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design

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Edited by Bill Travis

Data-acquisition system uses fault protection

Catherine Redmond, Analog Devices, Limerick, Ireland

Catherine Redmond, Analog Devices, Limerick, Ireland The best of design ideas ! Check it out at:

The best of

design ideas

! Check it out at:

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S ensitive systems, such as those in aircraft, must withstand fault conditions, thereby avoiding

V SS PMOS NMOS NMOS PMOS V DD V SS V DD Figure 1 A
V SS
PMOS
NMOS
NMOS
PMOS
V DD
V SS
V DD
Figure 1
A channel protector can protect sensi-
tive circuitry from voltage transients.

tions in which correct power sequencing cannot be guaranteed and for hot-inser- tion rack systems. Figure 2 shows an ADG465 channel protector with an input signal that exceeds the power-supply volt- age. The protector clamps the output sig- nal, protecting the sensitive components that follow the channel protector.

When a fault condition occurs, the voltage on the input of the channel

protector exceeds a voltage set by the supply-rail voltage minus the MOS- FET’s threshold voltage. For a positive overvoltage, this voltage is V DD V TN , where V TN is the threshold volt-

age of the NMOS transistor (typical- ly,1.5V).In the case of a negative over-

voltage, the voltage is V SS V TP , where

V TP is the threshold voltage of the PMOS device (typically, 2V).When the input of the channel protector ex- ceeds either of these voltages, the pro- tector clamps the output within them. These devices offer bidirectional fault and overvoltage protection, so you can use the inputs or outputs interchangeably. Figure 3 shows the voltages and MOSFET states for a positive-overvoltage event. The output load limits the current during the fault condition to V CLAMP /R L (Figure 4). If the supplies are off, the protector limits the fault current to nanoamps. Figure 5 shows how you can

use the ADG466 channel protector to protect the sensitive inputs of an instru-

mentation amp from a sensor fault. In applications that require a multiplexer in

Data-acquisition system

uses fault protection

69

Take steps to reduce

antiresonance in decoupling

70

Precision level shifter has

excellent CMRR

72

Celsius-to-digital thermometer works with remote sensor

74

Quasiresonant converter uses a simple CMOS IC

74

Simple circuit serves

as milliohmmeter

78

Publish your Design Idea in EDN . See the What’s Up section at www.edn.com.

component and system damage, be- cause a sensor failure could cause a catastrophic event to occur.A channel protector, comprising two n-channel MOSFETs connected in series with a p-channel MOSFET, can protect sen- sitive components from voltage tran- sients in the signal path, whether or

not the power supplies are present (Figure 1). The channel protector acts as series resistor during normal operation. If the input exceeds the pow- er-supply voltages, one of the MOSFETs turns off, clamping the output within the supply rails, thus protecting the circuitry in the event of overvoltage or supply-loss conditions. Because channel protectors work regardless of the presence of the supplies, they are also ideal for applica-

V V DD SS Figure 2 V V D1 S1 V V IN OUT ADG465
V
V
DD
SS
Figure 2
V
V
D1
S1
V
V
IN
OUT
ADG465
V
IN
V
OUT
V
DD
V
DD
OUTPUT CLAMPED
AT V DD 1.5V
The channel protector clamps overvoltage transients to a safe level.
V DD –V TN 13.5V NMOS PMOS NMOS SATURATED NONSATURATED NONSATURATED V SS V DD
V
DD –V TN
13.5V
NMOS
PMOS
NMOS
SATURATED
NONSATURATED
NONSATURATED
V SS
V DD
V DD
15V
–15V
15V

POSITIVE

OVERVOLTAGE

(20V)

Figure 3

NOTE: V TN = NMOS-THRESHOLD VOLTAGE (1.5V).

The voltages and MOSFET states appear like this during a positive-overvoltage event.

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April 15, 2004 | edn 69

design

ideas

addition to channel protection, you can use the ADG439F fault-protected, four- V D V G
addition to channel protection, you can
use the ADG439F fault-protected, four-
V
D
V G
V S
V
V
DD
13.5V
15V
20V
channel analog multiplexer
PMOS
NMOS
Figure 4
(Figure 6). These multiplex-
ers use a series n-channel, p-channel, n-
channel MOSFET connection. During
fault conditions, the inputs or outputs
appear as open circuits, protecting the
sensor or signal source as well as the
output circuitry.
N+
N+
N+
NONSATURATED
R
OVERVOLTAGE
EFFECTIVE
OPERATION
L
V CLAMP
OPERATION
SPACE-CHARGE
N-CHANNEL
(SATURATED)
REGION
I
OUT
V G – V T =13.5V
V T = 1.5V
P–
The output load limits the current to V CLAMP /R L during a fault condition.
ADG439F ADG466 – SENSOR 1 ADC DSP SENSOR 1 – + ADC DSP + IN
ADG439F
ADG466
SENSOR 1
ADC
DSP
SENSOR 1
+
ADC
DSP
+
IN AMP
SENSOR 4
IN AMP
ANALOG OUT
DAC
REFERENCE
TO ACTUATOR
ANALOG OUT
DAC
REFERENCE
TO ACTUATOR
In this circuit, the ADG466 channel protector guards the sensi-
tive inputs of an instrumentation amplifier from a sensor fault.
A
multiplexer in a data-acquisition system protects the signal source as well
as
the output circuitry.

Take steps to reduce antiresonance in decoupling

Dale Sanders, X2Y Attenuators, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI

T o maintain power integrity on pc boards, you need multiple capaci- tors to decouple the power-distri-

Figure 2 VOLTAGE (dB V)

Figure 2

Figure 2 VOLTAGE (dB V)

VOLTAGE (dB V)

Figure 2 VOLTAGE (dB V)
Figure 2 VOLTAGE (dB V)
10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 kHz 10 kHz 1
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
10 kHz
10 kHz
1 MHz
10 MHz
100 MHz
1 GHz
10 GHz
FIVE STANDARD CAPACITORS: 470, 1, 10, 100,
220-nF (801-nF TOTAL CAPACITANCE)
ONE STANDARD 1206 1-nF CAPACITOR
ONE STANDARD 1206 1000-nF CAPACITOR
ONE STANDARD 1206 10-nF CAPACITOR
ONE STANDARD 1206 220-nF CAPACITOR
BOARD S21
ONE STANDARD 1206 470-nF CAPACITOR

bution system. A typical configuration might comprise five capacitors connect- ed in parallel between the power and the ground traces or planes. To provide

broadband decoupling per- formance, assume the indi-

vidual values of the capacitors are 470, 1, 10, 100, and 220 nF (Figure 1). This parallel network provides 801-nF total capacitance to the power-distribution system. If you measure each capacitor

POWER 0.801 F TOTAL 470 nF 1 nF 10 nF 100 nF 220 nF GROUND
POWER
0.801 F
TOTAL
470 nF
1 nF
10 nF
100 nF
220 nF
GROUND
Figure 1
A typical decoupling configuration uses several
multilayer-ceramic capacitors connected in
parallel.

Measurements with a vector-network analyzer reveal undesirable antiresonance effects.

with a vector-network analyzer, you can identify each capacitor’s SRF (self-res- onant frequency). Figure 2 is a plot of

POWER

 

A

   
 
   
 
   
   

G1

 

G2

 
   

400 nF (801 nF TOTAL)

 
400 nF (801 nF TOTAL)      
   
B  
B  

B

B  
 
B  

RETURN

     

Figure 3

 

A 400-nF X2Y capacitor yields a total decou- pling capacitance of 800 nF.

each capacitor’s SRF, as well as the SRF of the overall parallel connection. Each SRF can cause antiresonance in the par-

allel decoupling configuration. The antiresonance occurs when one ca-

pacitor is still capacitive, while another has become inductive.

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A way to considerably reduce the an- tiresonance effects is to use a single 400- nF X2Y capacitor for decoupling. (Ca- pacitors using X2Y technology are available, for example, from Johanson Dielectrics (www.johansondielectrics. com). You measure the capacitance rat-

ing for an X2Y component

from line to ground; in oth- er words, from an A or a B terminal to either of the G1 or G2 terminals in Fig- ure 3. So, the total capacitance a 400-nF X2Y component supplies, connected as in Figure 3 would be double the capac- itance rating, or 800 nF. Figure 4 shows that a single X2Y capacitor with the same total capacitance as in Figure 1 provides the same broadband decou-

Figure 4

Figure

Figure 4
Figure 4

4

Figure 4

VOLTAGE (dB V)

10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 kHz 10 kHz 1
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
10 kHz
10 kHz
1 MHz
10 MHz
100 MHz
1 GHz
10 GHz
FIVE STANDARD CAPACITORS: 470, 1, 10, 100,
220nF (801-nF TOTAL CAPACITANCE)
1 X2Y 1206 400 nF
BOARD S21

sizes as standard capacitors (1812, 1210, 1206, 0805, and 0603), the use of X2Y components saves pc-board space and reduces layout complexity.

The single X2Y decoupling capacitor displays no antiresonance effects.

pling as the standard decoupling con- figuration but without the antireso- nance effects. In addition, because X2Y components come in the same package

Precision level shifter has excellent CMRR

Ronald Mancini, Texas Instruments, Bushnell, FL

M ost designers make level shifters with op amps and 1%- 25k 25k SENSE V
M ost designers make
level shifters with
op amps and 1%-
25k
25k
SENSE
V
tolerance discrete resis-
tors. Discrete-resistor
mismatching limits the
op amp’s CMMR (com-
mon-mode rejection ra-
tio) to 40 dB, so you can-
not use op amps in
circuits that require high
CMRR. Differential am-
plifiers contain precision
matched internal resis-
tors, so ICs such as the
INA133 can readily
achieve CMRRs of ap-
proximately 90 dB. They
can offer such high
CMRR by trim-
IN1
–IN
+V
_
25k
V OUT
V
+
IN2
+IN
–V
25k
INA133
V REF
C
1
Figure 1
X
ming internal matched
resistors. Assume that
C
1 allows the level shifter to act as a lowpass filter that rejects the reference noise.

each input in the circuit of Figure 1 has an associated noise voltage (V N1 , V N2 , and V NREF ). The transfer func- tion of the amplifier circuit is

V OUT (V REF V NREF ) (V IN2 V N2 )

(V IN1 V N1 ). Note that the reference volt- age shifts the output signal, either single or differential. Once this level shifting oc- curs, you can turn your attention to the

noise cancellation. Careful cabling and differentially coupling the signal into the differential amplifier’s inputs force the noise on the signal inputs to be equal (V N1 V N2 ). The input noise is a com- mon-mode signal, so the differential am- plifier rejects it to the best of its ability (nominally, 90 dB). Now, V OUT

V IN2 V IN1 V REF V NREF .

Now, you need to elim- inate the reference noise to obtain a clean level-

shifted signal. You could connect the X end of C 1 to ground to shunt the ref-

erence noise to ground,

but this solution may be

ineffective because the source impedance of the reference is low. When, however, you connect the

X end of C 1 to the V IN1 sig-

nal source, the differential amplifier acts as a lowpass filter and rejects the refer- ence noise. This circuit keeps the input imped- ance of the differential amplifier low (approxi- mately 25 k for the

INA133) to facilitate matching. Thus, you must keep the signal source impedance low to prevent gain er- rors. The source impedance should be less than 1/1000 the input impedance to minimize gain error. If this situation doesn’t occur naturally, then it is best to buffer the inputs.

72 edn | April 15, 2004

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Celsius-to-digital thermometer works with remote sensor

Elana Lian and Chau Tran, Analog Devices, Wilmington, MA

Y ou can use a single- supply system to pre- cisely measure the R 1
Y ou can use a single-
supply system to pre-
cisely measure the
R
1
2k
R
R F
temperature at a remote
location with less than
1 C error over a 0 to
100 C range (Figure 1).
The circuit includes T 1 , a
low-cost AD590 tempera-
ture sensor; IC 1 , an
AD8541 rail-to-rail am-
plifier; four resistors; a
trimming potentiometer;
and an ADC. You can
omit the ADC if you need
3
50k
50k
R 2
1k
V DD
_
DIGITAL-
IC 1
OUT
AD7476
DATA
AD8541
V IN
OUTPUT
+
GND
LONG
R 4
WIRES
200k
– + T 1
AD590
an analog output. You
could replace the trim-
ming potentiometer with
Figure 1
This system precisely measures temperature at a remote
location, with less than 1 C error over a 0 to 100 C range.

an AD8400 or AD5273 digital potentiometer for easier calibra- tion. The feedback resistor, R F , should be a precision resistor to minimize the scale- factor error, but the accuracy of the re- maining resistors is not critical. You can choose the grade of the AD590 sensor to achieve the required accuracy. The AD590 provides an output current proportional to absolute temperature (1 A/K). In this application, the circuit off- sets and scales the output to provide a full-scale range of 0 to 5V with a scale fac- tor of 50 mV/ C over the chosen tem- perature range of 0 C—the freezing point of water—to 100 C, the boiling point of water. The AD8541 is a low-cost,

low-power, rail-to-rail operational am- plifier. It has a high common-mode volt- age range and extremely low bias cur-

rents. You can calibrate out its 1-mV typical offset, the resistor, and AD590 er- rors. The output swing of the amplifier

is 25 mV to 4.965V with a single 5V pow-

er supply, limiting the output by about

0.5 C on either end. This circuit can derive its power from

a single 5V power supply. The output of

the AD590 varies from 273.15 to 373.15 A as the temperature varies from 0 to 100 C. The positive input of the AD8541 has an offset of 4V to provide sufficient headroom for the AD590. The series

combination of R 1 and R 2 develops a 1V drop, and

you adjust R 2 to provide a nominal current of 353.15

A. Thus, the current

through the feedback re- sistor, R F , varies from 80

to 20 A as the temper-

ature varies from 0 to 100 C. The voltage across this resistor varies from 4 to 1V. The 4V offset causes the output voltage of the amplifier to vary from 0 to 5V. To guarantee the accu- racy of 1 C throughout the range, you need to per-

form a calibration proce- dure. At a known temperature, such as

25 C, adjust trimming potentiometer R 2

to obtain the desired voltage at the out- put of the amplifier, 1.250V, or the de- sired code at the output of the ADC, 400H. Once you perform the calibration,

you can calculate the temperature in Cel- sius at any measured point inside the range by multiplying the output voltage by 20. Because the sensor has a current output, it is immune to voltage-noise pickup and voltage drops in the signal leads; you can thus use it at a remote lo- cation. You should use a twisted-pair or shielded cable.

Quasiresonant converter uses a simple CMOS IC

Francesc Casanellas, Aiguafreda, Spain

F igure 1 shows a flyback power sup- ply that has low noise and uses a sim- ple CMOS 4093 IC for its control.

The electrical noise of a converter arises mainly when current switches on. Diode recovery and charging parasitic capaci- tances create high di/dt, which is the main cause of noise. The converter in Figure 1 (pg 76) has a low noise level, because it slowly switches current on at nearly zero

74 edn | April 15, 2004

voltage. The converter works in the boundary between discontinuous and continuous mode and switches on when the drain voltage is at its lowest value. To avoid working with low gate voltages, which would cause excessive MOSFET losses, ZD 1 conducts and enables the in- put gate of the 4093 when the voltage is high enough. When the supply starts, the auxiliary nonisolated winding through D 3

keeps the gate input high. When the MOSFET is on, current increases linearly until the base of Q 5 starts to conduct, and this transistor turns the MOSFET off. The flyback operation then starts, and the pri- mary energy charges the output capaci- tors. During this phase of operation, D 5 and R 6 keep Q 5 conducting and the MOS- FET off.When the energy has discharged,

(continued on pg 78)

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design ideas V CC C 4 R 4 D 3 D 6 R R 5
design
ideas
V
CC
C
4
R
4
D
3
D
6
R
R
5
C
3
+
3
ZD 1
V
10k
D
4
C
OUT
7
4.7V
D
5
+
D
2
C
5
5
14
33 F
2222
R
6
6
D
ZD 3
1
Q
8.2k
3
15V
14
Q
1
1
8
R
C
3
10
16
1
2
9
1 F
100
R
4093
7
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R
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4.7k
R
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17
12
7
2
11
R
4.7k
OC 1
13
13
2907
C
1k
6
Q
4N35
47 pF
C
5
R
R
2
8
10
R
Q
100 F
1
4
470
22k
C
2369
R
10
9
2369
1k
R
12
C
R
9
11
470k
1 nF
ZD 2
C
8
TL431
R
14
Figure 1
Using a simple CMOS IC, this flyback power-supply circuit exhibits extremely low noise.

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(continued from pg 74)

D 5 stops conducting, as do the secondary diodes, so no recovery problems exist. The time constant of R 5 and C 5 keeps the MOSFET off for a while. The output capacitance of the MOSFET plus the parasitic capacitance of the primary res- onate with the primary inductance and the voltage decreases. R 5 and C 5 allow the MOSFET to turn on when the voltage

has reached the minimum value. The values are valid only for this case. The circuit of Figure 1 not only minimizes turn-on losses, but also reduces electri- cal noise. Voltage regulation uses tradi- tional techniques, using a TL431. The optocoupler current adds to the shunt current. Because the MOSFET turns on when current is zero, the gate resistor may be high, so parasitic capacitances

charge slowly, further reducing switch- ing noise. The circuit around Q 4 is op- tional; you can use it in most power sup- plies. It kills the current glitch when Q 3 turns on. It is more effective than the usual RC circuit, and it allows a low duty cycle at low loads. Note that many of the component values in Figure 1 are un- designated; you should determine these values to fit the application.

Simple circuit serves as milliohmmeter

AM Hunt, Lancaster Hunt Systems Ltd, Shepperton, UK

W hen I was recently debugging a design, I discovered that a short circuit existed from a ground

plane to a power plane. I did not have ac- cess to a milliohmmeter or an equivalent tester for locating this type of short cir- cuit. So, I logged onto the Internet to find an easily constructible milliohmmeter. I

found the answer in a manufacturer’s data sheet, which outlined the basic four- wire method of making low-resistance measurements. The method uses a volt- age-reference IC as the input stage for a controlled constant-current source. A quick dig in the old component bucket revealed a supply of LM317 variable-volt-

age regulators. These ICs provide 1.25V between their V OUT and V ADJ terminals, a constant voltage to attack the constant- current problem. The other problem to attack was the output-voltage range of the constant-current source. The circuit

I was working on used a 3.3V supply, so

I had to limit the voltage to 3.3V. An

78 edn | April 15, 2004

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LM317, configured as a constant-current source, delivers an output voltage equal to the in-

put if the output resistance is too high. Be- cause I wanted to use a bench supply or a 9V bat- tery, the voltage would fry any 3.3V logic on the board. Ideally, I wanted voltage to be limited to 1.5V. So, I came up with the configuration in Figure 1. IC 1 controls the base of the npn Darlington transis-

tor, Q 1 . The IC regulates the voltage across the selected resistor to form the constant-current source. The current source delivers either 10 or 100 mA, de- pending on which emitter resistor is in the circuit. The purpose of S 1 is to give longer battery life. You can calibrate the current source by strapping a resistive load be-

S 1A Q 1 BD636 S 1B IC 1 V IN LM317 V OUT Figure
S
1A
Q
1
BD636
S
1B
IC
1
V IN
LM317
V OUT
Figure 1
V
ADJ
P
P
1
2
100
10
9V
R
R
1
2
+
+ BATTERY
68
6.8
3V
OR BENCH
BATTERY
– SUPPLY
Make your own milliohmmeter, using a voltage-regulator IC and some resistors.

tween test points A and B and measuring the voltage across the resistor using a DVM (digital voltmeter). I used 5 and 10 and set one S 2 position for 10 mA and the other for 100 mA. To measure a small resistance, you attach test points A and B across the resistance. You set the

DVM on a millivolt range.

The DVM reads a voltage

that is proportional to the

resistance under test. If you

calibrate the circuit as sug-

gested, then the reading is 10 /V on the 100-mA

range and 100 /V on the

10-mA range. To track down pc-board short circuits, attach the unit with test points A and

A B across the suspected

shorted signals.Attach one

B DVM probe to test point A and use the other to

probe the circuit. Con- stant voltage along a trace indicates that no current is flowing and that the trace is not the source of the short circuit. Look for high readings on the trace with the low reading and low readings on the trace with the high reading, to locate the source of the short circuit.

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