oil
or dirt from the cen­
tres and out of the
spindle bore and re­
place dry.
(2) Set the workhead
and tailstocks for j
the length of the
work. It is advisable iii
to have the centre of the work approximately over the table centre, as this
-�_ makes it easier to equalise the adjustment for taper.
(3) When moving the position of the workhead and tailstock, see that their
seatings are quite clean, and that they lock up truly to their location on
the table. Out-of-line centres produce tapered work.
(4-) Lubricate the centres with oil or a mixture of white lead and oil.
(5 ) Clamp the carrier to the work very securely, for if it slips, the wheel will spin
the work and either throw it from the machine, or break; with dangerous
results.
(6) Adjust the driving pin on the face plate so that it engages the fork in the
carrier squarely, and so that it leads the carrier, not pushes it, otherwise
it may disengage under pressure allowing the work to spin. The driving
pin should be a slack fit in the slot in the carrier.
(7) Do not rely upon the headstock and table graduations for taper work.
Take a cut on a test piece and check for accuracy.
(8) When grinding parallel work, take cuts at each end of the piece, feeding
up to the same stop in each case, and adjust table until both diameters
measure the same. Then grind the whole length, which should now be
parallel.
(9) Work on mandrels must be mounted carefully, since inaccuracies in moun­
ting are reproduced in the work.
(10) Set the table traverse stops so that the wheel over-runs the end of the
work not more than a quarter of the width of the ,vheel.
(11) Small pieces of work should be held with the back of the hand uppermost
when loading, otherwise there is a risk that the hand will be drawn in
against the wheel when the work begins to revolve.
( 1 2) Long work should be supported by steady rests to prevent the work deflecting
under the pressure of the wheel and becoming oversize in diameter in the
middle.

5
,\
a.-._ .)
I Internal Grinding
(See heading in italics on page 5).
(1 ) A high speed internal spindle barrel is a very delicate mechanism, very
easily damaged by abuse. The maker's instructions should be followed
faithfully with regard to quality of oil and frequency of oiling. The clearances
are carefully adjusted by the makers for it to run at its recommended speed,
departure from which will give rise to trouble. In case of trouble,
repairs and adjustments should never be attempted by the user, but the
whole barrel should be returned to the manufacturer. I

( 2) Belts must be frequently checked for tension; too much will ruin the
bearings; too little will ruin the wheel and the work and possibly spring
I
the spindle.
1
Oil on the belt and frayed belts should be guarded against.
Always use endless flax belts, never use belt fasteners.
(3) On barrels fitted with adaptor spindles, use the largest diameter and shortest
length of adaptor with which it is possible to do the job, in order to reduce
the spindle deflection under cut to the very minimum.

(4) Care should be taken to ensure that the taper shank of the adaptor and
the bore in the barrel spindle are both perfectly clean and free from oil
when assembling, and that the adaptor runs true when fitted.
(5) Use Silicon Carbide wheels for Cast Iron, Soft Brass, Aluminium etc ..
and Aluminium Oxide for Steel.
Use a medium grain size, medium to soft grade, vitrified bond, with a
medium to open structure.
1
(6 ) Internal Grinding requires a very fine in-feed, because the pressure
generated by the large area of contact causes deflection to occur in the long
slender wheel spindle, resulting in inaccurate, bell-mouthed holes if the

(7)
in-feed is at all heavy.
Use a wheel as large as possible, and not less than 3/4 the diameter of the
1
I
hole, when grinding small holes with an extended spindle.
(8) Dress the wheel lightly and often, and brush off loose grit. See page 8.
(9) Use plenty of coolant to keep the work cool and free from distortion .

6
.,.

Surface Grinding
(See heading in italics on page 5).

I
II
.il
,

(1) In surface grinding, the cross traverse is equivalent to the table traverse
on a cylindrical grinder, and similar conditions apply. A coarse traverse
up to half the width of the wheel gives a coarse surface finish, whilst a
fine surface finish requires a fine cross traverse.

(2) The down feed is equivalent to the in-feed of a cylindrical grinder, and is
applied at one or both ends of the table traverse, with the wheel clear of
the work.
(3) Use Silicon Carbide wheels for Cast Iron, Soft Brass, Aluminium, etc.,
and white Aluminium Oxide wheels for Steel.

(4) Use grain sizes No. 30 to 60 for peripheral wheels and �o. 24 to 36 for
cup wheels.

(5) Use soft grade vitrified bond wheels with an open structure.

( 6) The grade of the wheel for surface grinding is very important, as it cannot
be altered so easily by manipulating the traverse ratio and in-feed as it can
for cylindrical grinding, though increasing the table traverse rate makes a
wheel appear softer and counteracts glazing.

(7) The best results are obtained with a peripheral speed of the wheel between
4,000 and 5 ,000 surface feet per minute. The maker's recommendations
are based on 4,000 s.f.p.m. and the bond should be one grade softer for
every 1 ,000 s.f.p.m., increase above this.

( 8) Surface grinding is usually done dry, though better results can be obtained
by using a coolant. A harder grade of wheel should be used with a coolant.

�.--'""'---- e
--...
__-�-- ----
Truing and Dressing Grinding Wheels
Truing is performed on new wheels to form them to the required shape and
to balance them so that they run true without vibration.

Dressing is performed to maintain their shape and concentricity, and to also


open up the pores and remove dull abrasive grain or clogging metal from the
wheel face of glazed or loaded wheels and to enable fresh sharp grains to be brought
into action.

TOOL AND CUTTER GRINDING.


The general workshop practice for dressing cup
and saucer wheels is to do this off-hand, primarily
because the nature of the work to be ground calls
for face grinding. If the face of the cup or saucer
wheel is dressed flat and smooth with a diamond it
will not be free cutting, but will create heat and
cause distortion. It is advisable to dress the wheel <:
off-hand with a carborundum stick, forming an
angle on the face of the wheel thus presenting a
single edge of the wheel to work.

CYLINDRICAL, INTERNAL AND SURFACE GRINDING.


Freehand Dressing is most inadvisable. Always use a diamond in a correctly
designed truing device.

For Rough Grinding, traverse the diamond rapidly across the face of the whet:,
with not more than .001" cut, to give an open pattern. This will make the \\hee:
act coarser and softer than it really is, so that it will remove stock rapidly.

For Finish Grinding traverse the diamond slowly across the face of the W�eei
with very little cut and produce as smooth a surface as possible. Finis:: wit:-.
several passes across the wheel face without any in-feed at all.

Locate Diamond from the high spot at the centre of the whed 12.":<.', :-i..:: 5:4:-:
the cuts from the edge; never start dressing on the face of the whtt:, :\ e':e:- :et
t he diamond dwell in contact with the wheel, but always tfd\'er5e ':!-.e .iiamond
across the face of the wheel evenly.

The Truing Device must be rigid and the dia­


mond shank supported close to its point to a\'oid
all vibration. The centre line of the diamond
stock should incline from 3 ° to lOG to giye a trailing
cut, and the diamond must touch the wheel on the
centre line or very slightly below.

Plenty of Coolant, if available, should be used whilst dressing.

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p
,;

Mounting and Bal ancing Grinding Wheel s


(For Cylindrical and Surface Grinding Operations).
A new wheel should always be balanced before using. More grinding troubles
are caused by wheels out of balance than is generally suspected. It is not usually
necessary to balance internal wheels.
The Jones-Shipman Model 310 Cutter & Tool Grinder is provided with adjustable
balance weights "B" in grooves of the inner wheel flange "A" to compensate for
the wheel being out of balance.

INSTRUCTIONS.
(1) Remove the sleeve carrying the grinding wheel from the wheel spindle,
unscrew the locknut and remove outer flange.

(2) Mount new wheel, not forgetting to see that there is a resilient packing
washer on each side. If the bore is at all tight, scrape out the hole until
it is free, as forcing it on to
the centre may cause the
wheel to crack.

( 3) Replace outer flange and A


tighten locknut firmly but
not violently.

(4) Clean machine spindle and


refit the wheel assembly.

(5) Replace wheel guards and


start up machine spindle,
standing clear while the
wheel runs up to speed.
Run for at least a minute at
full speed. Then true wheel
with diamond, see page 8.

(6) Remove wheel assembly and


fit on the balancing mandrel
provided. Balance upon true
parallel blocks, or preferably
on a properly designed
balancing stand such as the
J. & S. Model 521 Static Balancer shewn in the adjoining illustration. Adjust
balance weights "B" in the r grooves until all out of balance effect has
disappeared.
(7) For cylindrical grinding using a plain wheel, true on periphery and sides
with the diamond dresser, using a cut not exceeding .001 ", standing clear
meanwhile.
(8) Re-balance the wheel at intervals, because as it is reduced in diameter,
variations in density in the bond may cause it to become unbalanced.
A good time to re-balance is when the wheel has to be removed for cleaning •

the slinger grooves, which should be done once a week. J


J
(9) Do not attempt to balance a wet wheel. Run it for several minutes with I,
out coolant until centrifugal force has thrown off all surplus moisture. i,
I '�
,
9

h
.... . _----- ----- ---,------,-------------,- j
r;
,- Dust Extraction

Standard high speed steel cutting tools should be ground on a dry machine, i.e.
without coolant.

When dry grinding, the heat generated is dissipated over a large area. If ground
with a coolant, cracks are likely to appear on the cutting edge, due to the small
area being ground and heat being absorbed too quickly. In addition, when grinding
dry, the operator has a clear yiew of the work and is therefore able to control �i
,

the grinding operation more effectiyely.

It should be remembered that when dry grinding, the vvheel slowly disintegrates
and the particles of dust discharged to the atmosphere are most injurious to health.
Therefore it is imperative that some effective means of dust extraction be fitted to
all tool and cutter grinders. This may be in form of multiple connection plants
or by individual units as offered \\'ith Jones-Shipman :\Iodel 310 Cutter & Tool
Grinders, as illustrated .

10
Cool ant Suppl y
If the heat generated
in grinding is likely
to be detrimental to
the work by causing
distortion or drawing
the temper of hard­
ened work, a coolant
is invariably used.
If, however, there is
no danger to the
work through heat,
or if it is essential to
see the edge of the
wheel while it is cut­
ting, dry grinding is
used.
The wheel acts softer
when dry grinding,
and the rate of cut­
ting is higher.
\\Then a coolant is
used, a large volume
at l o w p r e s s u r e
should b e directed
on the work just
above the point
where it makes con­
tact with the wheel
so that it carries away
the heat as soon as it
is generated without
being splashed ahout
by the centrifugal
force produced by the rapidly moving face of the wheel.
Another function of the coolant is to ,vash away the metal chips and discharged
grains, etc., which otherwise would lodge in the wheel face and cause loading.
'J'
Clear water is used for some operations, but usually soda or soluhle oil is added
to prevent rusting the machine and work; or oil is used alone.
V\'e recommend the following :-

Soft Steel.
{
Cast Iron or Hardened Steel Soda Water. 5 lhs. of soda to 20 gallons of water.
Soluble Oil. 1 gallon of soluhle oil to 40 gallons
of \vater.
Neat Oil. :\Iineral lard oil or special cutting oil.
Cemented Carbide Tools Soda Water. 5 lhs . of soda to 20 gallons of \vater.
(Using Silicon wheels) .
Cemented Carbide' Tools Paraffin or half paraffin and half \vater.
(Using diamond-impregnated wheels).
Oils tend to make wheels act harder and glaze or burn the work, so a softer grade
of wheel must be used with oil.
Clean Out Settling Tanks and Filters at least every week, and always when
changing from a coarse wheel to a fine one. At the same time clean the machine,
especially the inside of the wheel guards.

11

J- _____
Sel ection of Grinding Wheels
The types of grinding wheel generally used for cutter grinding are cup and saucer
wheels. A plain \vheel can be used and some tool rooms have adopted this method
but whilst we ourselves are impartial the great majority do not consider this good
practice, as by grinding on the periphery of a plain wheel hollow grinding is effected.

Grinding wheels for tool or cutter grinding must be of a soft, free cutting grade
in order not to draw the temper of the cutting edges. They should not be so

.
!
' ,
soft however, that excess wear on the wheel makes it difficult to maintain a uniform
size.

The modern grinding wheel can be made in thousands of combinations of grain


size, bond structure, grade, temper of abrasive, etc., so the information contained
in the following pages should prove a valuable guide in selecting the most sUItable
for any particular application.

The grit and grade of wheel to be used depends on so many factors but for general
use the wheels supplied with the Jones-Shipman Model 3 1 0 (see below) are recom­
mended for grinding the general type of machine shop cutters.
\' Carborundum
I'
Aloxite A46-KS- V30
Universal Bauxilite A46-L-V

�""""O'l i "�'� "i-I TI;:;;��;dum j


�(.;--.I � Korton Alundum A60-MS-VBE 1 off
'> each
Aloxite A60-KS- V30 supplied
Bauxilite A60-L-V
Alundum A60-KS-VBE

�,:'! 1\;,>,.;::,/.::1 ',,),,_


I- 1"-01

Carborundum
Universal
Aloxite A60- K 5-V30
Bauxilite A60-N-V
:'\iorton Alundum A60-NS-VBE

\"�11j5
14" I ',\;

\ Carborundum
\ Universal
Aloxite :\.S4-MS-BF
Bauxilite AS4-M-B
1-- ;,"--
' -'

I
Norton Alundum A60-KS-VBE
'<1(k�'�4iJ'''I�'3YW
,... 4� I I
\.

INTERNAL GRINDING WHEELS


Supplied with Jones-Shipman Internal Grinding Spindles.

I
For �o. 400
Internal Spindle
Carborundum Aloxite BA60-LS-VBLU
Universal Bauxilite A60-M-V

I
Xorton Alundum 38A60-KS-VBE
For Ko. 46
Internal Spindle

12
British Standard Marking System

ABRASIVE

Aluminium Oxide
Grain
Size
Grain
1
I
COn;bi- Grade
natIOn
Struc-
ture Bond
,

I I
1
I
Aloxite
Alundum
· .
I
1
A

A
8
10
1

I
a)
'"
1
F 0 a)(/) I
1 a)�
· . I-

Bauxilite
I A a)
(/)
12 �
0 3
G
Ci
-0:9
a) 0
· .

I
.' �
I-

� 14 I
...
.�
0
H 2 :-e .S
... rf)
a)
:r:.

I
.�

0 16 , I ;>0:::
Blue Aloxite · . BA 5 II II
a)
.!� 20 c 7 J 3 ;>�
I 24 ti: K 4
I
White Aloxite AA 9

��I
· .

S"@
Alundum No. 3 8 · . 3 8A 30 --- E �
).
White Bauxilite WA E 36 L 6 5 ...
u
· .
;:l 2 a)
:\I 7 ,.!:l�
1===== 1 �
a)
46 ,.!:l-
Silicon Carbide � 54 8

-'1
60
Carborundum C P 9
Crystolon Ko . 37 .. 37C 80
1 00 Q 10 5
<:.> 0.
U nirundum .. C 1 1 0 ...<l.)
==__
____
__
__
__==___ �1;5 1 20 oj

��lS0 -0
R 12 �

39C I
Green Carborundum GC .... Ci.i
180 oj
:r::
S II
Green Cn'stolon :\0. 39 T [fJ.

________ __ , I220
�. 240
I .5
<:.> 280
. �
>-.320
:v 400
;>
500
600

Manufacturer's Technical Symbol:-This is a special symbol used to identify


any special process used in the manufacture of the "'heel.

13

j
". "

GRIN DING WHEEL


The Carborundum Company Ltd.
"
.., -::l
" ;::: "
Material and Class of Work Abrasive and Bond .... Bond
0 0

Aluminium
Cylindrical Carborundum Vitrified C363 L5 VG
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Carborundum Vitrified C24 15 VG
YT Process
� Internal Carborundum Vitrified C46 J5 VG
YT Proress
Brass
Cylindrical Carborundum Vitrified C36 L5 VG
Internal Carborundum Vitrified C46 J5 VG
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Carborundum Vitrified C30 J5 VC
Broaches
Sharpening Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA60 K5 V1l
Bronze (Soft) Sec Brass

Bronze (Hard)
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA463 L5 VBIX
Internal Aloxite Vitrified HMO L5 VBIX
Cams (Rough Forging)
Roughing Aloxite Vitrified A30 T V6 "
f

Cams (Hardened Steel)


Finishing Aloxite Vitrified BA463 J5 VBLl;
Rough and Finishing Aloxite Resinoid AS4 K3 BR
Cam Rollers (Hardened Steel)
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA60 N5 VBLC
Internal Aloxite Vitrified BA60 1.5 VBLC
Cast Iron
Cylindrical Carborundum Vitrified C461 L5 \"C
Internal Carborundum Vitrified C46 J5 VC
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Carborundum Vitrified C24 J5 VG
Surfacing (Straight Wheels) Carborundum Vitrified C36 15 VG
r Copper
Cylindrical Carborundum Shellac C80 0 EA
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Carborundum Vitrified C20 J5 VG
f
Cutters (Steel)
Sharpening Aloxite Vitrified BA60 K5 VB L L'
Gear (Fellows Type) Aloxite Vitrified BA80 IS vBLL"
Gear (Gleason Type) Aloxite Vitrified BA46 J5 VBT.L"
Gear (Sunderland Type) Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA60 N V60
,t"
Cutters (Moulding)
Sharpening Aloxite Vitrified A54 L5 V30
Drills
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA60 N5 VBLC
Precision Sharpening, (Machine) Aloxite Vitrified BA46 L5 VBLl'
Fluting (Large dia.) Aloxite Rubber A60 R R
Fluting (Small dia.) Aloxite Rubber A80 R R
Gauges (Plug)
Cylindrical, Rough Aloxite Vitrified BA463 L5 VBLC
Cylindrical, Finishing Aloxite Resinoid A500 K5 BH
Hobs (High Speed Steel)
Sharpening Aloxite '''AA' Vitrified AA60 J5 V8

14
RECOMMEN DATIONS
Universal Grinding Wheel Company Ltd. Norton Grinding Wheel Company Ltd.
v "
� "
Abrasive First Range of ' ;: '" � Abrasi,'e Bonding
and Bond Selection Grits and Grade 1:.)
'"' 0
Trade Process
() �
]\!lark

Unirundum Vitrified C46JV 36-60 I- J 37C46 K5 Y Crvstolon Vitrified


{
Unirundum Vitrified C36JV 24-36 I-K 38A24 K8 YBE Alundum Vitrified
White Bauxilite Vitrified WA36JV
l'nirundum Vitrified C46JY 46-60 [-K 37('46 K5 V Crystolon Vitrified

Unirundum Vitrified C46KV 36-6ll J-L 37C46 L5 V Crvstolon Vitrified


Unirundum Vitrified C46JV 36-60 I-K 37C36 K5 V Cr)'stolon Vitrified
Unirundum Vitrified C24]\' 20-30 H-K 37C24 H8 V CrYStolon Vitrified

White Bauxilite Vitrified \\'A60KV 46-80 K-JVI 38A60 JVI5 VBE Alundum Vitrified

Bauxilite Vitrified A46LV 36-40 K-JVI A54 1.5 V Alundum Vitrified


Bauxilite Vitrified A46KV 36-60 J-L 38A54 K5 VBE Alundum Vitrified

1 Hauxilite Vitrified A24RV 1'1.30 (,)5 V Alundum Vitrified

Bauxilite Resinoid A50I�B 46-60 JVI() A70 :;\;4 E Alundum Shellac


A54 �4 E Alundum Shellac

White Bauxilite Vitrified WA60JVIV 46-60 L-� 38A60 :'\5 YBE Alundum Vitrified
White Bauxilite Vitrified VrA60KV 46-60 J-L 32A70 :\15 VBE Alundum Vitrified

Unirundum Vitrified C36JV 36-60 I-K 37C46 K5 V CrYStolon Vitrified


Unirundum Vitrified C46JV 36-60 H-K 37C36 J5- V Cr)'stolon Vitrified
Unirundum Vitrified C24JV 20-30 H-K 37C24 H8 Y Crvstolon Vitrified
l'nirundum Vitrified C36JV 30-60 H-J 37C36 J1\ Y Cr�'stolon Vitrified

Unirundum Shellac Crystolon Shellac


Unirundum Vitrified
C60LE
C20IV
46-80
16-24
K-JVI
H-J
37C60
37C16
:V14
18
E
Y Crvstolon Vitrified "�I,

White Bauxilite Vitrified WA46KV 36-6() J-JVI 38A46 K5 YBE Alundum Vitrified Il
White Bauxilite
'Vhite Bauxilite
Vitrified
Vitrified
WA46JV
WA90GV
46-80 I-K 38AS4
38A60
JS
H8
VBE
VBE
Alundum
Alundum
Vitrified
Vitrified II
'" '''hite Bauxilite Vitrified V,'A60-JVIV 46-60 L-N 38A60 JVIS VBE Alundum Vitrified
i
1
Bauxilite Vitrified A46JVIV 46-60 1\1 AS4 JVIS VBE Alundum Vitrified

Bauxilite Vitrified A46JVIY 46-60 M-K AS4 N5 VBE Alundum Vitrified


Bauxilite Vitrified A46MV 36-60 K-N 38A46 MS VBE Alundum Vitrified
Bauxilite Vitrified A60PV 46-60 o-p A46 PS VBE Alundum Vitrified
Bauxilite Rubber A60jQR A46 RO R Alundum Rubber

Bauxilite Vitrified A60LV 38A60 K5 VBE Alundum Vitrified


Bauxilite Shellac AlSO/ME 37C500 K9 E Crystolon Shellac
:\1

White Bauxilite Vitrified WA46KV 36-60 J -M 38A54 KS VBE Alundum Vitrified

15
\

J,-- ------ -- ��
-----.

r GRIN DING WHEEL


The Carborundum Company Ltd.
<1l
... 'U
·c '"
....
Material and Class of Work Abrasive and Bond () ()
Bond

Nitralloy Steel (Before Nitriding)


Internal Aloxite Vitrified BA60 K5 VBIX
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA463 L5 VELL:
Surfacing (Straight Wheel) Aloxite "AAL" AA30 J +5 VL-J

Nitralloy Steel (After Nitriding)


Internal Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA46 J5 V8
Cylindrical Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA60 K5 V8
Cylindrical (Fine Finish) Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AAlOO J5 V8
Surfacing (Straight Wheel) Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA46 IS V8

! Reamers

I
Backing off Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA60 J5 V8
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA60 N5 VBLU
!, Fluting Aloxite Rubber A60 R R

Saws (Metal Cutting H.S.S.)


Surfacing (Straight Wheels) Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA54 H5 V8

Steel (Hardened)
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA463 K5 VBLU
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Aloxite "L'J A 24 IS VL-]
Surfacing (Straight Wheels) Aloxite Vitrified BA46 IS VBLU
I
"1'
Internal Aloxite Vitrified 60 L5 VBLU

Steel (Soft)
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA463 L5 VBLL'
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Aloxite "L" A 24 J5 VL-]
Surfacing (Straight Wheels) Aloxite Vitrifei d BA46 J5 VBLU
Internal Aloxite Vitrified BA60 N5 VBLU

,I Steel (High Speed Steel)


!
Cylindrical Aloxite Vitrified BA463 K5 VBIX

ri Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders)


Surfacing (Straight Wheels)
Aloxite
Aloxite
"AAL"
"AA" Vitrified
AA30
AA46
H5
H5
VL
V8
Internal Aloxite Vitrified BA60 K5 VBLL"
\\..
Steel (Stainless)
Cylindrical Carborundum Vitrifei d C363 N5 VG
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Aloxite "AAL" AA30 ]5 VL
Surfacing (Straight Wheels) Carborundum Vitrified C46 ]5 VG
Internal Carborundum Vitrified C60 L5 VG
,f
StelIite
Cylindrical Aloxite BA463 L5 VBLU
Surfacing (Cups and Cylinders) Aloxite "AAL" AA36 J5 VL
Surfacing (Straight Wheels) Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA54 ]5 V8
Internal Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA60 K5 V8
Drills (Pointing-Off-Hand) Aloxite Vitrified A60 N5 V30
Drills (Pointing-Machine) Aloxite Vitrified BA46 K5 VBLU
Tools (Re-grinding Off-Hand) Aloxite Vitrified A46 P5 V30

Taps
Relief Grinding Aloxite "AA" Vitrified AA60 J5 V8
Fluting (Large Taps) Aloxite Vitrified A60 N5 V30
Fluting (Small Taps) Aloxite Rubber A60 R R
Shanks (Cylindrical) Aloxite Vitrified BA463 L5 VBLU

16
r Cemented Carbide Tools & Cutters
The off-hand or machine grinding of tipped tools can be performed by using either
silicon carbide grinding wheels or diamond-impregnated wheels. Diamond-impreg­
nated wheels are used extensively for resharpening carbide tools, both single poin­
ted and multi-tooth cutters, such as milling cutters, etc., and are recommended
because of the higher accuracy and perfection of finish obtained. They are fast
and free cutting and have a slow rate of wear.
When new tipped tools require reshaping it is preferable to grind the rough form
first with a silicon carbide wheel and finish grind by using a diamond-impregnated
wheel. It is possible to finish grind with a fine grained silicon wheel but a much
better result will be obtained by the diamond wheel.
Diamond-impregnated wheels are available in three types of bonds:-
Resinoid Bonded. These wheels are recommended for grinding milling
cutters, reamers or other multi-tooth cutters. They are also suitable for
,
cylindrical, internal and surface grinding of carbide dies, gauges, etc.
! Metal Bonded. Suitable for off-hand grinding of single pointed tipped tools.
l Vitrified Bonded. Used primarily for roughing of chipped or very dull tools.

I They are also supplied in several different grades to suit a variety of work. The
grades vary for different types and shapes of wheels.
General Instructions for using Diamond-impregnated Wheels.
,I
Penetration of tungsten carbide by diamond wheels is easy, therefore excessive
pressure of feed will tear out the diamond particles, cause glazing or loading.
Always oscillate the tool across the face of the wheel. If the tool is held stationary
against the wheel face, heat will be generated and probably a groove will be worn
in the wheel.
The speed of the wheel for off-hand tool grinding should be 5 ,000 to 6,000 surface
feet per minute with a hand pressure of 5 to 7 lbs. For cutter grinding a wheel speed
of 5 ,500 surface feet per minute is recommended with depth of cut between .00025"
and .00 1 " .

CLEARANCE ANGLES.
These differ from cutters manufactured of high speed steel, but all recognized
manufacturers of cemented carbide tools supply charts for regrinding, with their
cutters. These should be strictly adhered to.
,
COOLANT FOR SILICON CARBIDE WHEELS.
Cemented carbide tools can be ground either wet or dry, but it is essential that if a
coolant is used, a copious flow be directed to the tip, thus keeping a constant tem­
perature. Do not allow coolant to drip on to the tip when grinding as the
inconsistency will cause cracking. Never plunge a hot tool into coolant or irreparable .f
damage will be caused.
The coolant, if used, should be a solution of soda and water.

COOLANT FOR DIAMOND-IMPREGNATED WHEELS.


When grinding and lapping cemented carbides, to obtain the best results a coolant
is advised, both for the tool and for the life of the diamond wheel. The coolant
recommended should be paraffin or an equal mixture of paraffin and water. As in
the case of silicon carbide wheels a copious flow to cover the tool tip is essential.
Note-The diamond wheel can be cleaned by a special carborundum stick supplied
by the maker or by using the wet dust from silicon carbide wheels on a flat cast
iron plate and rubbing this to the face of the diamond wheel.

18
\4

Cemented Carbide Tools & Cutters-continued


The following silicon carbide wheels are suitable for grinding carbide tools and
cutters. These will give satisfactory results, but it is recommended that diamond­
impregnated wheels be used if possible (see previous page).

Carborundum Universal Norton


Green Grit Unirundum Green Crystolon
Class of Work Carborundum Vitrified
--- -- --- 1----- -- '" '"
...
:> ;:l
� Bonn. '" r;; Grit ....
u
.

Grit (vitri- G nt
.
� & ;:l
� �
"0
..0 ...
....
0 fied) 0 � Grade w

-- -- f---- -----
--- ---------- --- -----f----
TIPPED TOOLS

Off-hand Grinding
(Cup Wheels).
Roughing (dry) · . GC60 JS VG C46 LV 39 C60-J 7V
Roughing (wet) · . GC60 JS VG C46 LV 39 C46-K 7V
Semi-Finishing (wet) · . C60 JV 39 C90-K 7V
1 Finishing (dry) · . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 39 CIOO-I 7V
Finishing (wet) · . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 39 C220-I+ 9V

Off-hand Grinding
(Peripheral).
Roughing (dry) · . GC60 KS VG C46 LV 39 C60-J 7V
Roughing (wet) · . GC80 J+S VG C46 LV 39 C60-K 7V
Finishing (dry) · . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 39 CIOO-J 7V
Finishing (wet) · . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 39 CIOO-K 7V

Machine Grinding
(Tool & Cutter). · .

Roughing (Cup wheels) GC60 JS VG C46 KV 3 9 C60-J 7V


Roughing (peripheral) . . GC60 JS VG C46 LV 3 9 C60-K 7V
Finishing (Cup wheels) . . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 3 9 C60-I 7V
Finishing (peripheral) . . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 39 C80-J 7V

Form Grinding · . GC 120 JS VG C220 KV 3 9 ClS0-I 9V

Cylindrical Grinding
Roughing · . · . GC60 JS VG C46 LV 39 C80-K 7V
Finishing · . · . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 39 CIOO-K 7V

Surface Grinding.
Roughing · . · . GC60 JS VG C46 LV 39 C60-J 7V
Finishing · . · . GC120 JS VG CIOO IV 39 C90-J 7V

19

------ --- - --
Grinding Wheel Speeds

Wheel speeds are specified in surface feet per minute (s.f. p.m.) and these can be
figured from the following formulae:-

r. p.m. of motor X dia. pulley on motor


R.p.m. spindle =

dia. pulley on wheelhead.

Surface speed (ft./min.) r.p.m. spindle X 3.14 X dia. wheel in inches

12

OPERATING SPEEDS.
The following table gives the Lp.m. for various size grinding wheels in surface
feed per minute (s.f.p.m.).

Diam. of
Wheel in 4,000 Ft. 4,500 Ft. 5,000 Ft. 5,500 Ft. 6,000 Ft. 6,500 Ft.
Inches
---- ---- ----- ----- ---- -----

t3 61,116 68,756 76,392 84,032 91,672 99,212


" 40,744 46,594 50,928 56,021 61,115 66,141
t 30,558 34,378 38,196 42,016 45,836 49,659
..>- 24,446 27,502 30,557 33,615 36,669
8 39,685
!7
I
20,372 22,918 25,464 28,011 30,557 33,071
" 17,462 19,645 21,826 24,009 26,192 28,346
--�-

1 15,279 17,189 19,098 21,008 22,918 24,828


2 7,639 8,594 9,549 10,504 11,459 12,419
3 5,093 5,729 6,366 7,D03 7,639 8,276
4 3,820 4,297 4,755 5,252 5,729 6,207
5 3,056 3,438 3,820 4,202 4,584 4,966
6 2,546 2,865 3,183 3,501 3,820 4,138
7 2,183 2,455 2,729 3,001 3,274 3,547
8 1,910 2,148 2,378 2,626 2,865 3,103
10 1,528 1,720 1,910 2,101. 2,292 2,483
12 1,273 1,432 1,591 1,751 1,910 2,069

TABLE OF RECOMMENDED WHEEL SPEEDS


in surface feet per minute.
Max. Min.
Cylindrical Grinding (Vitrified or Silicate Bond) 6,500 to 5,000
Internal Grinding 4,000 to 1,000
Surface Grinding 5,000 to 4,000
Tool and Cutter Grinding 6,000 to 4,500

Shellac, Rubber and Synthetic Resin Bonded wheels may


be run as high as 9,000 to 9,500 s.f.p.m. provided the
machine on which they are used is suitable.

20
Clearance Angles

The most important point in cutter grinding is producing the correct relief hehind
the cutting edge. This varies slightly according to:-

(1) The material of the component to be machined.

(2) The diameter of the cutter and its relative number of teeth .

There are no hard and fast rules for determining the amount of clearance, but
the folLlwing angles may he taken as a guide:-

Material to be cut Clearance Angles


Low Carbon Steel 3 ° to 5°
High Speed and Cast Steel 4° to 7°

I
Cast Iron 4° to 7°
Soft Brass, Bronze and Copper 10° to 1 2°
Medium and Hard Bronze 4° to 7°
Aluminium, Magnesium, Plastics, etc. 10° to 1 2°
I
, I

The above angles are for average cutters between 2" and 6" diameter. They
may be reduced slightly for larger cutters and increased for small endmills, etc.

If too little clearance is gIVen


the chips score the work and a
bad finish is produced, whilst
too much clearance will produce
1 chatter marks, and invariably
the cutter will squeal when SECONDARY.
cutting. CLE.ARANCE
LARGE
C�IP CLEARANCE

Secondary Clearance. DIAGRAM SHEWING THE ADVANTAGE

Sometimes where a heavy rough- OF A SECONDAR,( CLEAR�NC.t._


,1
ing cut is employed; or where a cutter has been ground frequently until a
wide land has resulted, a secondary clearance is ground to reduce this land to a
nominal width (i.e. approximately 1 16"). See sketch.

21
Setting Gauges

� !
r:

The basic principle of all set ups is for the operator to first set the tooth to be
ground at the same height as the centre of the cutter, and then lower the tooth
at an angle equal to the clearance required. This principle applies to all cutters
for grinding both the peripheral and side faces; except that the method of meas­ .,
;

uring the clearance angle varies.

The illustration above shows two of the height gauges provided :-the gauge "A"
which is common to the 4" height of centre, and the gauge "B" which clamps to the
i

I
top of the wheelhead and carries a stop collar which is set to correspond with the

f,
centre line of the wheel spindle.

The clearance angles can then be obtained by means of two methods:-


I

( 1 ) By linear setting (2) By using the clearance angle setting gauge on the
tailstock or graduations on the cutter head. These methods are outlined on the
following pages.

22
1
I

Linear Setting
Raise or lower the wheelhead until the tips of the height gauges are level, as shown
on the previous page. (This means that gauge "B" will now be in line with the
centre of the cutter).
Lower the wheelhead by the amount shown in the Clearance Angle Setting Chart
on page 27. Each division on the wheelhead elevating handwheel on the grinding
machine is .00 1 " .
-
CLEARANCE
ANGLe.

1 - j C�'" ""� EJj_ I

.�Y�-r ---
'
I

d:: ANGULAR SE11I1'16,


�1:'h, EGlUAL TO
CLEARANCE, ANGLE, I
TOOTH 'RE5T

Drop the tooth to be ground on to the top of gauge "B" and set the tooth rest
under the tooth to be ground as illustrated helow.
Remove gauge "E" and grind with the front face of the cup wheel, indexing from
tooth to tooth until the whole cutter has been sharpened.

l'

23
Cl earance Angle Setting Gauge

The clearance angle gauge is a graduated carner bracket which fits to the left
hand tailstock and can be adjusted radially through approximately 1 5° (see
illustration below).

The grinding ,,;heel centre is set at the centre height by means of setting gauges
"A" and "B" as described on page 22. The height gauge "A" is removed and
the cutter mounted on a mandrel between the tailstock centres. One of the teeth
is then set to rest on the tip of the height gauge "B."

The setting gauge (2) is set at zero and the carrier (1) is clamped on to the mandrel
by the knurled screw (4). Remove height gauge " B ." The setting gauge (2) is
then rotated through the required angle, and locked by the knurled screw (3).

The tooth rest is then set under the tooth to be ground and the carrier (1 ) un­
clamped. Grinding then proceeds, indexing from tooth to tooth .

, '

24
Direct Setting from Cutter Head
Vv'hen the cutter is mounted on a stub arbor in the cutter head the clearance angle
can be obtained direct from the graduated dial (C) on the workhead spindle (see
illustration below).

The tooth to be ground is centralized by means of gauges "A" and "E" as for
setting with the clearance angle as described on previous page.

The reading is noted on the graduated dial and the spindle rotated the requisite
number of degrees. The spindle is locked by the knurled scre\y (D) whilst the
tooth rest is set under the tooth to be ground. \'"hen in position, unlock knurled
screw (D) and commence grinding.

If an inJexing drum (see page 26) is used for dividing; \yithdraw indexing plunger;
set the tooth on the centre line by means of gauge; note reading on dial and rotate
the spindle through the requisite number of degrees and lock in position by
screw "D."

Adjust index drum p lunger until it engages in one of the ro\y of holes in the drum
to give the correct number of divisions corresFmding to the number of teeth on
the cutter. Release screw "D" and commence grinding.

25
Tooth Rests

For large cutters with widely spaced teeth the tooth rest blade is made of stout
material and is spring loaded to give the necessary movement when indexing
from tooth to tooth. With all Jones-Shipman Cutter and Tool Grinders this

1
type of rest is provided with screw adjustment to the blade for ease of setting.
For grinding cutters with spiral or angular teeth a cranked rest is provided to fit
around the edge of the wheel. (See diagrams on page 35). Alternatively a wide
blade can be used.
,
Sometimes the fine pitch of the teeth and varymg shapes of the cutters may
necessitate making a special spring blade, to clear the wheel when grinding.
The tooth rest holder can be clamped in various positions, to suit the type of cutter
being ground. For straight teeth it is customary to clamp to the table or Cutter
Head, but for spiral or angular tooth grinding, it must be fitted to the wheelhead
and the table stop set so that the cutter does not run off the blade, but is brought
back clear of the wheel to the same side each time for indexing.

Indexing
The general form of indexing is by
resting each tooth successively on to
a fixed tooth rest, but for cutters
with straight teeth or where the
clearance for insertion of the tooth
blade is limited, it is better to index
by means of the cutter head. To do
this an indexing attachment can be
supplied which can be easily fitted
to the cutter head.

This form of indexing is invaluable •

when regashing teeth or grinding


form cutters, etc., as it has greater
accuracy of spacing.

The graduated dial on the cutter head can also be used when the number of teeth
is readily divided into 3600 but this method is much slower and leaves a possibility
of error on the operators part.

26

d
1
Cl earance Angle Setting Chart
Table for setting the tooth rest below the centre to obtain the correct clearance
angle when grinding milling cutters, etc., with a cup wheel. (See page 23 for
Linear Setting).

I C���r I
n_
_I_ch_es � ____ �______ �_____ ' ______�_____�______L-____-L____�

�_ ��
___ ----�
-.:2. 1 .021 -----'.-'-'°2---.:6_1 ---.:
.0_
3 °_ __ .034 .042 .OS2
_--",-t_ .01 9 .026 _'0_3_ 2 _ _ ---':'0-,--38,,-----. 1 _--'.-'--04-'-'S_
I
__ S =-
.0-'--
'-'- 1 _-- 1 _--'.-'--06:-.-4'-- 1 .076
1 .026 � 0_
34 . °--'-
'-'-43"-_-- 1 _--'.-'--°5:..:2=---.1 _--'-.°:...:6'-'-°_ .068 .086 . 1 04
_ __
1
1 :,,-
__=:.:
_ -
,' _1�.�0� 32 .043 . O S4 .064 .076 .086 . 1 08 . 1 28
_--=:12'-!_1 _.:..:.·0=-=9-3 _ �.-,--
05:..2=---
.: 1 _:·..::65=---_ 1 _...:·::..,
0-=- 0 -:.
/ 8=--- .: 1_1 __
.: 1 _-,--·0:.9--=: · 1 O_4 1 _._ 0_1
1 3_ . 1 54

1
__

1! .045 .061 .076 .090 . 1 06 . 1 22 .152 . 1 80


2 .052 .069 .087 .104 . 1 21 .138 -----'.-=-17-.:4_ 1 .208

2! I
--- ---- 1 ----- ----
.058 .078 .098
1 ----
.117
----- 1 ·-- ---
.136 1 .156 . 1 96 .234
--- I

2�
21
.065
.072
.087
.095
----1-'.-'--1O.:...:8'-- �.__=:.:13:...:0'--1
.119 .144
�_'1
. 1 67
__ _
.1_ 74_ _�
. 1 90 .239
1 7,--,, _-,--.26-,--
. 2.:...:
.288
:-=-
0_ ,

3 .078 . 1 04 . 1 30 . 1 56 . 1 82 .208 .261 .312

1_....:.3:2t_ i
.084 .113
H'-- I ........:.::..,09.:...:1=---. I _....:.·:...:12:..:2'--
=-'
,--.-,--14---.:1'--1 . 1 69_
.152
___

.182 .213
.2_
. 1 98
.243 I .304 1
26_ 1_.�.2-=-83=---. I __·_
___ 3_
. 364
3 8_

.1
_

i
1 _.....:3::..:.<1,---
-4�-i .104
.097 .131 . 1 63 _:.. : 9::.5.._ 1 �.:::..22=8=---
. 1--,- .261 1_:..:
. 278 ! . 348 1 _-
:: 2::.6.._:---=.-=-
. 3:::.. 90=__
3 .:. ..: _

1
.139 . 1 74 .208 .243 . ·4- 1- 6
---- 1 --- ------ ---
____
_
_�4!,-- . 1 1 1 .148 _.1 85 .222 .258 .295 .370 .444

_::...5_ . 1 30
1
4�,--I_:...::l__=:.:
_.:..-'
4! _
7 1_....:..-=-
1 =---_
. 1 2-±- .165
. 1 74
5 6=--- 1 _....:..'1-9....:.6
1 '-
.206
.217
.23_5_
.248
.260
__ _ .273
.288
.304 ' . 347
.312
.330
.391
.41 3
. 43 5
.470
.496
. )- 2 2
___ 1 --_- ___ ___
1 ---- I ____ _____ _____ _

� I . 1 37 . 1 83 .228 .274 .319 .365 .457 .548


�_ I _'� �1_ �� _:..2-,-- .:: S7 -_ _...:.::.3 ::.
.,3 5:..: ..- _.-,--3.:...:82,-- _ .4_ 7 8_1 ---=.::...
57_ 4_ 1
" I .350
I
5! . 1 50 .200 .250 .300 .400.:..::.c
_:...,--
.500 I _-=-=-'--'-- .600 -
___
__

6 . 1 56 .208 .261 3__=:.:


.:.::. 1 3=____ _--=.::. .: 1 _._
.: 5=---
36::. 41_7 --'.__=:.:
52 ::.:1'- -1_-'-- :6 _ 1
· 6:..:2-=-
1 __ _ _

_.:..:6!'-1-_ _....:.·1::...:6 3_ ----..=


-' 2.::.
.1 7_.. . 1_'....:..2
::..7-=. 2_1 .326 .380 .435 . S43 .652
_6_�_ ...-:.:.:.1.::..69=---_1 _....:.=.:22:...:6'--1 .283 _.3_3_
9_. . .395 .452 .S65 .678
. 6 . 23 5 .470 .587 .704
� _ :12 �.=.:...:-----' ,
_�.2-'-'94-----'_ I _....:.·.::..35:...:2=--- 1 _..:.·4.:..:1:..::::0_ 1
7 . 1 82 .243 .304 .365 .425 .487 .609 .730
---- 1
__

----

7! . 189 .252 .315 .378 .440 .504 .630 .756


7t . 195 1_:":: 3-'- 2_6_ 1
6::.1 .._1.--·'-
' 2--,- __ :.·::.91=---� _....:.::'.4.5:":6=--- 1 ��
3-'-' .651 .782
� .2()2_ .270 .337 .404 .471 .540 .673 .808

I
___

8 .208 .278 .348 .41 7 .486 .557 .695 .834

27
Reamer Cl earance Table
(Vertical adjustment of tooth-rest).

This table should only be used if the reamer cannot be cylindrical ground and
where the "land" is being ground using a cup or saucer wheel in the manner
described on page 42 for grinding the clearance angle.
-- ,.
1
r
Hand Reamer for Hand Reamer for Chucking Reamer for
Steel. Cast Iron and Bronze. Cast Iron and Bronze.
SIZE Land of Cutting Land of Cutting Land of Cutting
OF Clearance .006 Wide Clearance .025 Wide Clearance .025 Wide
REA- ----------- --- -----
MER ! Vertical Vertical I
Vertical Vertical IVertical Vertical

I
DIA. Adj""m,,,, Adju"m,,,vAdju"ment Adju"m,nt AdjuMm,nt Adj,,"m,,"

I I
for Cutting for Second for Cutting 'for Second for Cutting for Second
Clearance Clearance Clearance Clearance Clearance Clearance
---- ----- ----- --------- -----
I
1 "
2 .012" .052" .032" .072" .040" .OSO"
5"
"8 .012" .062 .032" .072" .040" .090"
3"
4 .012" .072" .035" .095" .040" . 1 00"
7"
"8 .012" .OS2" .040" . 1 20" .045" . 1 25 "
1" .012" .092" .040" . 1 20" .045" . 1 25"
I J8 " .012" . 1 02" .040" . 1 20" .045" . 125"
IJ"4 .012" . 1 12" .045" . 1 45" .050" . 1 60"
I1t"
8 .012" . 1 22" .045" . 1 45" .050" . 1 60"
1 �" .012" .1 32" .04S" . 1 68" .055" . 1 75"
I i8 " .012" . 142" .050" . 1 70" .060" .200"
I1t"
4 .012" . 1 52" .052" . 1 92" .060" .200"
1 18 " .01 2" . 1 62" .056" . 1 96" .060" .200"
2* .012" . 1 72" .056" .216" .064" .224"
2-t"8 .012" . 1 72" .059" .219" .064" .224"
2t" . 01 2" . 1 72" .063" .223" .064" .224"
2;)8 " .012" . 1 72" .063" .223" .06S" .22S"
2J2 " .012" . 1 72" .065" .225 " .072" .232"
212"
8 . 01 2" . 1 72" .065" .225" .075" .235"
214t" .012" . 1 72" .065 " .225" .077" .237"
22" 8 .012" . 1 72" .070" .230" .OSO" .240"
3" .012" . 1 72" .072" . 232" .080" .240"
I '
3! , .012" . 1 72" .075" .235" .OS3" .240"
3 -4-1 -" 0 1 2" . 1 72" .07S" .23S" .OS3" .243 "
3r ' .012" . 1 72" .0SI" . 24 1 " .0S7" .247"
3 -l2 " .012" . 1 72" .OS4" .244" .090" .250"
3 128 " .01 2" . 1 72" .087" .247" .093 " . 253"
31t"
4 .01 2" . 1 72" .090" .250" .097" .257"
3 28 " .012" . 1 72" .093" .253" . 1 00" .260"
4" .012" . 1 72" .096" .256" . 1 04" .264"
4! ,' .012" . 1 72" .096" .256" . 1 04" .264"
4 4J -" .012" . 1 72" .096" .256" . 1 06" .266"
418t" .012" . 1 72" .096" .256" . 1OS" .26S"
4f' .012" . 1 72" . 1 00" .260" . 1 08" .26S"
4 "-"
8 .012" . 1 72" . 1 00" .260" . 1 10" .270"
414t" .012" . 1 72" . 1 04" .264" . 1 1 4" .274"
4]8 -" .01 2" . 1 72" . 1 06" .266" . 1 1 6" .276"
5" .01 2" . 1 72" . 1 10" .270" . 1 1S" .27S"

28
l
Cl earance Angle Settings
For Angular Cutters.
This chart enables the cor­
rect settings for the swivel
adjustments of the cutter
head to give the required
clearance angle for angular
cutters to be obtained. If
the clearance angle re­
" quired is 5°, and the cutter
angle is 1 5 °, reading the
�, intersections on the chart
below gives the following
readings : Angle of tilt

j 0 1 W .'nd the Axial Roll


4°48 ' .Therefore setting the
swivel adjustments on the
cutter head to these angles
will give 5° clearance angle
required.
See page 38 for method of
grinding angle cutters .
ANGLE OF C U TTER

5° I 10° I 15 ° I 20° I I
22 � ° 25°I 30 ° I 3 5 " I 40 °I 45 ° I
Angle of Tilt (J0 _ 6 ' (J ° - 1 2 ' (J " - 1 8 ' (J"-1 8 ° 1 0"-24 ' ()0_24 , (J "-30 ' 0°_36 ' (J°-3 6 ' ()0_42 ,
--yo::(j'
1° 1 0 (J , � 00-54 ' (f;-54 ' --yo::(j' 0 0 -5 4 ' 0"-48 ' (J0-48 '- () o -42 '-
-

Axial Roll
-- --
Angle of Tilt (J0 - 1 2 ' 0°-1 8 ' (J0 -30 ' � �, �, 7'lT' 1 °_ 1 2 ' 1 "- 1 8 ' 1 "_24 '
2° Axial Roll 2 ° _ O ' �' 1 "- 54 ' 1 "-54 ' 1 "_ 48 ' 1 °-48 ' 1 "_42 ' 1 °_36 ' 1 ° - 3 0 ' --YO:-24 '
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Angle of Tilt 0"-1 8 ' 0°_30 ' 0°-48 ' 1 " - () ' 1 °-1 2 ' 1 °_1 8 ' 1 ° -30 ' 1 ° - 42 ' 1 ° -54 ' 2°_ 6 '
3" Axial Roll 3 0- (J ' � 2"_5 4 ' 2 ° - 48 ' 2"-48 ' 2°_42 ' 2"_ 36 ' 2°_30 ' 2"-24 ' 2°_ 6 '
--- ---
Angle of Tilt 0°-1 8 ' 0°-42 ' 1 "- () ' 1 -24 ' 1 "_ 3 0 ' 1 °-42 ' 2"- 0 ' 2"_ 1 8 ' 2°_36 ' 2 ° _48 '
4° Axial Roll 4 °_ 0' 3 °_54 ' 3 °_54 ' :1 "-48 ' 3 °_42 ' 3 "-36 ' 3 ° -30 ' r-1 8 ' � 2°_48 '
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- •__r
Angle of Tilt 0"-24 ' 0°-54 ' 1 ° - 1 8 ' 1 " -42 ' 1 °-54 ' 2 - 6 ' 2 " - 3 0 ' 2°-54 ' 3 ° _ 1 2 ' 3 ° - 3 0 '
5° Axial Roll 5 °_ 0 ' 4°-54 ' 4"-48-' 4 °_42' 4"-36 ' 4 -30 ' 4"_1 8 ' 4°_ 6 ' 3 "-48 ' 3 °-30 '
--- ---


Angle of Tilt
Axial Roll
0"_30 ' 1 "- 0 ' 1 "-36 ' 2 ' - 6 ' 2 ° - 1 8 ' 2 u - 3 0 ' 3"- 0 ' 3 "_30 ' 3 ° -54 '
6°_ 0 ' 5 °_54 5 °_48 " S ' -36 ' S " -36 ' 5 "_24 ' 5 " - 1 2 ' 4"-54 ' " 4"_36 ' 4 ° _ 1 8 '
'
�I
--- ---
Angle of Tilt 0"-36 ' 1 °_ 1 2 ' 1 ' -48 ' 2 " _2 4 ' 2 -42 ' 3°_ 0 ' 3 " - 3 0 ' 4"_ () ' 4°_3(J , S " - 0 '
7" Axial Roll T- O ' 6"_54 ' 6°_48/ 6"_ 3 6 ' 6 -3 0 ' 6 '-24 ' 6°_ 6 ' 5 °-48 ' S O-24 ' �'
Angle of Tilt 00-42 ' 1 "-24 ' 2°_ 6 ' 2°_48 ' 3 ° _ 6 ' 3 ' -2 4 ' 4 '- () ' 4°_ 3 6 ' 5 ° _ 1 2 ' 5 °- 3 6 '

1
8° Axial Roll 8 ° - 0 ' 7 °_54 ' 7"-42 ' 7 " - 3 0 ' 1'-24 ' 7'- 1 8 ' 6 °_5 4 ' 6 °_3 6 ' 6° _ 1 2 ' 5 °_36 '
1
Angle of Tilt 0°_48 ' 1 ° -36 ' 2°_24 ' 3- 6 ' 3 ' -30 ' 3 °_48 ' 4 ° _ 3 0 ' 5 ° _ 1 2 ' 5 "-48 ' 6 ° -24 '
9° Axial Roll 9"_ 0 ' 8°-54 ' 8 ° -42 ' 8 -3 0 ' S O_ I S ' 8 ' - 1 2 ' 7 °-4 8 ' 1" -24 ' 6°_54 ' 6°_24 '
--- ---
Angle of Tilt ()0_ 54 ' 1 °_48 ' 2°_ 3 6 ' 3 °_30 ' 3 °- 5 4 ' 4°_ 1 8 ' 5°_ 6 ' 5 °_48 ' 6°_3 0 ' 7 ° _ 6 '
10 ' 1 0 °_ 0 ' 9°-54 ' 9°_42 ' 9°-24 ' 9°-1 8 ' �' 8 °_42 ' SO- 1 2 ' 7°-42 ' r:-6'
1 Axial Roll
Angle of Tilt 1 °_ O ' � � �', � � � 6 °-24 ' �' �
11° Axial Roll 1 1 °· 0 ' 1 00_ 4S ' 10°·36 ' 10"·24 ' 1 0" · 1 2 ' 10 °· 0 ' 9°.36 ' � S O _30 ' 7 ° ·4S '
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
1 2°
Angle of Tilt
Axial Roll
Angle of Tilt
1 1
1 °· 6 ' 2 °· 6 ' 3 ° · 1 2 ' 4°· 1 2 ' 4° .42 '1 5 °· 1 2 ' 6 °_ 6 ' 7 °· 0 ' 7°_4S ' 8 °_3 6 '
1 2"_ 0 ' 1 1 ° _48 ' 1 1 ° . 3 6 ' 1 1 "_ 1 8 ' 1 1 ° _ 6 ' 1 0 '.S4 ' 1 (J o-24 ' 9 ° -54 ' 9°_1 8 ' 8 ° -3 6 '
.
1 °· 1 2 ' 2°_I S ' 3 °·24 ' 4°_3 (J ' 5 ° · 6 ' 5 ° ·36 ' 6 °·36 ' 7°·36 ' 8 °·30 ' 9 °· 1 S '
13 ° Axial Roll 1 3 ° · 0 ' 1 2°.48 ' 1 2°.3 6 ' 1 2°. 1 8 '1 1 2_°. 6 ' 1 1 °. 48 ' 1 1 ° . 1 8 ' 1 0°.42 ' 1 0°_ 0; 9°· 1 8 '
1
Angle of Tilt 1 °· 1 2 ' 2°_30 ' 3 °·42 ' 4 ° · 5 4 ' 5 °.30 ' 6 °. (J ' T· 6 ' 8°_ 6 ' 9 ° · 6 ' 1 (J°· 0 '
1 4° 1
Axial Roll 1 4°_ 0 ' 1 3 °-48 ' 1 3 ° · 30 ' 1 3 0. 1 2 ' 1 3 °_ 0 ' 1 2 °-42 ' 1 2 ° · 1 2 ' 1 1 °·30 ' 1 0 °. 48 ' 10°· 0 '
(
15 °
Angle of Tilt 1
1 °_ 1 8 ' 2 °· 42 ' 4 °· 0 ' 5 °· 1 8 ' 5 ° _ 5 4 ' 6°.30 ' 1 "·36 ' 8°·42 ' 9 °·48 ' 1 0 ° _ 42 '
A"iBi R oll i �o. () ' 1 4 °_ 4 R ' 1 4°·30 ' 1 4 °.1 2 ' 1 1 °·� 4 ' 1 3 °. 42 ' 1 3 °· 6 ' 1 2 °·24 ' � 1 0°- 42 '

. -----���---
Grinding Peripheral Teeth on a Side and
Face Mil l ing Cutter

(1) Adjust grinding wheel centre height with height


setting gauges, as described on page 22.

(2) Set table graduations at zero, i.e. Table is placed


parallel to table movement.

(3) Turn wheelhead until it is inclined at 1 0 to table,


and lock in position. This prevents grinding on
both sides of the wheel when the cutter passes
in front of it.

(4) Mount cutter on mandrel, between centres.

(5)
· .�
Set cutter to required clearance angle, (Fig. 2)
using angular setting gauge as illustrated on
'I page 24.
I
I (6) Set tooth rest under first tooth to be ground and unlock angular setting
gauge. Where possible place rest under side teeth, as this gives greater
clearance between the wheel and tooth rest, also it places the screw adjust­
ment "A" on the rest in a convenient position.

(7) Start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.



ALTERNATIVE METHOD USING INDEX ATTACHMENT.

( 8) Turn wheelhead until it is inclined at 1 0 to table, and lock in position.

(9) Adjust grinding wheel centre height with height setting gauges as described
on page 22.

( 1 0) Mount cutter on arbor and place in cutter head to which an indexing attach­
ment has been fitted.

( 1 1 ) Rest cutter tooth on top of gauge and lock cutter head spindle in position.

( 1 2) Remove gauge. Adjust knurled screws until plunger engages the indexing
drum. (See page 26).

( 1 3 ) Unlock cutter spindle, start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.


Note-Feed must be applied from cross feed handwheel .

30
FIG 2

31
I

Grinding the Side Teeth on a Si de and
Face Mil l ing Cutter

( 1) Mount cutter on arbor and place in cutter head. It will be found advantageous
if sufficient packing is placed at the back of the cutter to allow the wheel to
pass behind it. This ensures both side faces are always ground parallel to
each other.

(2) Set table graduations at zero, i.e. table set parallel to table movement.

(3) Swivel cutter head (90C) until centre line of arbor is at right angles to table
movement and lock in position (Fig. 1).
I

I
(4) Tilt cutter head spindle until the required clearance angle is obtained. (Fig. 2
shows cutter head set to give a clearance of 6°).

(5) Bolt tooth rest holder to bottom tee slot on cutter head and adjust tooth
rest until it positions the first tooth to be ground parallel to table top. This
is a visual setting.

(6) Adjust wheelhead height to cover tooth to be ground but missing the tooth
above. (Fig. 2).

(7) Start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.

TO GRIND INSIDE EDGE OF CUTTER. (Fig. 3).

(8) Mount cup wheel in inverted position on extension spindle. ( Figs. 1 and 3).

(9) Tilt cutter head spindle until required clearance angle is obtained. Mi

gram opposite, wheelhead requires a movement of 1 2° from previous setting
to give a clearance angle of 6°).

( 1 0) Remove tooth rest from cutter head and bolt tooth rest holder to table,
adjust tooth rest until it positions the first to be ground parallel to the table
top. (Visual setting) . It is necessary to bolt tooth rest to table when wheel­
head is in this position as the wheel would foul the tooth rest holder if it
was taken from the wheelhead tee slot.

( 1 1 ) Start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.

32
1
I

C'.T'"
� �-
-
--- � = = � �-�J_� -
. ,L - t -'-w
r

'T_ 1 --r

T
'.!

�_���1J
__

FIG I

-f·1r:l/jl.i
c-r-

rd

f
6° L __ _
,I

--- ,I ; --
+--- - - =-=-
--=- --+--

1
I
LL - -:

I
y... FIG 2
I

,- - -

r --�I - - -

HG 3

33

. --
Grinding Helical Mil ling Cutters

USING LINEAR SETTING METHOD. (Fig. 2).


(1) Mount cutter o n mandrel, between centres.

(2) Turn wheelhead until it is inclined at IO ta the table and lock in position.
This prevents grinding on both sides of the wheel when the cutter passes
in front of it.

(3) Set table graduations at zero, i.e. table set parallel to table movement.

(4) Adjust grinding wheel centre height with height setting gauge as described
on page 22.

(5) Bolt tooth rest holder to wheelhead and set tooth rest to spiral angle of cutter.
Set point of tooth rest which is opposite cutting edge of wheel on centre
line of table centres.

(6) Lower wheelhead an amount corresponding to the clearance angle required.


(See chart on page 27) . (Diagram opposite shows a 5" diameter cutter set
to give a clearance angle of 6° by lowering the wheelhead .260").

(7) Start wheel head motor and commence grinding.

USING ANGULAR SETTING METHOD. (Figs. 1 and 3).


(8) Mount cutter on mandrel, between centres.

(9) Turn wheelhead until it is inclined at 1 ° to table and lock in position.

( 1 0) Set table graduations at zero, i.e. table set parallel to table movement.

( 1 1 ) Adjust grinding wheel centre height using height setting gauges as described
on page 22.

( 1 2) Bolt tooth rest holder to wheelhead and set tooth rest to spiral angle of cutter. .. .
Set point of tooth rest which is opposite cutting edge of wheel an centre . �
line of wheelhead.

( 1 3) Bolt centre height gauge to wheelhead, rotate cutter until point on acute
angle side of cutter is in contact with tip of the gauge. This point of cutter
is now on its own centre line.

( 1 4) Lock angular setting gauge to mandrel with gauge set at 0°; rotate cutter
to required clearance angle and lock in position.

( 1 5 ) Lower wheelhead until tooth rest is on the same level as cutter tooth, with
the cutting edge of the wheel opposite the acute point of cutter tooth, unlock
setting gauge, start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.

34
=

,
t

--- gg
FIG I

I
ACUTE ANGLE OBTUSE ANGLE
SIDE OF SIDE OF
CUTTER CUTTER

CLEARANCE ANGLE OBTAI NED


BY LINEAR SETTING METHOD FIG 1

CLEARANCE ANGLE OBTAINED FIG 3


BY ANGULAR SETTING M ETHOD
3:;
(

Grinding Large Inserted Tooth Cutters

TO GRIND PERIPHERAL TEETH. (Fig. 1 ) .


(1) :\Iount cutter o n arbor and place
in cutter head. A

(2) Turn wheelhead until it is incli­


ned at 1 C to table and lock in
position. (Fig. 1 ) . (This prevents
grinding on both sides of the
wheel when the cutter passes in
front of it).
(3) Set table parallel \vith table move­
ment and lock in position .
(4) Rotate cutter head at 'base s\vivel'
until axis of arbor is at right an­
gles to table (as Fig. 2) .

(5) Bolt height gauge to \\heelhead, adjust height of \vheelhead until tip of gauge
is level with the centre of the arbor. (This is judged visually).
(6) Traverse table until tip of gauge is under tooth, rotate cutter bringing tooth
in contact with gauge and lock cutter head spindle in position.
(7) Remove setting gauge, unlock spindle. Rotate cutter head spindle to the
required clearance angle and lock in position \vith knurled screw "A."
(8) Rotate cutter head at 'base swivel' until spindle is parallel to table (Fig. 1 ) .
Bolt tooth rest to table top and adjust until it i s under the first tooth to be
ground.
(9) Unlock cutter head spindle, start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.

TO GRIND SIDE TEETH. (Fig. 2).


( 1 0) Remoye cup wheel and place on other end of wheel spindle. Rotate wheel­
head until wheel grinds on side opposite to that in previous setting (see Fig. 2).
This reverses the direction of the \vheel \\�hich keeps the cutter pressed against
the tooth rest.
( 1 1 ) Turn wheelhead until it is inclined at 1 to table. Rotate base and angular
swivel the necessary amount to give the required clearance angle and lock
in position. (Yalues obtained from setting chart opposite).
( 1 2) Rotate cutter until first tooth to be ground is parallel to table top and lock
in position.
( 1 3 ) Bolt tooth rest on table top and place under first tooth to be ground.
( 1 4) Unlock spindle, start \vheelhead motor and commence grinding.
To facilitate free cutting it will be found advantageous if the corners
of the teeth are chamfered at 4Sc and the side faces relieved at 2° (see
Fig. 3).

36
)

FIG 1

��&
�\
(
r----F
I � J"'� "
.1
,�' : :] 1\
r I-
f-
i
i
___

I
I

I.
l'

iI i
I
I


F===T
I,
I
�.
� i �

� J

Cutter clearance angle I 3° 1 58 I 60


I7°
.
Angular . swivel . / 3 ° 5 0 ' 7 "40 ' 1 1 °32 , 1 1 5 °28 ' 1 9 =28 ' 23 °3 5 ' 27°49 ' 32°1 4 '
Base SWiVel . .
1 __ __ __

Cutter clearance angle l 9°


__

10° 1 1 c 120 1
1_
1 3 °
1 __

He
'

15°
__ __

Angular . swivel . . / 36 05 2 ' 41 049 ' 47 ° 1 0 ' 5 3 0 8 , 1 60 8 4 ' 68° 5 8 ' 90° 0 '
Base SWiVel . . \ I
Grinding Angl e Cutters

(1) Set table graduations a t zero, i.e. table i s set parallel to table movement.

(2) Mount cutter on stub arbor and place in cutter head to which an indexing
attachment has been fitted.

(3) Rotate cutter head at base swivel an amount equal to half the included angle
of the cutter. (Fig. 1).

(4 ) Tilt and rotate cutter head spindle an amount corresponding to the required
clearance angle and lock in position. (Values and method of setting obtained
from chart on page 29).

(5) Position height of wheelhead until its centre line is approximately at the
same height as the centre line of the cutter (Fig. 2). Turn knurled adjusting
screws on indexing attachment until plunger "A" (page 41) engages with
indexing drum.

(6 ) Unlock cutter head spindle, start wheel head motor and commence grinding

ALTERNATIVE METHOD USING TOOTH REST.


Repeat operations 1 , 2, 3 and 4 with the exception that indexing attachment is
not fitted.

(7) Position height of wheelhead until its centre line is approximately at the
same height as the centre line of the cutter (Fig. 2).

(8) Bolt tooth rest holder to table and adjust tooth rest until it is under the first
tooth to be ground. (Fig. 3 ) . '!II

(9) Unlock cutter head spindle, start \yheelhead motor and commence grinding.

38
1

FIG I

39

)
Grinding the F l utes on Form Cutters
(See page 48 for Form Grinding)

..

(1) Set table graduations at zero, I . e., table set parallel to table movement.

(2) Rotate wheelhead 5° clockwise. Bolt diamond holder to table top, adjust
height of wheel head until its centre line is on the same level as the diamond
and true wheel. This method prevents hollo\y grinding.

(3) Set wheel head square to table and lock In position ( Fig. 1 ) .

( 4) Mount cutter on arbor and place in cutter head to which an indexing attach­
ment has been fitted. Set plunger "A" in appropriate holes in indexing drum.

(5) Traverse table to clear cutter from wheel. Place set-square on table in a
position where the edge of the square coincides with the centre of the arbor. •
(Fig. 1 ) . (Yisual setting).

(6) Feed table forward with cross-feed handwheel until edge of square touches
face of wheel (Fig. 2 ) . T raverse table until cutter is directly below wheel,
lower wheel head until wheel has entered flutes sufficiently to cover the form
of the cutter (Fig. 3).

(7) Start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.

Note-Feed must be applied by knurled adjustment screws on indexing


attachment (E) not by cross feed, otherwise, plane of cutting edge
will not pass through centre of cutter and an incorrect profile will
be formed.

+0
1

- -=t
.
.�
".. I I�. -- -
.

I
,

----
' -E-+--\! � FIG 3

FIG 1 FIG 2

B B
I

\ !
\ __"i

41

J
Reamer Grinding
Hand and machine reamers with straight and spiral flutes are manufactured
slightly oversize and therefore all that is necessary to resharpen is to grind in the
flutes. This is quite simple when dealing with straight fluted reamers as this
can be carried out in the same manner for grinding Form Cutters described on
page 40. For spiral fluted reamers an attachment is recommended similar to the
Hob Grinding Attachment on page 46. This ensures that the correct spiral angle
is maintained. It can however be accomplished without an attachment but this
depends upon the skill of the operator.
As the "land" of the reamer should be betvieen .006" and .008" wide, the reamer
will eventually become undersized due to constant grinding, therefore for economy _ow
it must be ground to the next nominal diameter or as desired. To do this efficiently
it should be carried out in the following manner ;-
(1) Grind the reamer diametrically.
(2) Grind the cutting clearance angle.
(3) Re-grind lead angle.

CYLINDRICAL GRINDING.
For this purpose the machine must be equipped with a motorized cutter head.
Cylindrical grind in the normal manner using the periphery of a plain grinding
wheel. It is important to note that the reamer must rotate in a direction to allow
the heel of the land to strike the wheel first.
If the cutter head is not motorized and cylindrical grinding is out of the question,
it is possible to grind the clearance angle using a cup wheel in the same manner
as for grinding the relief clearance angle. In which case the clearance tables on
page 28 for the "land" and the relief clearance angle should be used. It should
be stressed that this method is not to be recommended where cylindrical grinding
is available.

GRINDING THE CLEARANCE ANGLE. (See Figs. 1 , 2 and 3).

il"'l
(1) Set table graduations at zero, i.e. table set parallel to table movement.
I! (2) Rotate wheelhead until it is inclined at 5° to table. Bolt diamond holder
,

iii to table and true wheel. •

��, (3) Turn wheelhead through 1 C to prevent grinding on both sides of the
wheel and lock in position. If \vheel fouls the tailstock or shank of reamer,
turn wheel head a greater amount to clear.
(4) Adjust height of wheel head with height setting gauge as described on
page 22. Bolt tooth rest holder to wheelhead, adjust tooth rest until it
is on the centre line of the wheelhead, with the tooth rest blade at the
same spiral angle as the reamer.
( 5) Place reamer between centres. When grinding small diameter reamers
it will be found necessary to grind the left hand tailstock centre into
a half centre.
(6) Lower wheelhead an amount corresponding to the required clearance
angle and diameter of reamer. (Values obtained from chart on page 27).
(7) Start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.
N.B.-For grinding the lead angle, swivel table the required amount .

. 42
1

CLEARANCE ANGLE... 6" r- - �-/ \ I

: • '"

Ii�" \
j-
�/ /
� - ----+----
i
/
FIG 3

43
Reamer Grinding-continued.

FLUTE GRINDING. (Spiral Reamers).


An attachment similar to the Hob Grinding Attachment on page 46, is recom­
mended for grinding the reamer flutes. If no such attachment is available this
operation can be carried out but requires skill on the part of the operator
to obtain perfect results. The method is as follows :-

(1) Mount saucer wheel o n extension spindle i n a n inverted position.

(2) Set table graduation at zero, i.e. table set parallel .

(3) Rotate wheelhead approximately 16c. Bolt diamond holder to table,


adjust wheelhead height until its centre line is on the same level as
the diamond and true wheel.

(4) Mount reamer between tailstock centres. Lower grinding wheel into
flutes on reamer until the required cut is obtained (Fig. 6). Turn wheel­
head until wheel is in line with spiral and remove reamer from tailstock
centres.

(5) Set protractor to the cOPlplementary angle of that formed on the wheel
(74°) and place on table in line with the tailstock centre. (Fig. 5). Posi­
tion table with traverse movement to bring protractor in line with
centre of wheel spindle and adjust cross feed until straight edge of
protractor touches the wheel.
Note �Height of wheelhead must not be disturbed after this setting.

(6) Replace reamer between centres, start wheelhead motor and then
traverse the table, at the same time turning by hand the reamer fol lowing
the spiral, keeping the edge of the flute to be ground against the grinding
-
wheel.

44
--it . .
TAI LSTOCK CENTRE Y/ FIG 5

45
Hob-Grinding Attachment

This attachment is designed to grind in the flutes of a comprehensive range


of Spiral Hobs, also Reamers, etc., and is so arranged that the Spiral lead is correctly
preserved and also the teeth are ground radially and equidistant. The attachment
can sharpen both right and left hand hobs in addition to hobs with straight flutes.

Index plates are provided for changing the number of flutes per hob and change
gears are used to vary the spiral lead.

Method of Operation.
( 1 ) Mount saucer wheel on
extension spindle in an
inverted position (Fig. 2).

(2) Set table graduation at


zero, i.e. table set parallel.

(3) Rotate wheel head ap­


proximately 1 6°. Bolt
diamond holder to table,
adjust wheelhead height
until its centre line is on
the same level as the dia­
mond and true wheel.

(4) Mount hob on mandrel and place between centres of hob attachment
and tailstock.

(5) Set gears on attachment to give correct lead on hob and rotate wheel head
an amount necessary to follow that lead. (Values obtained from hob attach­
ment setting chart supplied with attachment) .
-
(6) Lower grinding wheel into flutes on hob until required cut is obtained. (Fig. 3).
Remove mandrel and hob from centres.

(7) Set protractor to the complementary angle of that formed on the wheel (74C)
and place on table in line with the tailstock centre. (Fig. 2). �
Position table with traverse movement to bring protractor in line with centre
of wheel spindle and adjust cross feed until straight edge of protractor touches
the wheel.
Note-Height of \vheelhead mu.st not be disturbed after this setting.

(8) Replace hob between centres, start wheelhead motor and commence grinding.
Note-Apply feed with knurled adjustment screw on attachment and not
by cross feed hand wheel.

Straight fluted hobs can be ground without the use of a Hob Grinding Attachment
in the manner indicated for grinding form cutters, see pages 40 and 41 .

46

l
[

\
47

- _.'_._
.. -
'Ii
I

Radial Grinding
and Wh eel Forming Attachment

This attachment has been designed for the Jones-Shipman Tool and Cutter
Grinding Machines, but can be supplied with a base to suit all standard types of
Tool and Cutter Grinding Machines having an adjustable cross slide and swivelling
wheelhead.

Every consideration has been given to all forms of cutters, including roller mills,
end mills, side and face, concave and convex cutters, within the capacity of the
attachment.

THE BASE
is adjustable so that the face of the cup wheel can be used ; the clearance rake
being obtained by tipping the hinged platform to the required angle, which is
maintained through the full angle of swing.

THE SWIVEL TABLE


is graduated so that the angle of swing can be measured accurately, and adjustable
stops in a circular tee slot can be set to the required angle.

THE CROSS SLIDE


gives the necessary adjustment for varymg diameter cutters, and an adjusting
screw provides finer setting.

THE CUTTER BRACKETS


are provided with buttons to accommodate bores of � ", 1 " and 1 1 " dia. and setting -
face enables Gauge blocks to be inserted between a central gauge pin to produce
required radius. These brackets are also used to carry the Diamond Holder,
which is inserted through the button-hole, and set to required radius by gauge
blocks up to a Centre Gauge Bracket.

THE TOOTH REST


is mounted on the back of the cross slide and can be adjusted to suit cutters up to
8" dia. the rod being also adjustable vertically to position tooth for correct rake .
The same rest is also used on the tilting head with a shorter rod.

THE TILTING HEAD


carries a revolving sleeve bored ;'IJo. 8 B. & S. Taper to take end mills ; or a 1 "
spigot for supporting roller mills.

48
-----
---�- --- --

Grinding a Radius on a Roller- Mill Grinding a Concave Radius

Grinding a Convex Cutter

49
Tap Relief & Flute Grinding Attachment

This Jones-Shipman attach­


�- �-'--- -- """=J
ment is suitable for use on all
types of Tool and Cutter Grin­
ding Machines. It enables the
relief on the lead tapers on
taps of all types haying 2, 3,
4, 5 , 6 or 8 flutes \yith either
left or right hand threads. to
be ground also the edges on
the flute faces. It can also be
" used for relief and flute
r grinding of reamers, straight fluted hobs and other milling cutters ha\�ing divisions
covered by the indexing gears.

i
,. The cam shaft is housed in the fixed portion of the head, with two cams provided.
These transmit an oscillatory motion to the spindle and tailstock on the rocking
frame. The handwheel on the cam shaft when continuously turned allows each
land of the tap to be relieved according to the predetermined amount and automa­
tically indexed at each flute. The indexing of the tap allo\vs for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 8
divisions, and is set to any of these by means of change gears.

The Work Spindle is of hardened and ground steel, threaded on its nose and bored
1\0. 2 1\1. T. and has a #" diameter clearance hole through to take long shank taps.

..

FLUTE GRI:\"DI:\"G RELIEF GRIKDING

50
Lathe & Planer Tool s
(High Speed Steel)
The grinding of Lathe and Planer
Tools can be carried out off-hand on
Tool Grinding Machines having ad­
justable angular tool rests. Off-hand
grinding however is not recommended
on Tool and Cutter Grinders, although
in a case of expediency it can be accom­
plished by using in the case of the
Jones-Shipman Grinder a Universal
Vice fitted with a compound tool
rest. (Fig. 1 ) .
The correct method o f grinding high
speed steel Lathe and Planer tools is
to surface grind these on a Tool and Fig. 1
Cutter Grinder using a universal ma­
chine vice (Fig. 2), to obtain the correct
cutting angles and relief. The machine
should be equipped with coolant
supply as a copious flow of coolant is
recommended.
Great stress should be laid on the adop­
tion of correct and uniform methods
of grinding lathe and planer tools for
production work. Each tool should
be designed for a particular operation,
drawings should be made of the tool
and the grinding machine operator
should work according to these
drawings. Fig. 2

A thin edged tool cuts more easily and generates less friction than a thick edged
tool, distorts the chips less and gives greater freedom to their removal. However,
the edge must be thick enough to carry a heavy cut at suitable speeds and the
point must be of sufficient width to stand the heat generated by the cut. The tool
must be heavy enough to take the cut without chatter and have angles proportioned
to turn the chip properly and yet preserve the cutting edge. Machine grinding
has the following advantages over hand grinding.

1. Saves the time of the operator.


2. Gives correct grinding angles.
3. Increases the life o f the tool.
4. Increases production.
5. Raises the quality of production.
6. Permits a smaller stock of tools.

Tools tipped with tungsten carbide should for preference be ground on Tool
Grinders specially designed for that purpose. Owing to the radical difference
between cemented carbide and high speed steel, special grinding wheels are re­
quired and a special technique is necessary. Information on the grinding of tipped
tools is usually supplied by the makers and these should be studied carefully
before attempting to grind. For further details see pages 18 and 19.

51

q. rW?*IT, - , llL rtit .


Fig.

Fig. 2
_. . ,-

TOOL GRIN DING


(High Speed Steel)

TOOL ANGLES DEFINED


For purposes of discuss ion the angles of a tool are illustrated and defined be lmy.
A l l angles on the top of the tool are called rakes, back rake and side rake. Angles
on the sides of the tool are clearances, front clearance and side clearance. The
included angle between a rake and a clearance is the cutting angle. Cutting angles
are usually 60 to 75' for cast i ron and 4tr to SOC for steel and wrought i ron . " �

SIDE V I EW E. N D V I E W

Fig. 1 - Rake and Clearance Angles of a Tool

STANDARD TOOLS

L----D

Fig. 2-Rou n d :\ose Roughing Tool

Clearance Front Rake Side Rake


Blunt tools for cast Iron and the harder
grades of steel 14°

Sharp tools for wrought iron and the softer


grades of steel 6° 22°

52

i
l
Tool Grinding-continued.

LATHE TOOLS

Fig. 3-Finishing Fig. 4-�icking Fig. 5-Side

IL(]-'
, ,
1
roO

Q. g;).
'0
I o� \

Fig. 6-Brass Fig. 7-600 V Thread Fig. 8-Square Thread

PLANER TOOLS
4'

Fig. 9-Finishing Fig. 10-Splining


�.
Fig. l l-Cutting Down

SLOTTER TOOLS

Fig. 1 2- Fig. 1 3- Fig. 1 4- Fig. 15-


Side Finishing 30° Angle Chamfering 45° Angle Slot

53

- - -PEr
Tool Grinding-continued.

3'

�.
,
3' 3·
,
I I
,

ca" "t(
, ,
, ,

�.
, "

4" I � I 4°

4' �.
Fig. 1 6- Fig. 1 7 - Fig. 1 8- Fig. 1 9-
Corner Square Splining Hexagon
for ". renches

STANDARD TOOLS

Another system involves the principle of an inserted cutter in a permanent holder.


The illustrations show the manner in which the "bits" should be ground for various
operations. They may be ground in the holder but it is better to transfer them to
a special grinding holder for the sharpening.

LATHE TOOLS

Fig. 20- Fig. 21- Fig. 22-


R.H. Turning Round Nose Square Finishing

Fig. 23- Fig. 24- Fig. 25-


R.H. Finishing R.H. Roughing R.H. Side

54
Tool Grinding-continued.

Zl f. 7' r'
� w �1r � 4(��
1-; rf;
I

.. ..
tf �-:
I I
"
,
80' i· " <l4�
"",'
,,'

� Fig. 26- Fig. 27- Fig. 28-


Parting-off Brass Turning Thread

Fig. 29- Fig. 30- Fig. 3 1 -


R.H. Thread Offset Sq. R.H. Thread R.H. Acme and Worm

TOP
PLANER TOOLS

rr
r---
• I •
7.Q t;)'

30,

Fig. 32-R.H. Roughing Fig. 3 3-R.H. Corner

Fig. 34---Square Nose Fig. 35-Parting-off

55

--
-
r-

Tool Grinding-continued.

BORING TOOLS

� r!.
\I�
.. ".
", r"I ,"'

IT
.

� B'
'0

�liA .
."
,s
,_ c 0,'1
W

:�
A-A
�� \,@
"'i
< Co
. �

Fig. 36-Roughing Fig. 37-Corner Fig. 38-Roughing

Fig. 39-Thread Fig. 40-Thread Fig. 41-


Sq. R.H. Thread

VA R l e: S WITH PITC.H oPO


Tr-titE:.AO ANt) CI.III. M e..T eR.

Fig. 43-
Fig. 42-Recessing R.H. Acme and Worm

56

-
-

Decim al and Mi llimetre Equi valents


of Fractional Parts of an Inch

Inches I Inches I mm
II Inches I Inches I mm

1-64 .01 563 .397 33-64 . 5 1 563 1 3 .097


1-32 .03 1 25 .794 17-32 .53125 1 3 .494
3-64 .04688 1 . 191 35-64 .54688 1 3 .890
1-16 .0625 1 .588 9-16 .5625 1 4.287

5-64 .078 1 3 1 .984 37-64 .578 1 3 1 4.684


3-32 .09375 2.381 19-32 .59375 15.081
7-64 . 1 0938 2.778 39-64 .60938 1 5 .478
1-8 . 1 25 3 . 1 75 5-8 .625 15.875

9-64 . 1 4063 3.572 41-64 .64063 1 6.272


5-32 . 1 5625 3 .969 21-32 .65625 16.669
1 1-64 . 1 7 1 88 4-.366 43-64 .67 1 88 1 7.065
3-16 . 1 875 4-.762 1 1-16 .6875 1 7.462

13-64 .20313 5 . 1 59 45-64 .703 1 3 1 7.859


7-32 .21 875 5.556 23-32 .71875 1 8.256
15-64 .234-38 5 .953 47-64 .73438 1 8.653
1-4 .25 6.350 3-4 .75 19.050

17-64 .26563 6.747 49-64 I


I
.76563 1 9.44-7
9-32 .28125 7. 1 44- 25-32 .78 1 25 1 9.844-
I
I

19-64 .29688 7.541 51-64 .79688 20.240


5-16 13-16
I
.3 1 25 7.938 .8125 20.637

21-64 .328 1 3 8.334- 53-64 .828 1 3 2 1 .034-


1 1-32 .34-375 8.73 1 27-32 .84-375 2 1 .43 1
23-64 .35938 9.128 55-64 .85938 21 .828
3-8 .375 9.525 7-8 .875 22.225
l
25-64 .39063 9.922 57-64 .89063 22.622
13-32 .40625 10.319 29-32 .90625 23.019
27-64 .42 1 88 10.716 59-64 .92 1 88 23.4-1 5
7-16 .4375 11.113 15-16 .9375 23 .812

29-64 .453 1 3 1 1 .509 61-64 .95 3 1 3 24-.209


15-32 .46875 1 1 .906 31-32 .96875 24-.606
31-64 .4-8438 1 2.303 63-64 .984-38 25.003
1-2 .5 1 2.700 1 1 .00000 25 .400

57
tlUHd -cf/tipfflan
Model 11 0 . 8�' X :1 6"· Cutter & Tool
.� Grindi-ng Ma<:hine

- --

-
..

Correctly ground tools and cutters are essential to ensure maximum and economical
output from the machine shop. Cutting and relief angles must be maintained to
avoid loss of production and the resultant high rbanufacturing costs. Good cutting
.
edges keep costs tCl a minimum.
I
The Jones-Shipman Modd 3 1 0 Cutter and Tool Grinder adequately fulfils .t
demands. It is designed to cover a wide range of operations in the shortest possible
times, so that tools and cutters can be quickly. and accurately . ground.

The machine, which is the outcome of many years of experience in the knowledge
and requirements of all types of tool and cutter grinding, has many unique features
incorporated in the design. Convenience of control . and ease of operation are
features which will relldily appeal to the operator.

58
@&S"AIDRID6E)
HIGH SPEED STE E L

./'
-' M ILLING CUTTERS
AND REAM ERS
ALSO

GROUND TH READ TAPS


HIGH SPEED AND CARBON STEEL

"J & S-ALDRIDGE" tools fulfil all the requirements


necessary to ensure maximum cutting efficiency with the
resultant increase of output from the Machine Shop. They
conform strictly to British Standard Specifications and
have the added advantage of being finished to top limits
of tolerance, thus maintaining nominal dimensional size
after numerous re-grinds.

All "J & S-ALDRIDGE" High speed cutting tools


are manufactured from best quality 18% Tungsten steel,
carefully heat treated by modern processes, finished
ground on precision grinding machines and rigidly
t inspected.

Accuracy, durability and 10ng life are the salient


features of all "J & S-ALDRIDGE" tools.

STANDARD SIZES

C AT A L O G UE ON R E Q UE S T

Sole Distributors :

A. A. J O N E S & SH I P M A N LT D . ,
N A R B O RO U G H ROAD SO UTH , L E I C ESTE R, E ng.

59
----- ,- ----

SMALL TOOLS
The comprehensive range of J. & 8. Engineers' Small Tools cover the usual
engineers' requirements. These have an unsurpassed reputation for accuracy,
efficiency and quality. A representative selection of "J. & S." Small Tools is
listed below.

Adjustable Parallel Packings Mandrels


Angle Plates Milling Cutters
Arbors, Driil Chuck
Parallel Packing Strips
Balancing Tools, Static Type Parting-off and Side-Tool Holders
Balancing Tools, DISC Type Parting-off Blades
Bench Centres Planer and Sharer Tools
Boring Dar. Portable Precision Grinding Unit
Presses, lVlandrel
Carders, Lathe and Grinding Presses, Straightening
Centre Drills, English and Melric Presses, Assembly
Centres, Lathe
Centres, Rotating Radial Grinding Attachment
Radius and Angular \Vheel Truing
Attachment
Dressers, Grinding Wheel
Relief Grinding & Fluting Attachment
Drifts, Drill
Rotating Centres
Reamers
Engineers' Steel Par"llels

Sleeves
Gauges, Plug and Ring
Sockets
General Purpose Head
Surface Plates, Glass
Ground Thread Taps

Taps, Ground Thread


Hacksaw Blades
Test Bars
Threat! Cutting Tools
Index Centres
Tool Bits
Internal Grinding Spindles
Turning Tool Holders

Jig Bushes Valve Rdcaters


Jointing Paste Vee Clamps
Vce Clamps, Universal
Knufls, English and Metric Vee Blocks
Knurling Tools Vice". Angular Sine
Vices, l\fachine
Lathe Sets Vices, Universal
Locknut Wrenches Vices, Milling

Published by Printed in Leice9tcr, England.


A. A. Jone, & Shipman Ltd.• by It. T. Mould & Ca. Ltd.,
Lciceater, England. Little Holme Street.

'.' .,