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CELL DIVISION

Dividing cells under go a regular sequence of events known as cell


cycle.
Cell cycle may be divided into 2 basic parts
1. Interphase /Resting phase
• Period of non division
• It is divided into 3 phases naming
G1/first growth phase
• cell organelles are synthesized
• new proteins produced
• cytoplasm produced
• cell grows rapidly

ii) S/synthesis phase


DNA replicates
iii) G2 /second growth phase –
• centrioles replicate
• energy stores increase

2. Mitosis
This happens in 4 phases
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase

PROPHASE
• At the early stages (late interphase) the chromosomes are not
visible whereas during the late prophase they become visible as
long thin threads.Gradualy they coil and condense becoming
short and thick
• Each chromosome is seen to comprise 2chromatids joined at the
centromere.
• The centrioles migrate to the opposite poles of the cell (They
appear like star like asters) and microtubules called spindle
fibres,span the cell from pole to pole.
• Nucleolus disappears
• Nuclear membrane disintegrates
METAPHASE
The chromosomes arrange themselves at the centre or equator
Chromosomes become attached to certain spindle fibres at the
centromere

ANAPHASE
The centromeres split and further shortening of the spindle fibres
causes the 2 chromatids of each chromosome to separate and migrate
to opposite poles.
The centromere moves first towards the pole
NOTE
Contaction of the fibres causes the movement of the chromatids which
is an active process.Energy is provided by mitochondria which are
observed to collect around the spindle fibres.

TELOPHASE
The chromatids reach their respective poles and hereafter will be
known as chromosomes.
New nuclear membrane forms around each groups
Chromosomes begins to uncondensed, uncoil and lengthen, thus
becoming invisible again
Spindle fibres disintegrate
Nucleolus reforms
Centrioles reform

CYTOKINESIS
Division of the cytoplasm
Follows telophase and leads into the G1 phase of the interphase
Animals
Microfilaments/contractile fibres draw the cell surface membrane to
form a furrow around the outside surface of the cell.
Cell surface membrane in the furrow eventually join up and completely
separate the two cells.
Plants
Some spindle fibres remain in the region of the equator
Golgi apparatus produces a number of fluid filled vesicles
These vesicles fuses to form a cell plate which grows across the
equatorial plane
The contents of the vesicles contribute to the new middle lamella and
cell wall of the daughter cells,whilst their membranes form the new cell
surface membrane.
The spreading plate eventually fuses with the parent cell wall and
separates the two daughter cells.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MITOSIS BETWEEN PLANT AND ANIMAL
CELLS
PLANT ANIMAL
No centrioles present Centrioles present
No asters formed Asters formed
Cell division involves formation of Cell division involves furrowing
cell plate and cleavage of cytoplasm
Occurs mainly at meristem Occurs in tissues throughout the
body

SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS
1.Genetic stability
Daughter cells are genetically identical
2.Growth
Increase in the number of cells
3.Cell replacement
Dieing cells are replaced by mitosis
4.Regeneration
Parts of the body are regenerated by mitosis
5.Asexual reproduction
Mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction, the production of new
individuals of a species by one parent organism.

MEIOSIS
Meiosis is a form of nuclear division in which the chromosome number
is halved from the diploid number(2n) to the haploid number(n).
Interphase is followed by 2 cycles of nuclear division and cell division
known as meiosisI and meiosisII
A single cell gives rise to 4 haploid cells.
This takes place during gamete formation (plants and animals)
INTERPHASE
Same as in mitosis
PROPHASE I
• Organisms have 2 sets of chromosome one derived from each
parent – homologous pair of chromosome.
NOTE
Each member of the homologous pair of chromosome is of the
same length,centromere at the same position and have the same
number of genes.

• Chromosomes condense
• Chromatids are visible
• Homologous pairs of chromosomes associate with each other.
• They come together by a process called synapsis and each pair
is called bivalent
• Chromatids of the pairpartially repel one another although they
remain joined at certain points called chiasmata
• At these points chromatids may break and recombine with a
different chromatid
• This swapping of portions of chromatids are known as crossing
over
• Nucleolus disappears
• Nuclear membrane disintegrates
• The centrioles migrate to the opposite poles of the cell (They
appear like star like asters) and microtubules called spindle
fibres,span the cell from pole to pole

METAPHASE I
• The bivalents become arranged around the equator of the
spindle,attached by their centromere

ANAPHASE I
• Spindle fibres pull homologous chromosomes towards the
opposite poles of the spindle
• One of each pair is pulled to one pole,its sister chromosome to
the opposite one.
TELOPHASE I
• Chromosomes reach their opposite poles
• Nuclear envelope reforms
• Spindle fibres disappear
• Chromatids uncoil
• Cell begins to divide

PROPHASEII
SAME AS MITOSIS
METAPHASE II
SAME AS MITOSIS
ANAPHASE
SAME AS MITOSIS
TELOPHASE
SAME AS MITOSIS

ORGANISATION OF CELLS

Histology is the study of tissues.


Tissue - group of one or m ore type of cells carrying out/specialized
for one type of function.
In plants
One type of cell making a tissue - parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma
More than one type of cell making a tissue - xylem
Phloem
Animal tissues are divided into four groups
1.Epithelial
2.Connective
3.Muscle
4.Nervous tissue
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
• Arranged in single or multilayered sheets and covers the internal
and external surfaces of the body of an organism.
• Cells rest on a basement membrane
• They are not supplied by with blood vessels; rely on diffusion to
obtain nutrients.
• They protect the underlying structure from injury and infection
• Their free surface could be specialized.-cilia

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Simple epithelia compound epithelia


• stratified epithelia
• Squamous epithelia
• Cuboidal epithelia
• Columnar epithelia
• ciliated epithelia

• Squamous epithelia
Thin flattened cells.
Found in renal capsule,alveoli,blood capillary walls

• Cuboidal epithelia
Cube shaped cells.
Central spherical nucleus present
Lines the ducts – salivary
Present in glands - salivary gland, sweat gland
• Columnar epithelia
Tall and narrow cells
Nucleus at the basal end
It can be secretory of absorptive in function
May possess a brush boarder
Goblet cell belongs to this type
Present in intestine,kidney ducts

• ciliated epithelia
columnar in shape but bear numerous cilia at their free surface.
Mucus secreting goblet cells
Lines oviduct and respiratory passages
• stratified epithelia
number of layers
therefore thicker than simple epithelial layer
relatively rough impervious barrier
found on external skin surfaces,buccal cavity and vagina

ORGANS
Anumber of tissues working together as a functional unit is known as
an organ.

SYSTEM
Parts of large functional units formed by organs