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©Jarosław Chrzanowski (14 gennaio 2013)

(Questo documento è esclusivamente ad uso privato degli studenti del Biblico. Per favore, non si divulghi
questo documento fuori dall’Istituto senza il mio permesso.)

Per l’esame si deve preparare: 2 Samuele 9-20 (con l’eccezione di 2 Sam 12:31,
13:16, 15:20, 15:23). Ogni versetto può apparire nell’esame, sia tra questi che condivido con voi
in “Appunti” ma anche qualsiasi altro versetto.

IL KETIB/QERE e altri problemi di critica testuale che spiego qui negli “Appunti” si deve
conoscere bene, con tutt i i dettagli. (Da notare che sono pochissimi versetti, quindi non
lasciamoci prendere dal panico).

Gli “Appunti” vi offrono qualche aiuto per l’analisi di alcune strutture sintattiche complesse.
Un’attenzione particolare, come ho detto ripetutamente, si deve prestare per l’analisi delle
forme verbali, incluso i participi nominalizzati o sostantivati (= quelli che appaiono con un
articolo definitivo come sostantivi).

Vi chiederò di cerchiare [= fare un cerchio intorno a] qualche tipo di sintagma nel testo ebraico di
(p.e., tutti i sintagmi nominali o preposizionali di 2-3 versetti del testo che abbiamo studiato).

Ci sarà da tradurre uno o due versetti del testo non visto, basato sul vocabolario di base
(Vocabolario di LAMBDIN, delle lezioni 1-55), non troppo difficile.

Due o tre parole per la trasliterrazione.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2 Samuel 9:3

‫ישׁ ְל ֵ ֣בית ָשׁ ֔אוּל וְ ֶא ֱע ֶ ֥שׂה ִע ֖מּוֹ ֶ ֣ח ֶסד‬


֙ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֗מּ ֶלְך ַה ֶ֙א ֶפס ֥עוֹד ִא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ֛עוֹד ֵ ֥בּן ִליהוֹנָ ָ ֖תן נְ ֵ ֥כה ַר ְג ָ ֽליִ ם׃‬
ַ ‫אמר ִצ ָיב ֙א ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ֹלהים וַ ֤יּ‬
֑ ִ ‫ֱא‬

‫ ֶ֙א ֶפס‬particella di negazione


‫ וְ ֶא ֱע ֶ ֥שׂה‬indirect cohortative after a question

The king said, "Is there no one still left of the house of Saul to whom I may show the
kindness of God?" Ziba said to the king, "There remains a son of Jonathan, crippled in his
feet."

Il re gli disse: «Non c'è più nessuno della casa di Saul al quale io possa far del bene per
amore di Dio?» Siba rispose al re: «C'è ancora un figlio di Gionatan, storpio dei piedi».

1
2 Samuel 9:7

‫בוּר יְ הוֹנָ ָ ֣תן‬


֙ ‫ירא ִ ֣כּי ָעשׂ ֹ֩ה ֶא ֱע ֶ ֙שׂה ִע ְמָּך֥ ֶ֙ח ֶס ֙ד ַ ֽבּ ֲע‬
֗ ָ ‫ל־תּ‬
ִ ‫אמר֩ ל֙ וֹ ָד ִ ֜וד ַא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬
‫אכל ֶל ֶ֛חם‬
ַ ֹ ‫ל־שׂ ֵ ֖דה ָשׁ ֣אוּל ָא ִ ֑ביָך וְ ַא ָ֗תּה ֥תּ‬ ָ ‫ָא ִ֔ביָך וַ ֲה ִשׁב ִ ֹ֣תי ְל ָ֔ך ֶ ֽא‬
ְ ‫ת־כּ‬
‫ל־שׁ ְל ָח ִנ֖י ָתּ ִ ֽמיד׃‬
ֻ ‫ַע‬
David said to him, "Do not be afraid, for I WILL show you kindness for the sake of your
father Jonathan and I will restore to you all the land (field) of your grandfather Saul, and you
yourself shall eat at my table always."

Davide gli disse: «Non temere, perché io davvero userò benevolenza con te per motivo di
Gionatan tuo padre e ti restituirò tutte le terre di Saul, il tuo padre-antenato. E tu stesso
mangerai sempre alla mia mensa».

2 Samuel 9:9

‫אמר ֵא ָל֑יו כֹּ ֩ל ֲא ֶ֙שׁר ָה ָי֤ה‬


ֶ ֹ ‫יבא ַנ ַ֥ער ָשׁ ֖אוּל וַ ֣יּ‬
֛ ָ ‫ל־צ‬
ִ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֣רא ַה ֶ֗מּ ֶלְך ֶא‬
ֲ ‫יתוֹ נָ ַ ֖ת ִתּי ְל ֶב‬
‫ן־אד ֶֹנֽיָך׃‬ ֔ ‫ל־בּ‬
ֵ ‫ְל ָשׁאוּל֙ ְוּל ָכ‬

Then the king summoned Saul's servant Ziba, and said to him, "All that belonged to Saul and
to all his house I have given (or: I am giving PERFORMATIVE QATAL [per una decisione di tipo legale etc.) to
your master's son.

Poi il re chiamò Siba, servo di Saul e gli disse: «Tutto quello che apparteneva a Saul e a tutta
la sua casa io lo do (ho dato) al figlio del tuo signore.

2 Samuel 9:10

‫הה‬ָ֙‫את וְ ָ י‬
ָ ‫וּבניָך וַ ֲע ָב ֶ ֜דיָך וְ ֵה ֵ֗ב‬
ֶ֙ ָ ‫ת־ה ֲא ָד ָ֡מה ַא ָתּ ֩ה‬
ָ ‫וְ ָע ַ ֣ב ְד ָתּ ֣לּוֹ ֶ ֽא‬
‫אכל ָתּ ִ ֛מיד ֶל ֶ֖חם‬
֥ ַ ֹ ‫ן־אד ֔ ֶֹניָך י‬
ֲ ‫וּמ ִפי ֙ב ֹ ֶשׁ ֙ת ֶבּ‬
ְ ‫ן־אד ֶֹנ֤יָך ֶ ֙לּ ֶח ֙ם וַ ֲא ָכ ֔לוֹ‬
ֲ ‫ְל ֶב‬
‫וּל ִצ ָ֗יבא ֲח ִמ ָ ֥שּׁה ָע ָ ֛שׂר ָבּ ִנ֖ים וְ ֶע ְשׂ ִ ֥רים ֲע ָב ִ ֽדים׃‬
ְ ‫ל־שׁ ְל ָח ִנ֑י‬
ֻ ‫ַע‬
‫ בוא‬HIPH abs. portare il raccolto

2
You and your sons and your servants shall till the land for him, and shall bring in [the produce/the
crops], and your master's son will have food and he will eat it; but your master's son
Mephibosheth shall always eat at my table." Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants.

Tu dunque, con i tuoi figli e con i tuoi servi, coltiverai per lui la terra e gli porterai [il raccolto],
così il figlio del tuo signore avrà pane e lo mangerà. Ma Mefiboset, figlio del tuo signore,
mangerà sempre alla mia mensa». Siba aveva quindici figli e venti servi.

2 Samuel 9:11

‫ת־ע ְב ֔דּוֹ ֵ ֖כּן‬


ַ ‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ְכּכֹ ֩ל ֲא ֶ֙שׁר יְ ַצ ֶ ֜וּה ֲאד ִֹנ֤י ַה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ֶא‬
ַ ‫אמר ִצ ָיב ֙א ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
ֻ ‫וּמ ִפי ֗בֹ ֶשׁת א ֵֹכל֙ ַע‬
‫ל־שׁ ְל ָח ִ֔ני ְכּ ַא ַ ֖חד ִמ ְבּ ֵנ֥י ַה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬ ְ ‫שׂה ַע ְב ֶ ֑דָּך‬
֣ ֶ ‫יַ ֲע‬

Then Ziba said to the king, "According to all that my lord the king commands his servant, so
your servant will do." Mephibosheth ate (PTC with frequentative-habitual aspect) at my (LXX: David's)
table, like one of the king's sons.

Siba disse al re: «Il tuo servo farà tutto quello che il re mio signore ordina al suo servo».
Mefiboset mangiava alla mia mensa (LXX: alla mensa di Davide) come uno dei figli del re.

2 Samuel 9:13

‫ל־שׁ ְל ַ ֥חן ַה ֶ ֛מּ ֶלְך ָתּ ִ ֖מיד ֣הוּא א ֵֹכ֑ל‬


ֻ ‫וּשׁ ֔ ַל ִם ִ ֣כּי ַע‬
ָ ‫וּמ ִפי ֗בֹ ֶשׁת י ֵֹשׁ ֙ב ִבּ ֣יר‬
ְ
‫וְ ֥הוּא ִפּ ֵ ֖סּ ַח ְשׁ ֵ ֥תּי ַר ְג ָ ֽליו׃‬

Mephibosheth lived in Jerusalem, for he always ate at the king's table. Now he was lame in
his feet (lit., a lame person of his two feet)

Mefiboset abitava a Gerusalemme perché mangiava sempre alla mensa del re. Era
zoppo/storpio di entrambi i piedi.

2 Samuel 10:3

‫יהם‬
ֶ֗ ‫ל־חנ֣ וּן ֲא ֽד ֹ ֵנ‬
ָ ‫ֽי־ע ֜מּוֹן ֶא‬
ַ ‫אמרוּ֩ ָשׂ ֵ ֙רי ְב ֵנ‬
ְ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬
‫־שׁ ַ ֥לח ְלָך֖ ְמ ַנ ֲֽח ִ ֑מים‬
ָ ‫ת־א ִ֙ב ֙יָך ְבּ ֵע ֔ ֶיניָך ִ ֽכּי‬
ָ ‫ַ ֽה ְמ ַכ ֵ֙בּד ָדִּו֤ד ֶא‬
3
‫וּל ַר ְגּ ָל֣הּ ְוּל ָה ְפ ָ֔כהּ ָשׁ ַ ֥לח ָדִּו֛ד‬
ְ ‫יר‬
֙ ‫ת־ה ִע‬
ָ ‫֠ ֲהלוֹא ַבּ ֲע ֞בוּר ֲח ֤קוֹר ֶא‬
‫ת־ע ָב ָ ֖דיו ֵא ֶ ֽליָך׃‬
ֲ ‫ֶא‬

The officials/princes of the Ammonites said to their lord Hanun,


"Is David is honoring your father that [complementary KI, to introduce a complement of a question] he sent
messengers with condolences (lit., consolers, those who console/comfort: PIEL, ptc m.pl. ‫?)נחם‬
Has not David sent his servants to you to search [QAL, inf const. ‫ ]חקר‬the city, to spy it out [PIEL, inf
const. ‫ רגל‬+ suff. 3f.sg], and to overthrow/destroy [QAL, inf const. ‫ חפְך‬+ suff. 3 f.sg] it?"

[The first sentence can be rephrased in a smoother English, but remember that this is, in my
view, complementary KI rather than causal KI]:
"Is David honoring your father by sending messengers with condolences?

Or: "Is David honoring your father because he sent messengers with condolences to you?
[Causal KI is also possible, but the syntax gives a stronger support for “complementary KI”
interpretation.]

Hasn't David sent his servants to you to explore the city and spy it out and overthrow it?"

I capi degli Ammoniti dissero a Canun loro signore: «Forse Davide, mandando consolatori,
rende onore a tuo padre? Non è piuttosto per esplorare la città, per spiarla e poi distruggerla
che Davide ti ha mandato i suoi servi?».

2 Samuel 10:4

‫יהם‬
֛ ֶ ֵ‫ת־מ ְדו‬
ַ ‫ת־ח ִ ֣צי זְ ָק ָ֔נם וַ יִּ ְכ ֧ר ֹת ֶא‬
ֲ ‫ת־ע ְב ֵ ֣די ָד ִ֗וד וַ יְ ַג ַלּ ֙ח ֶא‬
ַ ‫וַ יִּ ַ ֙קּח ָחנ֜ וּן ֶא‬
‫יהם ַ ֽו יְ ַשׁ ְלּ ֵ ֽחם׃‬
֑ ֶ ‫וֹת‬
ֵ ‫ַבּ ֵ ֖ח ִצי ַ ֣עד ְשׁ ֽת‬

ֵ pl. ‫שׁתוֹת‬,
‫שׁת‬: ָ sf. ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫ ְשׁתוֹ ֵת‬: buttocks 2S 104 Is 204;
‫זָ ָקן‬: cs. ‫זְ ַקן‬, sf. ‫זְ ָק ָנֽ ָך‬, ‫זְ ָקנוֹ‬, ‫זְ ַקנְ ֶכם‬: beard (on cheeks & chin), of men 1S 2114, lion 1S 1735

So Hanun seized David's servants, shaved off (PIEL, wayy, 3ms ‫ )גלח‬half the beard of each, cut off
their garments in the middle at their hips/buttocks, and sent them away (PIEL, wayy, 3ms, + suff 3m.pl).

Allora Canun prese i servitori/servi di Davide, rase la metà della loro barba e tagliò le loro
vesti a metà fino alle loro natiche, poi li rimandò.

2 Samuel 10:5

4
‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫אד וַ ֤יּ‬
ֹ ֑ ‫י־הי֥ וּ ָה ֲאנָ ִ ֖שׁים נִ ְכ ָל ִ ֣מים ְמ‬
ָ ‫אתם ִ ֽכּ‬
ָ֔ ‫וַ יַּ ִגּ֤דוּ ְל ָדוִ ֙ד וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל֣ח ִל ְק ָר‬
‫ַה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ְשׁ ֣בוּ ִ ֽב ֵיר ֔חוֹ ַעד־יְ ַצ ַ ֥מּח זְ ַקנְ ֶ ֖כם וְ ַשׁ ְב ֶ ֽתּם׃‬

‫כּלם‬: nif.: pf. ‫נִ ְכ ַל ְמ ָתּ‬, ‫ ;נִ ְכ ָ ֽל ְמנוּ‬impf. ‫תּ ָכּ ֵלם‬, ִ impv. ‫ ; ִה ָ ֽכּ ְלמוּ‬inf. ‫;ה ָכּ ֵלם‬
ִ ‫;תּ ָ ֽכּ ְל ִמי‬ ִ pt. ‫נִ ְכ ָלם‬, ‫נִ ְכ ָל ִמים‬: — 1.
be shamed, disgraced (by action of another) 2S 105; — 2. be ashamed, feel ashamed (by
one’s own action) 2S 19, & oft.;

When David was told, he sent to meet them, for the men were greatly ashamed (NIPH, ptc, m.pl.
‫)כלם‬.
The king said, "Remain/stay/SIT [QAL imperative m.pl. ‫ ]ישׁב‬at Jericho until your beards have
grown, and then return [QAL weqatalti 2m.pl. ‫"]שׁוב‬

LXX: καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεύς καθίσατε ἐν Ιεριχω ἕως τοῦ ἀνατεῖλαι τοὺς πώγωνας ὑμῶν καὶ
ἐπιστραφήσεσθε

Quando fu informato della cosa, Davide mandò gente a incontrarli, perché quegli uomini
provavano grande vergogna. Il re disse [per mezzo dei messaggeri]: «Restate a Gerico finché vi sia
ricresciuta la barba, e poi tornate».

2 Samuel 10:9

‫וּמ ָא ֑חוֹר וַ יִּ ְב ַ֗חר‬


ֽ ֵ ‫י־היְ ָ ֤תה ֵא ָל ֙יו ְפּ ֵנ֣י ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָ֔מה ִמ ָפּ ִנ֖ים‬
ָ ‫יוֹאב ִ ֽכּ‬
ָ֗ ‫וַ ַיּ֣  ְרא‬
‫חוּרי ) ְבּיִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל( ]יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל[ וַ יַּ ֲע ֖ר ְֹך ִל ְק ַ ֥ראת ֲא ָ ֽרם׃‬
֣ ֵ ‫ִמכֹּל֙ ְבּ‬

When Joab saw that the battle was set against him both in front and in the rear, he chose some
of the picked men/ some of the best troops (lit., QAL pass. Ptc, m.pl ‫ )בחר‬of Israel, and arrayed them
against the Arameans;

Quando Ioab vide che quelli erano pronti ad attaccarlo di fronte e alle spalle, scelse un corpo
tra gli uomini migliori d'Israele, lo dispose in ordine di battaglia contro i Siri
Ioab, quando vide che aveva contro di sé due fronti di battaglia, uno davanti e uno dietro,
scelse tutte le migliori truppe d'Israele e le schierò contro Aram,

2 Samuel 10:11

‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֗יּ‬
‫ישׁוּעה‬
֑ ָ ‫ם־תּ ֱח ַז֤ק ֲא ָר ֙ם ִמ ֶ֔מּ ִנּי וְ ָהִי ָ֥תה ִ ֖לּי ִ ֽל‬
ֶ ‫ִא‬
5
‫יע ָ ֽלְך׃‬
ֽ ַ ‫הוֹשׁ‬
֥ ִ ‫מּוֹן יֶ ֱחזְ ֣קוּ ִמ ְמּ ָ֔ך וְ ָה ַל ְכ ִ ֖תּי ְל‬
֙ ‫ם־בּ ֵנ֤י ַע‬
ְ ‫וְ ִא‬
Protasis (IF-clause): yiqtol is used.
Apodosis (THEN-clause): weqatalti is used.
He said,
"If the Arameans are too strong [QAL yiqtol ‫ ]חזק‬for me, then [QAL weqatalti 2m.sg ‫ ]היה‬you shall
help me.
But/And if the Ammonites are too strong for you, then WEQATALTI I will come and help you.

E disse: «Se Aram prevarrà su me, tu mi verrai in aiuto; se invece gli Ammoniti saranno più
forti di te, allora io verrò in tuo aiuto.

2 Samuel 10:12

‫יהוה יַ ֲע ֶ ֥שׂה ַה ֖טּוֹב‬


ָ֔ ‫ֹלהינוּ ַ ֽו‬
֑ ֵ ‫וּב ַ ֖עד ָע ֵ ֣רי ֱא‬
ְ ‫ד־ע ֵ֔מּנוּ‬
ַ ‫ֲח ַז֤ק וְ נִ ְת ַחזַּ ֙ק ְבּ ַע‬
‫ְבּ ֵע ָינֽיו׃‬
Be strong [QAL, imperative, m.sg ( direct volitive) ‫ ]הזק‬so that we [may] be corageous / [HITHPAEL, indirect
cohortative., c.pl ‫ ]חזק‬for the sake of our people, and for the cities of our God; The LORD will do
what is good in his sight."

Abbi coraggio affinchè noi ci dimostriamo forti per il nostro popolo e per le città del nostro
Dio. E il Signore farà poi quello che a lui piacerà!».

2 Samuel 10:13

‫שׁר ִע ֔מּוֹ ַל ִמּ ְל ָח ָ ֖מה ַ ֽבּ ֲא ָ ֑רם וַ יָּ ֻנ֖סוּ ִמ ָפּ ָנֽיו׃‬


֣ ֶ ‫יוֹאב וְ ָה ָע ֙ם ֲא‬
ָ֗ ‫וַ יִּ ַגּ֣שׁ‬
‫ נגשׁ‬QAL: yiqtol ‫יִ ַגּשׁ‬, come near/avvivinarsi (qatal & ptc. expressed by niphal ‫)נִ ַגּשׁ‬

So Joab and the people who were with him moved forward/advanced [QAL, wayy] into battle
against the Arameans; and they fled before him.

Poi Ioab, con la gente che aveva con sé, avanzò per attaccare i Siri, i quali fuggirono davanti
a lui.

2 Samuel 10:16

6
‫ת־א ָר ֙ם ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ֵמ ֵע ֶ֣בר ַהנָּ ָ֔הר וַ יָּ ֖בֹאוּ ֵח ָיל֑ם‬
ֲ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל֣ח ֲה ַד ְד ֗ ֶעזֶ ר וַ יּ ֵֹצ֤א ֶא‬
‫יהם׃‬
ֽ ֶ ‫ר־צ ָ ֥בא ֲה ַד ְד ֶ ֖עזֶ ר ִל ְפ ֵנ‬
ְ ‫שׁוֹבְך ַשׂ‬
֛ ַ ְ‫ו‬

Hadadezer sent and brought out (HIPH, wayy) the Arameans who were beyond the Euphrates; and
they came to Helam, with Shobach the commander of the army of Hadadezer at their head.

Adadezer mandò a chiamare (e fece uscire) i Siri che abitavano dall'altra parte del fiume e
quelli giunsero a Chelam, guidati da Sobac, capo dell'esercito di Adadezer.

2 Samuel 10:19

‫פוּ ִל ְפ ֵנ֣י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִ ֥למוּ‬


֙ ְ‫ל־ה ְמּ ָל ִ֜כים ַע ְב ֵ ֣די ֲה ַד ְד ֗ ֶעזֶ ר ִ ֤כּי נִ גּ‬
ַ ‫וַ יִּ ְר ֙אוּ ָ ֽכ‬
‫ת־בּ ֵנ֥י ַע ֽמּוֹן׃‬ ֥ ִ ‫ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֖אל וַ ַיּ ַֽע ְב ֑דוּם וַ ִ ֽיּ ְ ר ֣אוּ ֲא ָ ֔רם ְל‬
ְ ‫הוֹשׁ ַיע ֖עוֹד ֶא‬
When all the kings who were servants of Hadadezer saw that they had been defeated [NIPH,
qatal, 3 c.pl; ‫ ]נגף‬by Israel, they made peace [HIPH, wayy., 3 m.pl; ‫ ]שׁלם‬with Israel, and became subject
[QAL, wayy, 3 m.pl. ‫ עבד‬+ suff. 3 m.pl: Israel, colllective] to them. So the Arameans were afraid to help
(rescue/come to the aid of) the Ammonites again.

Quando tutti i re vassalli di Adadezer si videro sconfitti da Israele, fecero pace con Israele, e
furono a lui soggetti. Così gli Aramei ebbero paura di andare ancora in aiuto degli Ammoniti.

2 Samuel 11:1

‫שׁוּבת ַה ָשּׁ ֜ ָנה ְל ֵע֣ת ֵצ֣את ַה ַמּ ְל)א( ִ֗כים[ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל֣ח ָדּ ִ֡וד‬


ַ֙ ‫וַ יְ ִהי֩ ] ִל ְת‬
‫ת־בּ ֵנ֣י ַע ֔מּוֹן‬ ֙ ‫ת־כּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֗אל וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִ֙ח‬
ְ ‫תוּ ֶא‬ ָ ‫ת־ע ָב ָ ֙דיו ִע ֜מּוֹ וְ ֶא‬
ֲ ‫ת־יוֹאב֩ וְ ֶא‬
ָ ‫ֶא‬
‫ירוּשׁ ָ ֽלםִ׃‬
ָ ‫יוֹשׁב ִבּ‬
֥ ֵ ‫ל־ר ָ ֑בּה וְ ָדִ ֖וד‬
ַ ‫וַ יָּ ֻצ֖רוּ ַע‬

In the spring (lit., in the return) of the year, the time when kings go out [to battle], David sent
Joab with his officers and all Israel with him; they destroyed /ravaged /ˈræv.ɪdʒ/ [‫ שׁחת‬HIPH. wayy 3
m.pl] the Ammonites, and besieged [‫ צור‬QAL. wayy 3 m.pl] Rabbah. But David remained/stayed (lit.,
was seated) at Jerusalem.

L'anno seguente, nella stagione in cui i re cominciano le guerre, Davide mandò Ioab con la
sua gente e con tutto Israele a devastare il paese dei figli di Ammon e ad assediare Rabba; ma
Davide stava a Gerusalemme.

7
2 Samuel 11:4

‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל ֩ח ָדּ֙ ִוד ַמ ְל ָא ִ֜כים וַ יִּ ָקּ ֶ֗ח ָה וַ ָתּ ֤בוֹא ֵא ָל ֙יו וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַכּ֣ב ִע ָ֔מּהּ וְ ִ ֥היא‬
‫יתהּ׃‬
ֽ ָ ‫ל־בּ‬
ֵ ‫ִמ ְת ַק ֶ ֖דּ ֶשׁת ִמ ֻטּ ְמ ָא ָ ֑תהּ וַ ָ ֖תּ ָשׁב ֶא‬

So David sent messengers to get her, and she came to him, and he lay with her. (Now she was
purifying herself [hithpael, ptc, f.sg ‫ ]קדשׁ‬from/after her uncleanness/period.) Then she returned to
her house.

Davide mandò i messageri e la prese. Ella venne da lui ed egli si unì a lei, ed egli dormì con
lei. (Ora ella si stava purificando dalla sua impurità.) Poi ella ritornò a casa sua.

2 Samuel 11:5

‫אמר ָה ָ ֥רה ָא ֹֽנ ִכי׃‬


ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ַ ֖תּ ַהר ָ ֽה ִא ָ ֑שּׁה וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַל ֙ח וַ ַתּ ֵגּ֣ד ְל ָד ִ֔וד וַ ֖תּ‬
*‫ה ֶרה‬:
ָ f. ‫;ה ָרה‬
ָ cs. ‫ה ַרת‬,:
ָ pregnant/incinta

The woman conceived [QAL, wayy 3f.sg ‫ ;]הרה‬and she sent and told David, "I am pregnant [QAL, act
ptc f.sg ‫הרה‬, stative]."

La donna rimase incinta/concepì e lo fece sapere a Davide dicendo: «Sono incinta».

2 Samuel 11:7

‫יוֹא ֙ב וְ ִל ְשׁ ֣לוֹם ָה ֔ ָעם וְ ִל ְשׁ ֖לוֹם‬


ָ ‫אוּר ָיּ֖ה ֵא ָל֑יו וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ ֣אל ָדּ ִ֗וד ִל ְשׁ ֤לוֹם‬
ִ ‫וַ יָּ ֥ב ֹא‬
‫ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָ ֽמה׃‬
When Uriah came to him, David asked him how Joab was, how the soldiers were and how
the war was going.

Quando Uria giunse da Davide, questi gli chiese come stavano Ioab e il popolo e come
andava la guerra.

2 Samuel 11:8

‫אמר ָדּוִ ֙ד ְל ֣א ִוּר ָ֔יּה ֵ ֥רד ְל ֵב ְיתָך֖ וּ ְר ַ ֣חץ ַר ְג ֶל֑יָך וַ יֵּ ֵצ֤א ֽא ִוּריָּ ֙ה ִמ ֵבּ֣ית‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וַ ֵתּ ֵ ֥צא ַא ֲח ָ ֖ריו ַמ ְשׂ ַ ֥את ַה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬
8
‫מ ְשׂ ֵאת‬:
ַ cs. ‫ ַ;מ ְשׂ ַאת‬pl. ‫מ ְשׂאוֹת‬,ַ sf. ‫אוֹת ֶיכם‬ ַ — 1. lifting up: a) w. kappay lifting of hands in prayer Ps 1412; b)
ֵ ‫מ ְשׂ‬:
ma´°at he±¹n¹n rising cloud of smoke Ju 2038•40, fire-signal Je 61; — 2. tax, offering

Then David said to Uriah, "Go down [QAL, imperative m.sg ‫ ]ירד‬to your house, and wash [QAL,
your feet." Uriah went out of the king's house, and there followed (went out
imperative m.sg ‫]רחץ‬
after) him a present/gift from the king.

Poi Davide disse a Uria: «Scendi a casa tua e lava i tuoi piedi (lavati i piedi)». Uria uscì dal
palazzo reale e gli furono mandate dietro delle vivande del re.

2 Samuel 11:13

‫אכל ְל ָפ ָנ֛יו וַ יֵּ ְ֖שׁ ְתּ וַ יְ ַשׁ ְכּ ֵ ֑רהוּ וַ יֵּ ֵצ֣א ָב ֗ ֶע ֶרב ִל ְשׁ ַכּ֤ב‬


ַ ֹ ‫א־לוֹ ָד ִ ֗וד וַ ֧יּ‬
֣ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָר‬
‫יתוֹ ֥ל ֹא יָ ָ ֽרד׃‬
֖ ‫ל־בּ‬
ֵ ‫ם־ע ְב ֵ ֣די ֲאד ֔ ָֹניו וְ ֶא‬
ַ ‫בוֹ ִע‬
֙ ‫ְבּ ִמ ְשׁ ָכּ‬

David invited him/At David's invitation, he ate and drank in his presence and he made him
drunk [PIEL, wayy 3 m.sg + suff. 3m.sg ‫ ;]שׁכר‬but in the evening he went out to lie on his couch with the
servants of his lord, but he did not go down to his house.

Davide lo invitò a mangiare e a bere insieme con lui e lo ubriacò. Ma la sera uscì a dormire
nel suo giaciglio insieme con i servi del suo sovrano e non discese a casa sua.

2 Samuel 11:15

ֽ ‫מר ָה ֣בוּ ֶא‬


‫ת־א ִוּר ָ֗יּה ֶאל־מוּל֙ ְפּ ֵנ֤י ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָמ ֙ה ַ ֽה ֲחזָ ָ ֔קה‬ ֹ ֑ ‫תּב ַבּ ֵ ֖סּ ֶפר ֵלא‬
ֹ ֥ ‫וַ יִּ ְכ‬
‫וְ ַשׁ ְב ֶ ֥תּם ֵמ ַא ֲח ָ ֖ריו וְ נִ ָ ֥כּה וָ ֵ ֽמת׃‬

[‫ ]יָ ַהב‬vb. give (Aram. ‫יְ ַהב‬, yhb; Ar. wahaba; Eth. wahaba::)—only Qal Imv. ‫ ַהב‬Pr 30:15, 30:15; emph. ‫ ָ֫ה ָבה‬Gn 11:3 + 10 t. (6 t. sq.
monosyll.); ‫ ָה ָ֫בה‬Gn 29:21 before gutt. (Di on Gn 28:2 Kö:i. 418), fs. ‫ ָה ִ֫בי‬Ru 3:15; mpl. ‫;ה ֫בוּ‬
ָ 1. give, sq. acc. Gn 29:21(E) give (me) my wife,
47:16 (J), Ru 3:15, Zc 11:12 (pirce); of giving (i.e. causing to come forth, in deciding by lot) Urim and Thummim 1 S 14:41, 14:41 (LXX
We Dr, v. ‫;)אוּרים‬
ִ sq. acc. rei + ‫ ִלי‬Gn 30:1(E), Ju 1:15; acc. rei + ‫ ָלנוּ‬Gn 47:15 (J), Psalm 60:13 = 108:13; ‫ ָשהבוּ ל֑ ִי‬Jb 6:22 (no acc. expr.); abs.
‫ ֤הַב | ַש ֫הב‬Pr 30:15. 2. = set, sq. acc. (Uriah) + ‫ ֶאל־מוּל ְפּנֵ י ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָמה‬2 S 11:15 set Uriah in the fore-front of the battle.

In the letter he wrote, "Set [QAL imperative m.pl ‫ ]יהב‬Uriah in the front line (in the forefront) of the
hardest fighting, and then draw back [QAL weqatalti 2m.pl. ‫ ]שׁוב‬from him, and he will be struck
down [‫ נכה‬NIPH weqatalti 3m.sg] and die [‫ מות‬QAL weqatalti 3 m.sg]."

Nella lettera aveva scritto così: «Ponete Uria sul fronte della battaglia più dura, poi ritiratevi
da lui, ed egli sarà colpito e morirà».

9
2 Samuel 11:16

‫שׁר‬
֣ ֶ ‫קוֹם ֲא‬
֙ ‫ל־ה ָמּ‬
ַ ‫ת־א ִוּר ָ֔יּה ֶא‬
֣ ‫תּן ֶא‬
֙ ֵ ִ‫ל־ה ִ ֑עיר[ וַ יּ‬
ָ ‫יוֹאב ֶא‬
֖ ָ ‫וַ יְ ִ֕הי ] ִבּ ְשׁ ֥מוֹר‬
‫י־חיִ ל ָ ֽשׁם׃‬
֖ ַ ‫יָ ַ ֔דע ִ ֥כּי ַאנְ ֵשׁ‬
‫שׁמַר אֶל‬
ָ HALOT 1583: (4) to keep under military observation/ disporre la vigilanza militare
(alla città), besiege/assediare

As Joab was besieging the city, he assigned/put Uriah to the place where he knew there were
mighty/valiant warriors.

Ioab dunque, assediando la città, pose Uria nel luogo dove sapeva che vi erano uomini
valorosi.

2 Samuel 11:19

‫ל־דּ ְב ֵ ֥רי ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָ ֖מה ְל ַד ֵ ֥בּר‬


ִ ‫לּוֹת ָ֗ך ֵ ֛את ָכּ‬
ְ ‫מר ְכּ ַכ‬
ֹ ֑ ‫ת־ה ַמּ ְל ָ ֖אְך ֵלא‬
ַ ‫וַ יְ ַ ֥צו ֶא‬
‫ל־ה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬
ַ ‫ֶא‬

[DIRECT OBJECT is moved before the verb ‫ ְל ַד ֵ ֥בּר‬. A natural, unmarked word-order would be:
‫ל־ה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫ל־דּ ְב ֵ ֥רי ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָ ֖מה ֶא‬
ִ ‫לּוֹת ָ֗ך ְל ַד ֵ ֥בּר ֵ ֛את ָכּ‬
ְ ‫] ְכּ ַכ‬

and he instructed the messenger, "When you have finished [PIEL, inf. constr, ‫ כלה‬+ suff. 2m.sg] telling
the king all the news about the fighting,

e diede al messaggero quest'ordine: «Quando avrai finito di raccontare al re tutte le vicende


della guerra,

2 Samuel 11:20

‫ִ ֽאם־ ַתּ ֲע ֶל ֙ה ֲח ַ ֣מת ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וְ ָא ַ ֣מר ְל ָ֔ך‬ PROTASI] ‫וְ ָה ָ֗יה‬

10
ָ ‫ ַמ ֛דּ ַוּע נִ ַגּ ְשׁ ֶ ֥תּם ֶא‬direct discourse)
‫ל־ה ִ ֖עיר ְל ִה ָלּ ֵ ֑חם ֲהל֣ וֹא יְ ַד ְע ֶ֔תּם ֵ ֥את ֲא ֶשׁר־י ֹ֖רוּ ֵמ ַ ֥על‬
‫חוֹמה׃‬
ֽ ָ ‫ַה‬

‫( ֵח ָמה‬120 ×): cs. ‫ ֲח ַמת‬, sf. ‫ ֲ;ח ָמ ִתי‬pl. ‫ח ֹמ)וֹ(ת‬:ֵ — 1. heat: µ-mat rûµî Ez 314 †; 3. FIGURATIVE MEANING
anger (26 ×): Gn 2744;

‫יָ ָרה‬: hif.: pf. ‫;הוֹר ִני‬


ָ impf. ‫יוֹרה‬, ֶ ‫י ֹרוּ‬, ‫וַ יּ ֵֹרם‬, ‫ ;י ֹֻרהוּ‬pt. ‫מוֹרה‬,
ֶ ‫וַ יּוֹר‬, ‫אוֹרה‬, ֶ ‫מוֹרים‬,
ִ ‫וַ יּ ֹראוּ‬, ‫מּוֹראים‬ ַ 2S
ִ ‫ה‬, — 1. throw; — 2.
shoot: abs. 2K 137;

[If the king's anger (lit. heat) rises [QAL yiqtol 3f.sg. ‫ ]עלה‬and he says [QAL weqatalti ‫ ]אמר‬to you, (“Why
did you go near [NIPH qatal 2 m.pl ‫ ]נגשׁ‬the city to fight? Did you not know that they would shoot
[HIPH, yiqtol, 3m.pl ‫( ]ירה‬understood: arrows) from the wall?

[Se il re si arrabbia (lit.la temperatura del re si alza) e ti dice/ti dirà ("Perché vi siete
avvicinati così alla città per dare battaglia? Non sapevate che avrebbero tirato (sottointeso: frecce,
litt. saette) dalle mura?

2 Samuel 11:21
‫יכה ָע ָליו֩ ֙ ֶפּ ַלח ֶ ֜ר ֶכב ֵמ ַ ֤על‬
ָ ‫וֹא־א ָ֡שּׁה ִה ְשׁ ִ ֣ל‬
ִ ‫ימ ֶלְך ֶבּן־יְ ֻר ֶ֗בּ ֶשׁת ֲה ֽל‬
֣ ֶ ‫ת־א ִב‬
ֲ ‫י־ה ָ֞כּה ֶא‬
ִ ‫ִ ֽמ‬
[(‫חוֹמה‬
֑ ָ ‫ל־ה‬
ֽ ַ ‫חוֹמ ֙ה וַ ָיּ ָ֣מת ְבּ ֵת ֵ֔בץ ָ ֥ל ָמּה נִ ַגּ ְשׁ ֶ ֖תּם ֶא‬
ָ ‫ַ ֽה‬
‫אוּר ָיּ֥ה ַה ִח ִ ֖תּי ֵ ֽמת׃‬
ִ ֛‫וְ ָ ֣א ַמ ְר ָ֔תּ ֗ ַגּם ַע ְב ְדָּך‬ APODOSI

‫פּ ַלח‬:ֶ — 1. slice (of cake of figs) 1S 3012, (of pomegranate) SS 43 67; — 2. (upper) millstone Ju 953 2S 1121,
pelaµ taµtît lower millstone Jb 4116.
‫ ֙ ֶפּ ַלח ֶ ֜ר ֶכב‬mola superiore, macina superiore/upper millstone

Who killed Abimelech son of Jerubbeshet? Did not a woman throw [HIPH, qatal 3f.sg ‫ ]שׁלְך‬an upper
millstone on him from the wall, so that he died at Thebez? Why did you go so near the
wall?”)] APODOSI: then you shall say, “Your servant Uriah the Hittite is dead too.'"

Chi fu che uccise Abimelec, figlio di Ierubbeset? Non fu una donna che gli gettò addosso una
mola superiore dalle mura, in modo che morì a Tebes? Perché vi siete avvicinati così alle
mura?")] APODOSI: allora tu dirai: "Anche il tuo servo Uria l'Ittita è morto".

2 Samuel 11:22

11
‫יוֹאב׃‬
ֽ ָ ‫ל־א ֶ ֥שׁר ְשׁ ָל ֖חוֹ‬
ֲ ‫וַ ֵיּ ֶ֖לְך ַה ַמּ ְל ָ ֑אְך וַ יָּ ב ֹ ֙א וַ יַּ ֵגּ֣ד ְל ָד ִ֔וד ֵ ֛את ָכּ‬
‫[ ְשׁ ָל ֖חוֹ‬QAL qatal 3m.sg. + suff. 3. m.sg. refers to the messenger] retrospective suffixed pronoun in the
relative clause (see also JM §158i)

So the messenger left/went, and came and told David all that Joab had sent him [to tell].

Il messaggero partì e venne e riferì a Davide tutto quello che Ioab l'(=lo)aveva inviato [a
dire].

2 Samuel 11:25

‫ל־יוֹא ֙ב ַאל־יֵ ַ ֤רע ְבּ ֵע ֶ֙ינ ֙יָך‬


ָ ‫ֹאמר ֶא‬
֤ ַ ‫ל־ה ַמּ ְל ָ֗אְך ֽכֹּה־ת‬
ַ ‫אמר ָדּ ִ֜וד ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬
֧‫ֹאכ֣ל ֶה ָ ֑ח ֶרב ַה ֲח ֙ ֵזק ִמ ְל ַח ְמ ְתָּך‬ ָ ‫ ֶאת־ ַה ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶ֔זּה ִ ֽכּ‬1
ַ ‫י־כ ֹ֥זה וְ ָכ ֶז֖ה תּ‬
‫ל־ה ִ ֛עיר וְ ָה ְר ָ ֖סהּ וְ ַחזְּ ֵ ֽ קהוּ׃‬
ָ ‫ֶא‬
David said to the messenger,
"Thus you shall say to Joab,
'Do not let this matter upset/trouble [QAL direct jussive 3m.sg ‫ ]רעע‬you, for the sword devours now
one and now another. Press [HIPH imperative m.sg ‫ ]חזק‬your attack/your battle on the city, and
demolish/overthrow/destroy [QAL imperative m.sg ‫ הרס‬+ suff. 3 f.sg] it.'
And [you yourself – said to the messenger] strengthen/encourage [PIEL imperative m.sg ‫ חזק‬+ suff. 3 m.sg] him [=
Joab]."

Allora Davide disse al messaggero: «Dirai così a Ioab: "Non ti affligga questa
cosa/vicenda/ciò che è accaduto, perché la spada divora ora l'uno ora l'altro. Rinforza
l'attacco contro la città e distruggila". E tu [detto al messaggero] fagli coraggio».

Samuel 11:26

‫ל־בּ ְע ָ ֽלהּ׃‬
ַ ‫ישׁהּ וַ ִתּ ְס ֖ ֹפּד ַע‬
֑ ָ ‫אוּר ָיּ֣ה ִא‬
ִ ‫י־מת‬
֖ ֵ ‫וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַמ ֙ע ֵ ֣א ֶשׁת ֽא ִוּר ָ֔יּה ִכּ‬

When the wife of Uriah heard that her husband was dead, she made lamentation for (mourned
for) [QAL wayy 3f.sg ‫ ]ספד‬her husband.

1
 Sometimes, ‫אֵ ת‬ occurs with nouns that seem to be subjects of intransitive verbs. See some illustrations in 
Dictionary of Classical Hebrew Vol. 1, p. 445‐446, entry: 4a (Clines, 1993). 

12
Quando la moglie di Uria udì che suo marito Uria era morto, fece lamenti sul/pianse suo
marito/signore.

2 Samuel 12:4

‫וּמ ְבּ ָק ֔רוֹ ַל ֲע ֕שׂוֹת‬


ִ ‫אנוֹ‬
֙ ֹ ‫מל ָל ַ ֤ ק ַחת ִמצּ‬
ֹ ֗ ‫וַ ָיּ֣בֹא ֵה ֶל ְ֘ך ְל ִ ֣אישׁ ֶ ֽה ָע ִשׁיר֒ וַ יַּ ְח‬
‫ת־כּ ְב ַשׂ ֙ת ָה ִ ֣אישׁ ָה ָ ֔ראשׁ וַ יַּ ֲע ֶ֔שׂ ָה ָל ִ ֖אישׁ ַה ָ ֥בּא‬
ִ ‫א־לוֹ וַ יִּ ַ ֗קּח ֶא‬
֑ ‫ָלא ֵ ֹ֖ר ַח ַה ָבּ‬
‫ֵא ָ ֽליו׃‬

ָ qal: pf. ‫ ;א׳‬inf. sf. ‫;א ְר ִחי‬


‫א ַרח‬: ָ pt. ‫א ֵֹר ַח‬, ‫א ְֹר ִחים‬: – 1. be on the way (l® to) Jb 348; — 2. abs.
wander Ps 1393; pt. wanderer 2S 124.

Now there came a visitor to the rich man, and he was loath/unwilling to take (refrained from
taking) one of his own flock or herd to prepare for the traveler who had come to him, and he
took the poor man's lamb, and prepared it for the guest/man who had come to him."

Un viaggiatore arrivò a casa dell'uomo ricco. Questi, non era disposto a (risparmiò a)
prendere una delle sue sue pecore o del suo bestiame/buoi per preparare un pasto al
viaggiatore che era venuto da lui; prese invece l'agnella dell'uomo povero e la preparò per
l'uomo venuto da lui».

2 Samuel 12:5

‫ן־מוֶ ת‬
ָ֔ ‫הוה ִ ֣כּי ֶב‬
֕ ָ ְ‫אמ ֙ר ֶאל־נָ ָ֔תן ַחי־י‬
ֶ ֹ ‫אד ֙ ַויּ‬
ֹ ֑ ‫ר־אף ָדִּו֛ד ָבּ ִ ֖אישׁ ְמ‬
֥ ַ ‫וַ ִ ֽיּ ַח‬
‫ָה ִ ֖אישׁ ָהע ֶ ֹ֥שׂה ֽז ֹאת׃‬

Then David's anger was greatly kindled (David’s nose became hot) against the man. He said
to Nathan, "As the LORD lives, the man who has done this deserves to die;

Davide si adirò moltissimo contro quell'uomo e disse a Natan: “Per la vita del Signore,
l'uomo che ha fatto questo merita la morte/è degno di morte!”

2 Samuel 12:6
‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶ֔זּה וְ ַ ֖על‬
ַ ‫ת־ה ִכּ ְב ָ ֖שׂה יְ ַשׁ ֵלּ֣ם ַא ְר ַבּ ְע ָ ֑תּיִ ם ֗ ֵע ֶקב ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ָע ָשׂ ֙ה ֶא‬
ַ ‫וְ ֶא‬
‫א־ח ָ ֽמל׃‬
ָ ֹ ‫ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֽל‬

13
Gioco di parole/wordplay: ‫ ָהמַל‬is in a positive clause in 2 Sam 12:4 and it is negated in 2
Sam12:6, arguably with slightly different shades of meaning.

‫ ֵע ֶקב‬because Nu 1424, = ±¢qeb °-šer Gn 2218 265 2S 126 = ±¢qeb kî 2S 1210

“He shall restore/repay the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no
pity."
He must pay for that lamb four times over, because he did such a thing and because he had no
pity/compassion."

“Pagherà quattro volte [il valore del]l'agnella perchè ha compiuto un tale misfatto e perchè
non ha avuto compassione”.

2 Samuel 12:14

֖‫הוה ַבּ ָדּ ָ ֖בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה ֗ ַגּם ַה ֵ ֛בּן ַהיִּ ֥לּוֹד ְלָך‬


ָ֔ ְ‫ֶא ֶפס ִ ֽכּי־נִ ֵ ֤אץ נִ ַ֙א ְצ ָ֙תּ ֶאת־]אֹיְ ֵ ֣בי[ י‬
‫֥מוֹת יָ ֽמוּת׃‬
°efes kî: limiting: only that

CLINES vol. 4, p. 222: ‫ י ִלּוּד‬adj born


- the same meaning as QAL ptc pass. ‫י ָלוּד‬

However (or: but because) by this deed you have utterly [‫ נאץ‬PIEL inf. abs.] scorned [PIEL, qatal, 2
2
m.sg ‫( ]נאץ‬you have treated with contempt) [the enemies of] the LORD, the child that is born
to you shall die."

Tuttavia (o: Ma perché), con questa azione, tu hai disprezzato il Signore, il figlio che ti è nato
morrà/morirà».

2 Samuel 12:15

‫ת־ה ֶ֜יּ ֶלד ֲא ֶ֙שׁר יָ ְל ָ ֧דה ֵ ֽא ֶשׁת־אוּ ִר ָיּ֛ה‬


ַ ‫הוה ֶא‬
ָ֗ ְ‫יתוֹ וַ יִּ ֹ֣גּף י‬
֑ ‫ל־בּ‬
ֵ ‫וַ ֵיּ ֶ֥לְך נָ ָ ֖תן ֶא‬
‫ְל ָדִ ֖וד וַ יֵּ ָא ַנֽשׁ׃‬
‫אנשׁ‬: nif.: ‫וַ יֵּ ָא ַנֽשׁ‬: be in poor health 2S 1215.

Then Nathan went to his house. The LORD struck [QAL ‫ נגף‬wayy 3 m.sg] child that Uriah's wife
bore to David, and it became ill [NIPH, wayy, 3m.sg ‫]אנשׁ‬.

2
 See Driver. It seems to be an addition to protect the name of the LORD from a negative verb, such as ‫נאץ‬ 
‘treat with contempt’. 

14
Natan tornò a casa sua . Il SIGNORE colpì il bambino che la moglie di Uria aveva partorito a
Davide, ed esso si ammalò.

2 Samuel 12:17

‫א־ב ָ ֥רא ִא ָ ֖תּם‬


ָ ֹ ‫ן־ה ָ ֑א ֶרץ וְ ֣ל ֹא ָא ָ֔בה וְ ֽל‬
ָ ‫ימוֹ ִמ‬
֖ ‫יתוֹ ָע ֔ ָליו ַל ֲה ִק‬
֙ ‫וַ יָּ ֻ ֜קמוּ זִ ְק ֵנ֤י ֵב‬
‫׃‬ ‫ָ ֽל ֶחם‬
I ‫בּ ָרה‬:
ָ qal: qatal: ‫ ;)!( ָבּ ָרא‬yiqtol ‫א ְב ֶרה‬:
ֶ 1. b¹râ leµem °¢t eat together w. s.one 2S 1217

The elders of his house stood beside him (in order) to get him up [HIPH inf const ‫ קום‬+ suff. 3m.sg]
from the ground; but he did not want to [ELLIPSIS: get up], and he did not eat food with them.

Gli anziani della sua stavano in piedi presso di lui perché egli si alzasse da terra; ma egli non
volle e non assaggiò cibo con loro.

2 Samuel 12:19

‫אמר ָדִּ ֧וד‬


ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ַיּ֣ ְ רא ָדּ ִ ֗וד ִ ֤כּי ֲע ָב ָד ֙יו ִ ֽמ ְת ַל ֲח ִ֔שׁים וַ ָיּ ֶ֥בן ָדִּ ֖וד ִ ֣כּי ֵ ֣מת ַה ָיּ ֶ֑לד וַ ֙יּ‬
‫אמרוּ ֵ ֽמת׃‬
ְ ֹ ‫ל־ע ָב ָ ֛דיו ֲה ֵ ֥מת ַה ֶיּ ֶ֖לד וַ ֥יּ‬
ֲ ‫ֶא‬

David saw that his servants were whispering together (with each other) [‫ לחשׁ‬hithpael ptc m.pl], he
realized/understood [HIPH wayy 3 m.sg ‫ ]בין‬that the child was dead; and David said to his servants,
"Is the child dead?" They said, "He is dead."

Davide vide che i suoi servitori bisbigliavano (stavano parlottando) tra di loro, comprese che
il bambino era morto e disse ai suoi servitori: «È morto il bambino?» Quelli risposero: «È
morto».

2 Samuel 12:20

‫ֹלתיו[ וַ יָּ ֥ב ֹא‬
ָ֔ ‫וַ יָּ ָק ֩ם ָדּ֙ ִוד ֵמ ָה ָ֜א ֶרץ וַ יִּ ְר ַ ֣חץ וַ ָ֗יּ ֶסְך וַ יְ ַח ֵלּ ֙ף ) ִשׂ ְמ ָלתוֹ( ] ִשׂ ְמ‬
‫אכל׃‬
ֽ ַ ֹ ‫יתוֹ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ֕אל וַ יָּ ִ ֥שׂימוּ ֛לוֹ ֶל ֶ֖חם וַ יּ‬ ֵ ‫הו֖ה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ָ ֑תּחוּ וַ יָּ ב ֹ ֙א ֶא‬
֔ ‫ל־בּ‬ ָ ְ‫ֵבית־י‬

15
Then David rose from the ground, washed, anointed himself [HIPH3 wayy 3 m.sg ‫ סוְך‬to anoint oneself],
and changed [PIEL wayy. 3m.sg ‫ ]חלף‬his clothes. He went into the house of the LORD, and
prostrated himself/worshiped [hishtaphal, wayy. 3 m.sg. ‫( חוה‬see Lambdin §181)]; he then went to his [own]
house; and when he asked, they set [QAL, wayy. 3m.pl ‫ ]שׂים‬food before him and he ate.

Allora Davide si alzò da terra, si lavò, si unse e si cambiò le vesti; poi andò nella casa del
SIGNORE e si prostrò. Poi tornò a casa sua, chiese [da mangiare], gli metterono cibo e lui
mangiò.

‫חוה‬: hištafal (170 ×): qatal ‫ה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוָ ה‬,ִ ‫ה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוִ ָית‬,ִ ‫ה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֵ ִיתי‬,ִ ‫ ִ;ה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחווּ‬yiqtol ‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֶ ה‬, ‫ ֶא ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֶ ה‬, pl. ‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחווּ‬,wayyiqtol
‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֶ ה‬, ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּחוּ‬, ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ָ ֽתּחוּ‬, ֻ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוּ‬impv. ‫ה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוִ י‬, ִ inf. ‫ה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֹת‬,
ִ ‫;ה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחווּ‬ ִ

2 Samuel 12:22

‫יוֹד ַע‬
֔ ֵ ‫תּי ִ ֣מי‬
֙ ִ ‫עוֹד ַה ֶיּ ֶ֣לד ַ֔חי ַ ֖צ ְמ ִתּי ָ ֽו ֶא ְב ֶכּ֑ה ִ ֤כּי ָא ַ֙מ ְר‬
֙ ‫אמר ְבּ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֕יּ‬
‫׃‬ ָ ְ‫[ י‬Q ‫( ]וְ ַח ַנּ ִ֥ני‬K ‫)יְ ָחנַּ ִני‬
‫הו֖ה וְ ַ ֥חי ַה ָיּ ֶֽלד‬

According to Driver, Qere is unnecessary, and I agree. [Ketib: QAL yiqtol 3m.sg ‫ חנן‬+ 1c.sg/// Qere: QAL,
weqatalti, 3m.sg ‫ חנן‬+ 1c.sg] See Joel 2:14, Jonah 3:9

ָ qal: pf. ‫ח׳‬, ‫וְ ַחנּ ִֹ֫תי‬, ‫ח ָנֽנוּ‬,


‫חנַ ן‬: ָ ‫ ;נִ ַח ָ ֫ ֽני‬impf. ‫יָ חֹן‬, ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָחן‬, ‫ יֶ ֱחנַ ן‬Am 515, ‫תּ ַחנֵּ ם‬, ֻ ִ‫ו‬, ‫יְ ָחנֵּ נוּ‬, ‫יָ ְחנְ ָך‬, Gn 4329, ‫( יְ ַח ִנּני‬Qr
ְ ‫יְ ֻחנֶּ נּוּ‬, ‫יחנֶּ ַָפמאךּ‬
‫וְ ַחנַּ ִני‬, Kt ‫ )יְ ָחנֵּ ִני‬2S 1222; impv. ‫חנֵּ ִני‬,
ָ pt. ‫חוֹנֵ ן‬: — 1. w. acc. be gracious to s.one (of God)

ָ qal: pf. a) following ‫ ע׳ע‬vbs.: ‫חי‬,


‫חיָ ה‬: ֽ ָ ‫ ֵחי‬Lv 2536, f. ‫ וָ ָ֫חיָ ה‬Ex 116; b) following ‫ ל׳ה‬vbs.: ‫חיָ ה‬,
ַ ‫חי‬, ָ ‫חיְ ָתה‬,
ֽ ָ ‫יִית‬
ָ ‫ח‬,ָ ‫חיוּ‬,
ָ
ֶ ִ‫ ;וִ ְחי‬impf. ‫יִ ְחיֶ ה‬, ‫יְ ִחי‬, ‫יחי‬
‫יתם‬ ִ ִ‫ו‬, ‫וַ יְ ִחי‬, ‫(י ִחי‬
ֽ ֫ ָ ַ‫)ו‬, ‫תּ ִחי‬, ֶ ‫נִ ְחיֶ ה‬, (‫תּ ְחיוּ)ן‬,
ְ ‫א ְחיֶ ה‬, ִ ‫ ; ִתּ ְחיֶ ינָ ה‬impv. ‫וֶ ְחיֵ ה‬, ‫חיִ י‬,
ֲ ‫ ;וִ ְחיוּ‬inf. ‫ל ְחיוֹת‬,ִ ‫יוֹתם‬
ָ ‫ח‬,
ֲ ‫חי ֹה‬,
ָ
ָ Je 219 ‫ = יְ ָחיָ ה‬Kt ‫יִ ְחיֶ ה‬, Qr ‫וְ ָחיָ ה‬: — 1. be, stay alive (ca. 120 ×)
‫;חיוֹ‬

He said, "While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept; for I said, 'Who knows? The
LORD may be gracious to me [Ketib: QAL yiqtol 3m.sg ‫ חנן‬+ 1c.sg/// Qere: QAL, weqatalti, 3m.sg ‫ חנן‬+ 1c.sg]
and the child will live.'

Rispose: «Quando il bambino era ancora vivo ho digiunato e pianto, perché mi sono detto:
chi sa? Il Signore avrà compassione di me ed il bambino sarà vivo.

2 Samuel 12:25

‫הוה׃‬
ֽ ָ ְ‫ת־שׁ ֖מוֹ יְ ִ ֣ד ְיד ָי֑הּ ַבּ ֲע ֖בוּר י‬
ְ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ֗ ַלח ְבּיַ ֙ד נָ ָ ֣תן ַהנָּ ִ֔ביא וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֥רא ֶא‬

3
 This is the only occurrence with HIPHIL, therefore probably it should be read as QAL wayy ‫( ַו ָ֫יּ ָסְך‬see the
discussion in Driver).

16
(lit.) and he sent [understood: a message] by the prophet Nathan and named him Jedidiah, because of
the LORD.

And he sent [word/a message] through Nathan the prophet to name him Jedidiah for the sake of the
LORD.

E egli mandò il profeta Natan che lo chiamò [SBAGLIATO!!] Iedidia, a motivo del
SIGNORE.

(SECONDO ME, meglio):


ed egli [= ‫ יהוה‬SIGNORE], tramite il (per mezzo del) profeta Natan, lo fece chiamare (o: fece
chiamare il suo nome)4 Iedidia [“loved by YHWH”], a motivo del SIGNORE.
PER
y envió al profeta Natán, que le puso [MAL!!] el nombre de Yedidías por orden del
Señor.

2 Samuel 12:31 (not for exam)

2 Samuel 13:4

‫בּ ֶקר ֲה ֖לוֹא‬
ֹ ֔ ‫בּ ֶקר ַבּ‬
ֹ ֣ ‫ן־ה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ַבּ‬
ַ ‫אמר ֗לוֹ ַמ ֣דּ ַוּע ֠ ַא ָתּה ָכּ ָ֣כה ַ ֤דּל ֶבּ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
ָ ‫אמר ֙לוֹ ַא ְמנ֔ וֹן ֶא‬
‫ת־תּ ָ֗מר ֲא ֛חוֹת ַא ְב ָשׁ ֹ֥לם ָא ִ ֖חי ֲא ִ ֥ני א ֵ ֹֽהב׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ַתּ ִגּ֣יד ִ ֑לי וַ ֤יּ‬
‫ ַדּל‬poor; weak: unhappy/infelice?

He said to him, "O son of the king, why are you so haggard morning after morning? Will you
not tell me?" Amnon said to him, "I love Tamar, my brother Absalom's sister."
The direct object is preposed for emphasis: a marked or non-canonical word order

Questi gli disse: «Come mai tu, figlio del re, sei ogni mattina così deperito? Non me lo vuoi
dire?» Amnon gli rispose: «Sono innamorato di Tamar, sorella di mio fratello Absalom».
IL complemento diretto è preposto al verbo per l’enfasi: è un ordine delle parole marcato o non-canonico

2 Samuel 13:5

4
 A mio avviso, il SIGNORE è soggetto sia del ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ֗ ַלח‬ sia del ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֥רא‬, 

17
‫אוֹתָך‬
ֶ֗ ‫וּבא ָא ִ ֣ביָך ִל ְר‬
֧ ָ ‫ל־מ ְשׁ ָכּ ְבָך֖ וְ ִה ְת ָ ֑חל‬
ִ ‫אמר ֙לוֹ יְ ֣הוֹנָ ָ ֔דב ְשׁ ַ ֥כב ַע‬
ֶ ֹ ‫֤ויּ‬
‫יני‬ ִ֜ ‫וְ ָא ַמ ְר ָ ֣תּ ֵא ֡ ָליו ָ ֣תּבֹא נָ ֩א ָת ָ֙מר ֲא‬
֙ ַ ‫חוֹתי וְ ַת ְב ֵ ֣ר ִני ֗ ֶל ֶחם וְ ָע ְשׂ ָ ֤תה ְל ֵע‬
‫שׁר ֶא ְר ֶ֔אה וְ ָא ַכ ְל ִ ֖תּי ִמיָּ ָ ֽדהּ׃‬
֣ ֶ ‫ת־ה ִבּ ְר ָ֔יה ְל ַ֙מ ַ ֙ען ֲא‬
ַ ‫ֶא‬

Jonadab said to him, "Lie down [QAL imperative m.sg.] on your bed, and pretend to be ill [HITHPAEL
imperative m.sg.. ‫ ;]חלה‬and [when] your father comes to see you, say [or: you shall say] to him, 'Let
my sister Tamar come [direct jussive] to give me [HIPH, indirect jussive 3 f.sg ‫‘ ברה‬eat’ + suff. 1 c.sg] food, and
prepare [QAL weqatalti ‫ ]עשׂה‬the food in my sight, so that I may see [it] and eat [it] from her
hand.'"

Weqatalti continues here the force of the direct jussive, with sequential shade of meaning

Ionadab gli disse: «Mettiti a letto e fingiti malato/datti per malato. [Quando] tuo padre verrà a
vederti digli/tu gli dirai: "Che mia sorella Tamar venga a/per darmi da mangiare e prepari il
cibo in mia presenza/sotto i miei occhi affinchè/perché io possa vedere e mangiare dalla sua
mano!"».

2 Samuel 13:6

‫ל־ה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך‬


ַ ‫אמר ַא ְמנ֤ וֹן ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ ֥כּב ַא ְמנ֖ וֹן וַ יִּ ְת ָ ֑חל וַ יָּ ֙ב ֹא ַה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ִל ְרא ֹ֗תוֹ וַ ֙יּ‬
‫יני ְשׁ ֵ ֣תּי ְל ִב ֔בוֹת וְ ֶא ְב ֶ ֖רה ִמיָּ ָ ֽדהּ׃‬ ְ ‫בוֹא־נא ָתּ ָ ֣מר ֲאח ִֹ֗תי‬
֙ ַ ‫וּת ַל ֵ ֤בּב ְל ֵע‬ ָ֞ ‫ָ ֽתּ‬
‫ל ִב ָבה‬:ְ pl. ‫ל ִבבוֹת‬:ְ (heart-shaped) cake 2S 136•8•10

So Amnon lay down, and pretended to be ill [HITHPAEL wayy. 3 m.sg.. ‫ ;]חלה‬and [when] the king
came to see him, Amnon said to the king, "May/let my sister Tamar come [QAL, direct jussive] to
make [PIEL, indirect jussive, f.sg. ‫‘ לבב‬to bake (cakes)’] a couple of/two cakes in my sight, so that I may
eat [QAL, indirect cohortative 1 c.sg ‫‘ ברה‬eat’] from her hand."

Amnon si mise a letto e si finse ammalato/si dette per malato; e [quando] il re lo venne a
vedere, Amnon gli disse: «Che mia sorella Tamar venga a/per preparare un paio di
frittelle/due tortelle in mia presenza ed io mangerò/affinchè io mangi dalla sua mano».

2 Samuel 13:7

‫מר ְל ִ ֣כי ֗ ָנא ֵ ֚בּית ַא ְמנ֣ וֹן ָא ִ֔חיְך‬


ֹ ֑ ‫ל־תּ ָ ֖מר ַה ַ ֣בּיְ ָתה ֵלא‬
ָ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ ֥לח ָדִּו֛ד ֶא‬
‫־לוֹ ַה ִבּ ְר ָיֽה׃‬
֖ ‫וַ ֲע ִשׂי‬
18
Then David sent [word/a message] to Tamar, saying, "Go [imperative] to your brother Amnon's
house, and prepare [imperative] food for him."

Allora Davide mandò a dire a Tamar: «Va' a casa di Amnon, tuo fratello, e preparagli il cibo
(qualcosa da mangiare)».

2 Samuel 13:8

‫ת־ה ָבּ ֵצ֤ק‬
ַ ‫יה וְ ֣הוּא שׁ ֵֹכ֑ב וַ ִתּ ַ ֙קּח ֶא‬
ָ ‫וַ ֵ ֣תּ ֶלְך ָתּ ָ֗מר ֵ ֛בּית ַא ְמנ֥ וֹן ָא ִ ֖ח‬
ַ ‫[ וַ ְתּ ַל ֵבּ֣ב ְל ֵע ָ֔יניו וַ ְתּ ַב ֵ ֖שּׁל ֶא‬Q ‫( ]וַ ָ֙תּ ָל ֙שׁ‬K ‫)וַ ָתּלוֹשׁ‬
‫ת־ה ְלּ ִב ֽבוֹת׃‬
ָ sf. ‫בּ ֵצקוֹ‬:
‫בּ ֵצק‬: ְ dough FARINA

So Tamar went to her brother Amnon's house, and he was lying down. She took dough,
kneaded [QAL wayy 3 f.sg '‫‘ לוּשׁ‬knead’] it, made [PIEL, wayy. 3 f.sg. ‫‘ לבב‬to bake (cakes)’] cakes in his sight,
and baked [PIEL, wayy 3 f.sg ‫ ]בשׁל‬the cakes.

Tamar andò a casa di Amnon, suo fratello, che stava/era a letto; prese la farina, l'intrise/la
impastò, preparò le frittelle/tortelle sotto i suoi occhi e le cosse (cuocere) davanti a lui.

2 Samuel 13:9

‫אמר ַא ְמנ֗ וֹן‬


ֶ ֹ ‫ת־ה ַמּ ְשׂ ֵר ֙ת וַ ִתּ ֣צֹק ְל ָפ ֔ ָניו וַ יְ ָמ ֵ ֖אן ֶל ֱא ֑כוֹל וַ ֣יּ‬
ַ ‫וַ ִתּ ַ ֤קּח ֶא‬
‫ל־אישׁ ֵמ ָע ָ ֽליו׃‬
֖ ִ ‫ישׁ ֵ ֽמ ָע ֔ ַלי וַ יֵּ ְצ ֥אוּ ָכ‬
֙ ‫ל־א‬
ִ ‫הוֹציאוּ ָכ‬
ִ֤
‫מ ְשׂ ֵרת‬:
ַ baking- or frying-pan 2S 139. †
‫יָ ַצק‬: qal: ‫יָ ַצ ְק ָתּ‬, ‫וַ יִּ צֹק‬, ‫וַ ִתּצֹק‬, ‫ וַ יִּ ֶצק‬1. dish up (to serve food) 2S 139 2K 440f; 2. pour out (liquid)

‫ מאן‬PIEL ‘refuse (to do)’/‘rifiutare (di fare)’. Questo verbo si usa unicamente5 nelle
costruzioni con un altro verbo in infinito costrutto: 33 volte l’infinito costrutto appare con la
marca dell’infinito ‫ ְל‬, 7 volte senza l’infinito costrutto senza ‫ ְל‬, e 6 volte l’atro verbo è in elissi
[cioè: sottinteso, noto nel contesto, ma non esplicitamente espresso, come in: Ella disse:
“Mangia” Ma egli rifiutò (= egli rifiutò di mangiare)]. Esempi di elissi: Gen 39:8, 48:19; 1
Sam 28:23.

Then she took the pan and served [QAL, wayy, 3 f.sg ‫ ]יצק‬him (lit., before him) [understood: the cakes],
but he refused [PIEL wayy. 3 m.sg ‫‘ מאן‬refuse (to do)’] to eat. Amnon said, "Send out [HIPHIL imperative (direct

5
 Questo significa che il verbo ebraico si usa solo nel senso di RIFIUTARE (DI FARE)’, non acconsentire a fare 
qualcosa. Invece non lo si usa come il verbo italiano ‘rifiutare’ che può essere transitivo: rifiutare un invito/un 
consiglio, rifiutare un permesso, rifiutare un figlio, etc. 

19
volitive) m.pl ‫ ]יצא‬everyone from me (from beside me)." So everyone went out from him [in the sense:
from beside him].

Poi prese la padella, servì [sottinteso: le frittelle/tortelle] e gliele mise davanti, ma egli rifiutò
[PIEL wayy. 3 m.sg ‫‘ מאן‬rifiutare (di fare)’] di mangiare e disse: «Fate uscire tutta la gente d'attorno a me ».
Ognuno uscì d'attorno a lui.

2 Samuel 13:10

‫יאי ַה ִבּ ְריָ ֙ה ַה ֶ֔ח ֶדר וְ ֶא ְב ֶ ֖רה ִמיָּ ֵ ֑דְך וַ ִתּ ַ ֣קּח‬


ִ ‫ל־תּ ָ֗מר ָה ִ ֤ב‬
ָ ‫אמר ַא ְמנ֜ וֹן ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬
‫יה ֶה ָ ֽח ְד ָרה׃‬
ָ ‫שׁר ָע ָ֔שׂ ָתה וַ ָתּ ֵ ֛בא ְל ַא ְמנ֥ וֹן ָא ִ ֖ח‬
֣ ֶ ‫בוֹת ֲא‬
֙ ‫ת־ה ְלּ ִב‬
ַ ‫ָתּ ָ֗מר ֶא‬

Then Amnon said to Tamar, "Bring [HIPHIL imperative f.sg. ‫ ]בוא‬the food into the chamber, so that
I may eat [QAL, indirect cohortative] from your hand." So Tamar took the cakes she had made, and
brought them into the chamber to Amnon her brother.

Allora Amnon disse a Tamar: «Porta il cibo in camera perchè/affinchè io [lo] mangi dalla tua
mano ». Tamar prese le frittelle che aveva fatte e le portò in camera ad Amnon suo fratello.

2 Samuel 13:11

‫חוֹתי׃‬
ֽ ִ ‫וֹאי ִשׁ ְכ ִ ֥בי ִע ִ ֖מּי ֲא‬
ִ ‫אמר ֔ ָלהּ ֛בּ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ק־בּ ֙הּ וַ ֣יּ‬
ָ ֶ‫וַ ַתּ ֵגּ֥שׁ ֵא ָ ֖ליו ֶ ֽל ֱא ֑ ֹכל וַ ַיּ ֲֽחז‬

But when she brought them near him [HIPHIL, wayy. 3 f.sg. ‫ ]נגשׁ‬to eat, he took hold [HIPHIL wayy 3m.sg.
‫ ]חזק‬of her, and said to her, "Come, lie with me, my sister."

Quando ella gli fece avvicinare/gli porse [da PORGERE] il cibo a mangiare, egli l'afferrò e le
disse: «Vieni, giaci con me, sorella mia».

2 Samuel 13:12

‫א־י ָֽע ֶ ֥שׂה ֵכ֖ן ְבּיִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל‬


ֵ ֹ ‫ל־תּ ַע ֵ֔נּ ִני ִ ֛כּי ל‬
ְ ‫חי ַא‬
֙ ִ ‫ל־א‬
ָ ‫אמר ֗לוֹ ַא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣תּ‬
‫ת־הנְּ ָב ָ ֥לה ַה ֽזּ ֹאת׃‬
ַ ‫ל־תּ ֲע ֵ ֖שׂה ֶא‬
ַ ‫ַ ֽא‬
She answered him, "No, my brother, do not force me [PIEL direct jussive 2 m.sg ‫‘ ענה‬violate’ ‘rape’ FARE
VIOLENZA+ 1c.sg];
for such a thing is not done [NIPH yiqtol 3 m.sg. ‫עשׂה‬. Yiqtol expresses frequentative/habitual aspect]
in Israel; Don't do this wicked thing!

Lei gli rispose: «No, fratello mio, non farmi violenza/non mi fare violenza; questo non si fa in
Israele; non commettere una tale infamia!
20
2 Samuel 13:14

‫קוֹל֑הּ וַ יֶּ ֱח ַז֤ק ִמ ֶ֙מּנָּ ֙ה וַ יְ ַע ֶ֔נּ ָה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ ֖כּב א ָ ֹֽתהּ׃‬


ָ ‫מ ַע ְבּ‬
ֹ ֣ ‫וְ ֥ל ֹא ָא ָ ֖בה ִל ְשׁ‬

But he was not willing to listen to her; and he overpowered her (lit., he was stronger than she)
[QAL wayy 3m.sg. ‫]חזק‬,
he forced/raped her [PIEL wayy 3m.sg ‫ ענה‬+ 3f.sg] and lay with her.

Ma egli non volle darle ascolto (non volle ascoltarla ) e prevalse su di lei (lit., fu più forte di
lei) e le fece violenza e si unì a lei.

2 Samuel 13:15

‫שׁר ְשׂנֵ ָ֔אהּ‬


֣ ֶ ‫דוֹלה ַה ִשּׂנְ ָא ֙ה ֲא‬
ָ ֗ ‫אד ִ ֣כּי ְג‬
ֹ ֔ ‫דוֹל֣ה ְמ‬
ָ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׂנָ ֶ ֣א ָה ַא ְמנ֗ וֹן ִשׂנְ ָא ֙ה ְגּ‬
‫וּמי ֵ ֽל ִכי׃‬
ִ ‫ר־להּ ַא ְמנ֖ וֹן ֥ק‬
֥ ָ ‫אמ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫שׁר ֲא ֵה ָ ֑בהּ ַ ֽויּ‬
֣ ֶ ‫ֵמ ַא ֲה ָ ֖בה ֲא‬

Then Amnon was seized with a very great hatred for her; for his hatred was even greater than
the love he had felt for her. Amnon said to her, "Now go!" (or, literally: "Get up and get
out!")

Poi Amnon prese a odiarla [QAL wayy 3m.dg ‫ שׂנא‬+ 3f.sg] di un odio molto grande perchè l'odio con
cui l'odiava [QAL qatal 3m.sg ‫ שׂנא‬+ 3f.sg] era maggiore dell'amore con cui l'aveva amata [QAL qatal 3m.sg
‫ אהב‬+ 3f.sg]. Amnon le disse: “Ora vattene!” (oppure, più letteralmente: “Àlzati, vattene!”).

2 Samuel 13:16 NON PER L’ESAME)

2 Samuel 13:18

‫ילים‬
֑ ִ ‫תוֹּלת ְמ ִע‬
֖ ‫נוֹת־ה ֶ ֛מּ ֶלְך ַה ְבּ‬
ַ ‫תנֶ ת ַפּ ִ֔סּים ִכּי֩ ֙ ֵכן ִתּ ְל ַ ֧בּ ְשׁן ָ ְב‬
ֹ ֣ ‫יה ְכּ‬
ָ֙ ‫וְ ָע ֶ ֙ל‬
ָ ‫תוֹ ַה ֔חוּץ וְ נָ ַ ֥על ַה ֶ ֖דּ ֶלת ַא ֲח ֶ ֽר‬
‫יה׃‬ ֙ ‫אוֹתהּ ְמ ָ ֽשׁ ְר‬
֤ ָ ‫וַ יּ ֙ ֵֹצא‬
֑ ִ ‫ ְמ ִע‬garment (direct object of ‫) ָלבַשׁ‬
‫ילים‬

(Now she was wearing a long robe with sleeves; for thus the virgin daughters of the king
were clothed [QAL yiqtol 3 f.pl ‫] ָלבַשׁ‬.) So his servant put her out, and bolted [QAL, weqatalti (but wayyiqtol is
expected here; sometimes scholars call such weqatalti ‘unconverted perfect’ ] the door after her.

21
for this was the kind of garment the virgin daughters of the king wore.

Lei portava una tunica con le maniche, perché così vestivano le figlie del re ancora vergini. Il
servo la cacciò fuori e chiuse [QAL, weqatalti (il cosidetto ‘perfetto non invertito, con waw “semplice” di coordinazione’ –
secodo me meglio notare che un wayyiqtol dovrebbe essere usato qui] la porta dietro di lei.

2 Samuel 13:19 (see also 16:13)

‫֖יה ָק ָ ֑ר ָעה‬
ָ ‫תנֶ ת ַה ַפּ ִ ֛סּים ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָע ֶל‬
ֹ ֧ ‫וּכ‬
ְ ‫אשׁהּ‬
ָ֔ ֹ ‫וַ ִתּ ַ ֙קּח ָתּ ָ ֥מר ֵ֙א ֶפ ֙ר ַעל־ר‬
‫וְ זָ ָ ֽע ָקה׃‬ ‫אשׁהּ וַ ֵ ֥תּ ֶלְך ָהל֖ וְֹך‬
ָ֔ ֹ ‫וַ ָ ֤תּ ֶשׂם יָ ָד ֙הּ ַעל־ר‬

‫ וְ זָ ָ ֽע ָקה‬weqatalti, but ‫( וְז ֹ ֲע ָקה‬waw + QAL act. ptc f.sg THE BEST CHOICE) or ‫( ְוזְע ֹק‬waw+inf. abs., a
classic choice, but less supported by the consonantal text).

But Tamar put ashes on her head, and tore the long robe that she was wearing; she put her
hand on her head, and went away, crying aloud as she went.

E Tamar prese polvere sulla testa, stracciò la tunica con le maniche che indossava e mise la
mano sul capo/in testa, se ne andò gridando.

2 Samuel 13:20

‫יה ַה ֲא ִמ)י(נ֣ וֹן ָא ִח ֘יְך ָהָי֣ה ִע ָמְּך֒ וְ ַע ָ֞תּה‬


ָ ‫יה ַא ְב ָשׁ ֣לוֹם ָא ִ֗ח‬
ָ ‫אמר ֵא ֜ ֶל‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬
‫ת־ל ֵ ֖בְּך ַל ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה וַ ֵ ֤תּ ֶשׁב‬
ִ ‫ל־תּ ִ ֥שׁ ִיתי ֶא‬
ָ ‫ישׁי ָא ִ ֣חיְך ֔הוּא ַא‬
֙ ִ ‫חוֹתי ַה ֲח ִ ֙ר‬
֤ ִ ‫ֲא‬
‫יה׃‬
ָ ‫ָתּ ָמ ֙ר וְ ֣שׁ ֹ ֵמ ָ֔מה ֵ ֖בּית ַא ְב ָשׁ ֥לוֹם ָא ִ ֽח‬

Her brother Absalom said to her, "Has Amnon your brother been with you? Be quiet for now,
my sister; he is your brother; do not take this to heart." So Tamar remained, a desolate
woman, in her brother Absalom's house.

Absalom, suo fratello, le disse: «Forse Amnon, tuo fratello, è stato con te? Per ora taci,
sorella mia; egli è tuo fratello; non tormentarti per questo (lit., non mettere in tuo cuore
questa cosa)». Tamar, desolata, rimase in casa di Absalom, suo fratello.

2 Samuel 13:22

22
‫לוֹם‬
֙ ‫י־שׂ ֵנ֤א ַא ְב ָשׁ‬
ָ ‫ד־טוֹב[ ִ ֽכּ‬
֑ ‫ם־א ְמנ֖ וֹן ְל] ֵמ ָ ֣רע וְ ַע‬
ַ ‫א־ד ֶ ֧בּר ַא ְב ָשׁ ֛לוֹם ִע‬
ִ ֹ ‫וְ ֽל‬
‫שׁר ִע ֔ ָנּה ֵ ֖את ָתּ ָ ֥מר ֲאח ֹֽתוֹ׃‬
֣ ֶ ‫ל־דּ ַב ֙ר ֲא‬
ְ ‫ת־א ְמנ֔ וֹן ַע‬
ַ ‫ֶא‬

֑ ‫ – ְל ֵמ ָ ֣רע וְ ַע‬for bad or for good/né in male né in bene (= nothing/per niente). Literally:
‫ד־טוֹב‬
per [dal bene al male]

But Absalom spoke to Amnon neither good nor bad; for Absalom hated Amnon because he
had raped [PIEL, qatal] his sister Tamar.
Absalom never said a word to Amnon, either good or bad; he hated Amnon because he had
disgraced his sister Tamar.

Absalom non disse una parola ad Amnon né in male né in bene perché Assalonne aveva preso
in odio Amnon per la violenza ch'egli aveva fatto a Tamar, sua sorella.

2 Samuel 13:23

‫שׁר‬
֣ ֶ ‫הי ] ִל ְשׁנָ ַ ֣תיִ ם יָ ִ֔מים[ וַ יִּ ְהי֤ וּ ֹֽגזְ זִ ֙ים ְל ַא ְב ָשׁ ֔לוֹם ְבּ ַ ֥ב ַעל ָח ֖צוֹר ֲא‬
֙ ִ ְ‫וַ י‬
‫ל־בּ ֵנ֥י ַה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬
ְ ‫ם־א ְפ ָ ֑ריִ ם וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֥רא ַא ְב ָשׁ ֖לוֹם ְל ָכ‬
ֶ ‫ִע‬
‫גּזז‬: qal: impf. ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָגז‬, ‫;תּגֹז‬
ָ impv. ‫גּ ִ֫זּי‬,ָ ‫ ָ ֽ;וגֹזִּ י‬inf. ‫לגֹז‬,ָ ‫ל ְגזֹז‬,ִ ‫ ; ִבּ ְגזֹז‬pt. ‫גֹּזֵ ז‬, ‫גֹּזְ זִ ים‬, ‫גֹּזֲ זֵ י‬: shear (sheep) Gn 3119;
cut (hair) Je 729. tosare

Two years later Absalom had sheepshearers [QAL, act. Ptc m.pl ‫‘ גזז‬sher’] at Baal-hazor, which is
near Ephraim, and Absalom invited all the king's sons.

Due anni dopo, Absalom faceva tosare le sue pecore (lit., aveva tosatori) a Baal-Asor presso
Efraim, e invitò tutti i figli del re.

2 Samuel 13:24

‫ְך־נ֥א‬
ָ ‫ה־נ֥א גֹזְ ִז֖ים ְל ַע ְב ֶ ֑דָּך ֵי ֶֽל‬
ָ ֵ‫אמר ִהנּ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וַ ֕יּ‬
ַ ‫לוֹם ֶא‬
֙ ‫וַ יָּ ֤ב ֹא ַא ְב ָשׁ‬
ַ ‫ַה ֶ ֛מּ ֶלְך וַ ֲע ָב ָ ֖דיו ִע‬
‫ם־ע ְב ֶ ֽדָּך׃‬

Absalom came to the king, and said, "Your servant has sheepshearers; may/let the king and
his servants please go [QAL, direct jussive] with your servant"

Absalom andò dal re e disse: «Ecco, il tuo servo ha i tosatori, il re si degni di venire (venga
pure il re) con i suoi servi presso il tuo servo».
23
2 Samuel 13:25

‫ל־נ֤א נֵ ֵל ְ֙ך ֻכּ ֔ ָלּנוּ וְ ֥ל ֹא נִ ְכ ַ ֖בּד‬


ָ ‫ל־בּ ִ ֙ני ַא‬
ְ ‫ל־א ְב ָשׁ ֗לוֹם ַא‬
ַ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬
‫א־א ָ ֥בה ָל ֶל ֶ֖כת וַ יְ ָב ֲר ֵ ֽכהוּ׃‬
ָ ֹ ‫ץ־בּוֹ וְ ֽל‬
֛ ‫ָע ֶל֑יָך וַ יִּ ְפ ָר‬

But the king said to Absalom, "No, my son, let us not all go [QAL, direct cohortative] so that we may
not be a burden upon you (be burdensome to you) [QAL, yiqtol, 1 c.pl. ‫‘ כבד‬be heavy’]" He
pressed/urged him, but he was not willing to go, but he blessed him.

["No, my son," the king replied. "All of us should not go; we would only be a burden to
you."]

Ma il re disse ad Absalom: «No, figlio mio, non andiamo [QAL, coortativo diretto] tutti, affinché non
ti siamo di peso/per non esserti di peso ». Egli insistette presso di lui, ma non volle andare e
gli dette la benedizione.

Quando dopo la forma volitiva diretta c’è la negazione, per esprimere l’idea ‘affinchè non
facciano/affinchè non faccia’, nel posto delle forme volitive indirette si usa: ‫ וְֹלא‬seguito dallo
yiqtol. [Vedi JM§116j]

2 Samuel 13:26

‫אמר ֙לוֹ ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך‬


ֶ ֹ ‫ְך־נ֥א ִא ָ ֖תּנוּ ַא ְמנ֣ וֹן ָא ִ ֑חי וַ ֤יּ‬
ָ ‫אמ ֙ר ַא ְב ָשׁ ֔לוֹם וָ ֕ל ֹא ֵי ֶֽל‬
ֶ ֹ ‫֙ ַויּ‬
‫ָ ֥ל ָמּה יֵ ֵלְ֖ך ִע ָ ֽמְּך׃‬

JM 167o: ellipsis in protasis ‫“ ולא‬and if not”, as in 2 Sam 13:26 (for other passagges, see
Driver’s “Notes”). For the vocalization ‫ ָו‬see JM 104d
In other words, according the the authors: ‫ וָֹלא‬stands for ‫ְואִם ֹלא‬

Then Absalom said, "If not, please let my brother Amnon go [direct jussive] with us." The king
said to him, "Why should he go with you?"

Absalom disse: «Se no [nel senso: se tu non vuoi venire, almeno] venga [iussivo diretto] con noi Amnon, mio
fratello». Gli rispose il re: «Perché dovrebbe andare con te?».

2 Samuel 13:28
24
‫ב־א ְמנ֤ וֹן ַ יַּ֙בּ יִ ֙ן‬
ַ ‫מר ְר ֣אוּ ָ֠נא ְכּ ֙טוֹב ֵל‬
ֹ ֗ ‫וַ יְ ַצו֩ ַא ְב ָשׁל֙ וֹם ֶאת־נְ ָע ָ ֜ריו ֵלא‬
‫יראוּ ֲה ֗לוֹא ִ ֤כּי‬ ִ ‫ת־א ְמנ֛ וֹן וַ ֲה ִמ ֶ ֥תּם א ֹ֖תוֹ ַא‬
֑ ָ ‫ל־תּ‬ ַ ‫יכם ַה ֧כּוּ ֶא‬
ֶ֔ ‫וְ ָא ַמ ְר ִ ֣תּי ֲא ֵל‬
‫י־חיִ ל׃‬
ֽ ָ ‫֣יתי ֶא ְת ֶ֔כם ִחזְ ֖קוּ וִ ְהי֥ וּ ִל ְב ֵנ‬
ִ ‫ֹכי ִצִוּ‬
֙ ִ ‫ָ ֽאנ‬

‫ ֲה ֗לוֹא ִ ֤כּי‬is it not [elipsis: true/the fact] that (‫ כִּי‬completivo)

Absalom commanded his servants, "Watch/Be watchful! - when Amnon's heart is merry/good
with wine, and when I say to you, 'Strike Amnon,' APODOSI then kill/then you
[QAL, inf. const ‫]טוֹב‬
shall kill him [HIPHIL, weqatalti, ‫ ]מות‬him. Do not be afraid! [QAL direct jussive, 2 m.pl, ‫ ]ירא‬Is it not me
who commanded you (gave you this order)? Be strong/courageous [QAL imperative m.pl ‫ ]חזק‬and
be brave/valiant [QAL imperative m.pl ‫]היה‬." (lit. “Be sons of HAYIL)

Absalom diede quest'ordine ai suoi servi: «Badate/Guardate, quando Amnon avrà il cuore
allegro/buono [QAL, inf. const ‫ ]טוֹב‬dal vino e io vi dirò: "Colpite Amnon!", allora lo
uccederete/uccidetelo [HIPHIL, weqatalti, ‫]מות‬. Non abbiate paura! [QAL direct jussive, 2 m.pl, ‫ ]ירא‬Non
sono io che ve lo comando? Siate forti e comportatevi da uomini valorosi!».

2 Samuel 13:32

‫אמר ֲאד ִ ֹ֙ני ֵ ֣את‬


֤ ַ ֹ ‫אמר ַאל־י‬
ֶ ֹ ‫י־ד ִ ֜וד וַ ֗יּ‬
ָ ‫ן־שׁ ְמ ֙ ָעה ֲא ִ ֽח‬
ִ ‫וַ ַ֡יּ ַען יוֹנָ ָ ֣דב׀ ֶבּ‬
‫ל־פּי‬
֤ ִ ‫י־ע‬ ַ ‫ֽי־ה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ֵה ִ֔מיתוּ ִ ֽכּ‬
ַ ‫י־א ְמנ֥ וֹן ְל ַב ֖דּוֹ ֵ ֑מת ִ ֽכּ‬ ַ ‫ל־הנְּ ָע ִ ֤רים ְבּ ֵנ‬
ַ ‫ָכּ‬
‫יּוֹם ַענּ ֹ֔תוֹ ֵ ֖את ָתּ ָ ֥מר ֲאח ֹֽתוֹ׃‬
֙ ‫שׂוּמה ִמ‬
ָ֔ ‫לוֹם ָהיְ ָ ֣תה‬
֙ ‫ַא ְב ָשׁ‬

But Jonadab, the son of David's brother Shimeah, said, "Let not my lord say: “all the young
men the king's sons they have killed” because Amnon alone is dead. For [this thing: something
in ellipsis of f.sg] was set/settled [QAL passive ptc, f.sg ‫שׂים‬, but sometimes it behaves as if it were ‫ ]שׂום‬according
to (on the mouth of) Absalom from the day Amnon raped his sister Tamar.

Ma Ionadab, figlio di Simea, fratello di Davide, disse: «Non dica il mio signore: "Hanno
ucciso tutti i giovani, i figli del re!" perchè è morto solo Amnon; perché per Absalom era
cosa decisa fin dal giorno che Amnon gli violentò sua sorella Tamar.

2 Samuel 13:33

‫ל־בּ ֵנ֥י ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך‬


ְ ‫מר ָכּ‬
ֹ ֔ ‫בּוֹ ָדּ ָ ֣בר ֵלא‬
֙ ‫ל־ל‬
ִ ‫וְ ַע ָ֡תּה ַאל־ ָי ֵשׂ ֩ם ֲא ִ֙ד ֹני ַה ֶ ֤מּ ֶלְך ֶא‬
‫ם־א ְמנ֥ וֹן ְל ַב ֖דּוֹ ֵ ֽמת׃‬ ִ ‫ֵ ֑מתוּ ִ ֽכּ‬
ַ ‫י־א‬
25
Now therefore, do not let my lord the king take [QAL, direct jussive 3 m.sg ‫[ ]שׂים‬such] a thing to
heart, saying: “all the king's sons died”, only Amnon alone died."

E ora il re, mio signore, non si ponga in cuore una [tal] cosa dicendo: "Sono morti tutti i figli
del re!", perché solo Amnon è morto

2 Samuel 13:39 (ANGER as HEAT)

‫ל־א ְב ָשׁ ֑לוֹם‬
ַ ‫[ ָדִּו֣ד ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ָל ֵצ֖את ֶא‬Ewald (see in Driver) anger/heat ‫וַ ְתּ ַכל֙ ] ֲחמַת‬
‫י־מת׃‬
ֽ ֵ ‫ל־א ְמנ֖ וֹן ִ ֽכּ‬
ַ ‫ִ ֽכּי־נִ ַ ֥חם ַע‬

Then the [EWALD: heat/anger] of king David finished to go out against Absalom; for he was
[now] consoled [NIPHAL qatal 3m.sg ‫ ]נחם‬over the death of Amnon (lit. because he was consoled
that [complementary ‫ ]כִּי‬he had died).

Poi l'ira del re Davide contro Absalom si calmò (let., finì di uscire), perché Davide si era
consolato della morte di Amnon
(let., ‫י־מת‬
ֽ ֵ ‫[ ִ ֽכּ‬per il fatto] che lui era morto).

GEREMIA 4:4 ( ‫חמָה‬


ֵ ‘heat’/‘anger’ con il verbo ‫)יָצָא‬
(lo stesso Ger 21:12; poi Ger 23:19, 30:23)

‫וּב ֲע ָר ֙ה וְ ֵ ֣אין ְמ ַכ ֶ֔בּה‬


ָ ‫ֶפּן־ ֵתּ ֙ ֵצא ָכ ֵ֜אשׁ ֲח ָמ ִ֗תי‬
otherwise my wrath will go forth like fire, and burn, with no one to quench it
altrimenti la mia ira uscirà come un fuoco e brucierà, e non ci sarà chi l'estingue

2 Samuel 14:1

‫ל־א ְב ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬
ַ ‫י־לב ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ַע‬
֥ ֵ ‫ן־צ ֻר ָי֑ה ִ ֽכּ‬
ְ ‫יוֹאב ֶבּ‬
֣ ָ ‫וַ ֵיּ֖ ַ דע‬
Now Joab son of Zeruiah perceived that the king's heart/mind was on (longed for) Absalom.

Ioab, figlio di Zeruià, si era accorto che il cuore del re si volgeva verso Assalonne.

2 Samuel 14:2
26
‫יה‬
ָ ‫אמר ֠ ֵא ֶל‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וֹעה וַ יִּ ַ ֥קּח ִמ ָ ֖שּׁם ִא ָ ֣שּׁה ֲח ָכ ָ ֑מה וַ ֣יּ‬
ָ ‫יוֹא ֙ב ְתּ ֔ק‬
ָ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל֤ח‬
‫וּכי ֶ֔שׁ ֶמן וְ ָה ִ֕יית ְכּ ִא ָ֗שּׁה‬
֙ ִ ‫ל־תּ ֙ס‬ ֵ֗ ‫י־נ֣א ִב ְג ֵד‬
ָ ‫י־א ֶבל וְ ַא‬ ָ ‫י־נא וְ ִל ְב ִשׁ‬
ָ֞ ‫ִ ֽה ְת ַא ְבּ ִל‬
‫ל־מת׃‬
ֽ ֵ ‫ֶז֚ה יָ ִ ֣מים ַר ִ֔בּים ִמ ְת ַא ֶ ֖בּ ֶלת ַע‬

See JM §143a on the expression with ‫ ז ֶה‬in the temporal sense:


Ormai sono [ X anni/giorni] da quando . . .
Llevo [ X años/días] haciendo; hace X días/años que hago . . .

Joab sent [a word/a message] to Tekoa and brought from there a wise woman. He said to her,
"(Pretend to) be a mourner [HITHPAEL imper. f.sg ‫]אבל‬: put on [QAL, imper. f.sg ‫ ]לבשׁ‬mourning
garments, do not anoint yourself [QAL direct jussive 2f.sg. ‫ ]סוְך‬with oil, but be(have) [QAL, weqatalti,
2f.sg ‫ ]היה‬like a woman who has been mourning [HITPAEL, ptc, f.sg ‫ ]אבל‬many days for the dead,

Ioab fece venire da Tecoa (mandò a prendere a Tecoa) una donna saggia alla quale disse:
«Fingi di essere in lutto: mettiti una veste da lutto, non ti ungere con olio ma sii come una
donna che da molti giorni (da molto tempo) fa lutto su di un morto.

2 Samuel 14:3

‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִ ֖רים‬
ַ ‫יוֹאב ֶא‬
֛ ָ ‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וְ ִד ַ ֥בּ ְר ְתּ ֵא ָ ֖ליו ַכּ ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה וַ יָּ ֶ֧שׂם‬
ַ ‫את ֶא‬
֙ ‫וּב‬
ָ
‫יה׃‬
ָ ‫ְבּ ִ ֽפ‬
[figurative or nonliterary use of language; l’uso figurato o non letterale del linguaggio]

and then go [QAL, weqatalti, 2f.sg] to the king and speak [PIEL, weqatalti, 2f.sg] to him as follows."
And Joab put [QAL, wayy 3 m.sg ‫ ]שׂים‬the words into her mouth (i.e., Joab told her what to say).

poi va dal re e parlagli in questo modo». And Ioab le suggerì le parole da dire (let., mise le
parole nella bocca di lei).

2 Samuel 14:4

‫יה ַ ֖א ְר ָצה‬
ָ ‫ל־א ֶ ֛פּ‬
ַ ‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וַ ִתּ ֧ ֹפּל ַע‬
ַ ‫ֹאמר ָה ִא ָ ֤שּׁה ַה ְתּק ִֹע ֙ית ֶא‬
ֶ ‫ַו֠תּ‬
‫הוֹשׁ ָעה ַה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬
֥ ִ ‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ָ ֑תּחוּ וַ ֖תּ‬

So the woman of Tekoa said [LXX: came in] to the king, she fell on her face to the ground and
prostrated herself, and said, "Help [HIPHIL imper. m.sg ‫]ישׁע‬, O king!"

27
La donna di Tekoa disse al [LXX: entrò dal] re, si gettò con la faccia a terra, si prostrò e disse:
«O re, aiuta!»

καὶ εἰσῆλθεν ἡ γυνὴ ἡ Θεκωῖτις πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα καὶ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν
γῆν καὶ προσεκύνησεν αὐτῷ καὶ εἶπεν Σῶσον βασιλεῦ σῶσον

2 Samuel 14:6

‫יהם וַ יַּ ֧כּוֹ‬
֑ ֶ ‫יה ֙ם ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶ ֔דה וְ ֵ ֥אין ַמ ִ ֖צּיל ֵ ֽבּ ֵינ‬
ֶ ‫וּל ִשׁ ְפ ָ ֽח ְת ָ֙ך ְשׁ ֵנ֣י ָב ִ֔נים וַ יִּ נָּ ֤צוּ ְשׁ ֵנ‬
ְ
‫ת־ה ֶא ָ ֖חד וַ ָיּ ֶ֥מת א ֹֽתוֹ׃‬
ָ ‫ָה ֶא ָ ֛חד ֶא‬

Your servant had two sons, and they both had a quarrel [NIPHAL wayy 3m.pl ‫‘ נצה‬quarrel’] in the
field; there was no one to part/separate [HIPHIL ptc msg ‫ ]נצל‬them (lit., help between them) them, and
one struck [HIPHIL wayy 3msg ‫ נכה‬+ 3m.sg] the other and killed [HIPHIL wayy 3msg ‫ ]מות‬him.

La tua serva aveva due figli; i due litigarono (hanno litigato) nella campagna, e non c'era
nessuno che li separasse, e uno colpì l'altro, e l'uccise (uno ha colpito l'altro e l'ha ucciso.)

2 Samuel 14:7

‫רוּ‬
֙ ‫אמ‬
ְ ֹ ‫־שׁ ְפ ָח ֶ֗תָך וַ ֽיּ‬
ִ ‫ל־ה ִמּ ְשׁ ָפּ ָ֜חה ַעל‬
ַ ‫וְ ִהנֵּ ֩ה ָ ֙ק ָמה ָ ֽכ‬
‫שׁר ָה ָ ֔רג‬
֣ ֶ ‫הוּ ְבּ ֶנ ֶ֤פשׁ ָא ִח ֙יו ֲא‬
֙ ‫] ְתּ ִנ֣י ֶאת־ ַמ ֵכּ֣ה ָא ִ֗חיו וּנְ ִמ ֵ֙ת‬
[‫יּוֹרשׁ‬
֑ ֵ ‫ת־ה‬
ַ ‫וְ נַ ְשׁ ִ ֖מ ָידה ַגּ֣ם ֶא‬
֛ ִ ‫שׁר נִ ְשׁ ָ֔א ָרה ְל ִב ְל ִ ֧תּי ) ִשׂום־ ( ) ִשׂים־ ( ְל ִא‬
‫ישׁי‬ Qere Ketib ֣ ֶ ‫תּי ֲא‬
֙ ִ ‫ת־גּ ַח ְל‬
ֽ ַ ‫וְ ִכ ֗בּוּ ֶא‬
‫ל־פּ ֵנ֥י ָה ֲא ָד ָ ֽמה׃‬
ְ ‫וּשׁ ֵא ִ ֖רית ַע‬
ְ ‫ֵ ֥שׁם‬

[direct discourse/discorso diretto ]


Now the whole family has risen (turned) against your servant. They said,
['Give up the one who struck/killed [HIPHIL ptc m.sg, constr. state, ‫]נכה‬ his brother, so that
we may put him to death [HIPHIL indirect cohortative 1 c.pl ‫ מות‬+ 3m.sg] for [‫‘ ְבּ‬in exchange for’] the
life of his brother whom he killed/murdered, and destroy [HIPHIL indirect cohortative 1 c.pl
‫ ]שׁמד‬the heir [QAL act. ptc. m.sg ‫]ירשׁ‬ ]
as well.'
Thus they would quench [PIEL weqatalti 3c.pl. ‘put out’ ‫ ]כבה‬my one remaining ember
28
(lit., my ember that was left [NIPHAL qatal 3f.sg ‫)]שׁאר‬,
in order not to put/set/establish [QAL inf. const. ‫ ]שׂים‬for my husband (the) name and
(the) remnant [what remains] leave to my husband neither name nor remnant on the face of
the earth."

A smoother translation, which however that not reflect the semantic and syntactic complexity of Hebrew
sentence: They would put out the only burning coal I have left, leaving my husband neither name nor descendant
on the face of the earth.

Ora tutta la famiglia è insorta contro la tua serva, dicendo: "Dacci/consegnaci


l'uccisore di suo fratello, affinché lo facciamo morire per [in cambio di] la vita del
suo fratello che egli ha ucciso e facciamo scomparire anche l'erede". In questo
modo spegneranno/estingueranno [oppure: spegnerebbero] il tizzone che mi è
rimasto (lit., il mio tizzone che è rimasto), non lasciando a mio marito né nome né
discendenza (lit., per non stabilire al mio marito né nome né discendenza) sulla terra ».

Una traduzione “liscia” la quale però non riflette le comlessità semantica e sintattica dell’ebraico: senza lasciare
a mio marito né un nome né una posterità sulla [faccia della] terra.

‫גַּ ֶ֫ח ֶלת‬: (f.) ‫גַּ ַח ְל ִתּי‬: CLINES: coal, ember6; HALOT: glow of charcoal7
‫שׁ ֵא ִרית‬:
ְ 1. remainder, remnant, what is left: of a tree Is 4417; — 2. remnant (of a person or a people who
have been [or are to be] destroyed)

‫ָכּ ָבה‬ QAL yiqtol ‫יִ ְכ ֶבּה‬, ‫ִתּ ְכ ֶבּה‬ (vi) (= intransitive verb)
[figurative use/uso figurato]
go out/spegnersi [dynamic meaning]
be extinguished /essere spento [a result of the dynamic meaning or a resultative meaning; stative meaning]
fire Lv 65f; lamp 1Sam 33;
[figurative use/uso figurato] anger of God 2K 2217.

‫ִכּ ֶבּה‬ PIEL yiqtol ְ inf. const. ‫כּבּוֹת‬,


‫תּ ַכ ֶבּה‬, ַ ‫בּוֹתָך‬ ַ ptc. ‫ְמ ַכ ֶבּה‬
ְ ‫;כּ‬ (vt) (= transitive verb) [dynamic meaning]
extinguish, put out/spegnere obj. lamp (metaph. of king) 2S 2117; —
[figurative use/uso figurato]
quench/spegnere (metaph., obj. love) SS 87; w®°ên m®kabbeh without
[figurative use/uso figurato]
anyone to quench (them) Is 131

6
ember a piece of wood or coal, etc. which continues to burn after a fire has no more flames:
We sat by the glowing/dying embers of the fire.
charcoal /ˈtʃɑː.kəʊl/ a hard black substance similar to coal which can be used as fuel or, in the form of sticks, as something to draw with:
charcoal for the barbecue, I prefer sketching in charcoal to pencil, a charcoal drawing
 

29
1 Sam 3:3 [QAL, literal use/uso letterale (perchè la lampada di Dio non era ancora elettrica)]

‫ר־שׁם ֲא ֥רוֹן‬
֖ ָ ‫הוה ֲא ֶשׁ‬
֔ ָ ְ‫מוּאל שׁ ֵֹכ֑ב ְבּ ֵה ַיכ֣ל י‬
֖ ֵ ‫וּשׁ‬
ְ ‫ים ֶ ֣ט ֶרם יִ ְכ ֶ֔בּה‬
֙ ‫ֹלה‬
ִ ‫וְ ֵנ֤ר ֱא‬
‫ֹלהים׃‬
ֽ ִ ‫ֱא‬

…and the lamp of God had not yet gone out, and Samuel was lying down in the temple of the
LORD, where the ark of God was.
... e la lampada di Dio non si era ancora spenta e Samuele era coricato nel tempio del
SIGNORE dove si trovava l'arca di Dio.

Lev 6:5 [QAL, literal use]

‫ד־בּוֹ ֣ל ֹא ִת ְכ ֶ֔בּה‬
֙ ‫ל־ה ִמּזְ ֵ ֤בּ ַח ֽתּ ַוּק‬
ַ ‫וְ ָה ֵ֙אשׁ ַע‬
Il fuoco sarà mantenuto acceso sull'altare. Non si potrà spegnere.
The fire on the altar must be kept burning. It must not go out.

2 Re 22:17 [QAL, figurative use/uso figurato: anger described as if it were a fire]

‫וְ נִ ְצּ ָ ֧תה ֲח ָמ ִ ֛תי ַבּ ָמּ ֥קוֹם ַה ֶזּ֖ה וְ ֥ל ֹא ִת ְכ ֶ ֽבּה׃‬


My anger/wrath will burn against this place, and it will not be quenched (it will not go out).
La mia rabbia/ira si accenderà contro questo luogo, e non si spegnerà.

2 Sam 21:17
‫ת־נ֥ר יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬
ֵ ‫א־ת ֙ ֵצא ֤עוֹד ִא ָ֙תּ ֙נוּ ַל ִמּ ְל ָח ָ֔מה וְ ֥ל ֹא ְת ַכ ֶ ֖בּה ֶא‬
ֵ ֹ‫ל‬
"You shall not go out with us to battle any longer, so that you do not quench the lamp of
Israel.”
“Non uscirai più con noi in battaglia, perché tu non estingua la lampada d'Israele».

Prov 26:20
‫ה־אשׁ‬
ֵ ‫ְבּ ֶ ֣א ֶפס ֵ ֭ע ִצים ִתּ ְכ ֶבּ‬
Without wood, the fire goes out.
Senza la legna, il fuoco si spegne.

Song of Solomon 8:7 [PIEL, figurative use/uso figurato]

‫ת־ה ַא ֲה ָ֔בה‬
ֽ ָ ‫וּכ ֙לוּ ְל ַכ ֣בּוֹת ֶא‬
ְ ֽ‫ַ ֣מיִ ם ַר ִ֗בּים ֤ל ֹא י‬
Many waters will not be able to quench love.

30
Molte acque non potranno spegnere l'amore.

2 Cronache 29:7 [PIEL, literal use]

‫ת־הנֵּ ֔רוֹת‬
ַ ‫בּוּ ֶא‬
֙ ‫אוּלם וַ יְ ַכ‬
ָ ֗ ‫ַ ֣גּם ָ ֽסגְ ֞רוּ ַדּ ְל ֣תוֹת ָה‬
They also shut the doors of the portico and put out the lamps.
Hanno chiuso le porte del portico e hanno spento le lampade.

Geremia 17:27 [QAL, literal use]

‫רוּשׁ ַ ֖לםִ וְ ֥ל ֹא ִת ְכ ֶ ֽבּה‬


ָ ְ‫יה וְ ָ ֽא ְכ ָל֛ה ַא ְר ְמנ֥ וֹת י‬
ָ ‫וְ ִה ַ ֧צּ ִתּי ֵ ֣אשׁ ִבּ ְשׁ ָע ֶ ֗ר‬
I will kindle a fire in its gates and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem and shall not go
out. (i.e., it will be an unquenchable fire)
Io accenderò un fuoco alle sue porte, ed esso divorerà i palazzi di Gerusalemme, e non si
estinguerà"

SPEGNERE
1. [linguaggio letterale]. (far cessare di ardere/bruciare) z/gasić: incendio, fuoco, sigaretta,
fiammifero; spegnere le candelle con un soffio;
2. [linguaggio figurato o non letterale] (far cessare; render inattivo) spegnere la luce ‘to turn off
the light’; spegnere la televisione/la radio; spegnere la sete ugasić pragnienie

SPEGNERSI
[uso letterale] il fuoco si è spento; la lampada [p.e., a petrolio, a gas] si è spenta
[uso figurato] il motore della mia macchina si spegne facilmente, la lampada [elettrica!!] si è spenta,
8

[uso figurato] (un eufemismo per morire): qualcuno si è spento inaspettatamente

ESTINGUERE
[uso letterale] estinguere un incendio
[uso figurato: cancellare, annullare, eliminare] estinguere un conto, un debito; estinguere la sete; estinguere
un ricordo

QUENCH

[literal use] (vt) to cause a fire to stop burning: The flames were quenched by heavy rain.

[figurative or nonliteral use] to quench one’s thirst;


8
 Questo uso è figurato dal punto di vista diacronico, però questo uso è il più comune oggi, quindi pochi 
madrelingua considerebbero questo significato, cioè spegnere la luca/la TV/il motore/la radio, come un uso 
figurato di SPEGNERE. 

31
EXTINGUISH
extinguish /ɪkˈstɪŋ.gwɪʃ/ verb [ T ] FIRE/LIGHT
[literal use] (vt) to stop a fire burning: It took the firefighters several hours to extinguish the flames.
Please extinguish all cigarettes.
[figurative use] Nothing could extinguish his love for her.

2 Samuel 14:8

‫יתְך וַ ֲא ִנ֖י ֲא ַצֶוּ֥ה ָע ָ ֽליִ ְך׃‬


֑ ֵ ‫ל־ה ִא ָ ֖שּׁה ְל ִ ֣כי ְל ֵב‬
ָ ‫אמר ַה ֶ ֛מּ ֶלְך ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֧יּ‬

Then the king said to the woman, "Go to your house, and I will give orders concerning you."

Il re disse alla donna: «Va' a casa tua; io darò ordini a tuo riguardo».

2 Samuel 14:9

‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ָע ֞ ַלי ֲאד ִ ֹ֥ני ַה ֶ ֛מּ ֶלְך ֶה ָעוֹ֖ ן‬


ַ ‫קוֹע ֙ית ֶא‬
ִ ‫אמר ָה ִא ָ ֤שּׁה ַה ְתּ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֜תּ‬
‫ל־בּ֣ית ָא ִ ֑בי וְ ַה ֶ ֥מּ ֶלְך וְ ִכ ְס ֖אוֹ נָ ִ ֽ קי׃‬
ֵ ‫וְ ַע‬

The woman of Tekoa said to the king, "On me be the guilt, my lord the king, and on my
father's house; let the king and his throne be guiltless/without guilt."

La donna di Tecoa disse al re: «O re mio signore, su di me [sia/cada] la colpa e sulla casa di
mio padre, ma il re e il suo trono siano innocenti/senza copla».

2 Samuel 14:10

‫אתוֹ ֵא ֔ ַלי וְ ֽל ֹא־י ִ ֹ֥סיף ֖עוֹד ָל ַג ַ֥עת ָ ֽבְּך׃‬


֣ ‫אמר ַה ֶ ֑מּ ֶלְך ַ ֽה ְמ ַד ֵ ֤בּר ֵא ַ ֙ליִ ְ֙ך ַ ֽו ֲה ֵב‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֖יּ‬
‫ ַ ֽה ְמ ַד ֵ ֤בּר ֵא ַ ֙ליִ ְ֙ך‬The direct object of the verb ‫[ בוא‬HIPHIL, weqatalti, 2f.sg + suff. 3 m.sg] is anticipated at
the so-called topic position9 (known as casus pendens in traditional Hebrew grammars), but it
is also repeated as a suffix.

The king said, "The one who says/will say [it] to you [PIEL, ptc, m.sg, ‫]דבר‬, bring him to me, and he
will not touch/bother [QAL, infin. const. with ‫ ְל‬, ‫‘ נגע ְבּ‬touch; bother, hurt, make harm’] you any longer."

9
 Si legga sulla frase topicalizzante in Grazia Basile et al., Linguistica Generale , Carocci 2010:  §7.1 (p. 301‐302). 
Secondo me, questa sintassi ebraica assomiglia la dislocazione a sinistra §7.3 (p. 303  ) . 

32
(or: so that he may not bother you any more)

Disse il re: «Colui che te ne parla/parlerà, conducilo da me, e non ti toccherà più
(oppure: affinchè non ti tocchi più/non ti dia fastidio/infastidisca più).

2 Samuel 14:11

[Q‫( ] ֵמ ַה ְר ַ֞בּת‬K‫ֹלהיָך ) ֵמ ַה ְר ַבּית‬


ֶ֗ ‫הו֣ה ֱא‬
ָ ְ‫ֹאמר֩ יִ זְ ָכּר־נָ֙ א ַה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ֶאת־י‬
ֶ ‫וַ תּ‬
‫הוה ִאם־יִ ֛ ֹפּל‬
ָ֔ ְ‫אמ ֙ר ַחי־י‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ת־בּ ִנ֑י ֙ ַויּ‬
ְ ‫גּ ֵ ֹ֤אל ַה ָדּ ֙ם ְל ַשׁ ֵ֔חת וְ ֥ל ֹא יַ ְשׁ ִ ֖מידוּ ֶא‬
‫ִמ ַשּׂ ֲע ַ ֥רת ְבּ ֵנ֖ ְך ָ ֽא ְר ָצה׃‬
It seems to me best to follow Driver’s suggestion and choose ‫ מִן( מֵ ה ְַרבּוֹת‬+ HIPH, inf. const.
‫ רבה‬auxiliary ‘do a lot’) rather than the Masoretic Qere.

‫ ה ְִרבָּה‬auxiliary ‘do a lot’/verbo ausiliare: ‘fare molto’


ַ cs. ‫שׂ ֲע ַרת‬,
‫שׂ ֲע ָרה‬: ַ sf. ‫שׂ ֲע ָרתוֹ‬:
ַ (a single) hair

Then she said, "May the king keep the LORD your God in mind,
preventing the avenger of blood from adding to the destruction
[lit.: from/do a lot (here: ‘do more’)/the avenger of blood/to destroy [PIEL inf const. ‫ שׁחת‬with ‫] ְל‬
preventing the avenger of blood from doing more destuction/from destructing more
so that they do not exterminate my son." He said, "As the LORD lives, not one hair of your
son shall fall to the ground."

Allora lei disse: «Che il re tenga in mente il SIGNORE, tuo Dio, affinché il vendicatore del
sangue non aumenti la distruzione/rovina e non facciano scomparire il mio figlio». Egli disse:
«Per la vita del Signore, neppure un capello di tuo figlio cadrà a terra!».

2 Samuel 14:12

‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ל־אד ִ ֹ֥ני ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ָדּ ָ ֑בר וַ ֖יּ‬
ֲ ‫ר־נ֧א ִשׁ ְפ ָח ְתָך֛ ֶא‬
ָ ‫אמ ֙ר ָ ֽה ִא ָ֔שּׁה ְתּ ַד ֶבּ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙תּ‬
‫ַדּ ֵ ֽבּ ִרי׃‬
Then the woman said, "Let your servant speak a word to my lord the king." He said, "Speak."

La donna soggiunse: «Permetti che la tua serva rivolga al mio signore il re una parola!». Egli
rispose: «Parla!».

2 Samuel 14:13

33
‫ֹלהים וּ ִמ ַדּ ֵ֙בּר‬
֑ ִ ‫ל־עם ֱא‬
֣ ַ ‫אמ ֙ר ָ ֽה ִא ָ֔שּׁה וְ ָל ָ֧מּה ָח ַ ֛שׁ ְב ָתּה ָכּ ֖ז ֹאת ַע‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙תּ‬
‫ַה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ַה ָדּ ָ ֤בר ַהזֶּ ֙ה ְכּ ָא ֵ֔שׁם ְל ִב ְל ִ ֛תּי ָה ִ ֥שׁיב ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ֶ ֽאת־נִ ְדּ ֽחוֹ׃‬

ָ pl. ‫א ֵשׁ ִמים‬:
‫א ֵשׁם‬: ֲ guilty
‫נדח‬: nif.: pf. ‫נִ ְדּ ָחה‬, ‫ ;נִ ַדּ ְח ָתּ‬pt. ‫נִ ָדּח‬, sf. ‫נִ ְדּחוֹ‬, ‫נִ ַדּ ֲחָך‬, ‫ נִ ַדּ ֲח ֶכם‬be banished, an outcast 2S 1413f

The woman said, "Why then have you planned such a thing against the people of God? - For
in giving this decision (lit., from saying this thing/word) the king convicts himself (lit., is like
one guilty) - inasmuch as the king does not bring back his banished one [NIPHAL, ptc, m.sg. ‫ נדח‬+
suff 3m.sg].
(by not bringing back the king [subject] his banished one [direct object]).

Allora la donna disse: «Perché hai pensato una cosa come questa contro il popolo di Dio? Il
re, pronunciando questa parola/cosa/sentenza, è come un colpevole di non far ritornare il suo
esule.

2 Samuel 14:14

‫י־מוֹת נָ ֔מוּת וְ ַכ ַ֙מּיִ ֙ם ַהנִּ גָּ ִ ֣רים ַ֔א ְר ָצה ֲא ֶ ֖שׁר ֣ל ֹא יֵ ָא ֵ ֑ספוּ וְ ֽל ֹא־יִ ָ ֤שּׂא‬
֣ ‫ִכּ‬
‫ ְל ִב ְל ִ ֛תּי יִ ַ ֥דּח ִמ ֶ ֖מּנּוּ נִ ָ ֽדּח׃‬10 ‫ֹלה ֙ים ֶ֔נ ֶפשׁ וְ ָח ַשׁ ֙ב ַ ֽמ ֲח ָשׁ ֔בוֹת‬
ִ ‫ֱא‬
‫נגר‬: nif.: qatal ‫ ;נִ גְּ ָרה‬ptc. ‫נִ גָּ ִרים‬, flow, gush forth: of water on ground 2S 1414; of eye La 349; subj.
hand Ps 773

We will surely die – just like water spilled [NIPHAL ptc m.pl ‫ ]נגר‬on the ground, which cannot be
gathered up [NIPHAL, yiqtol, 3m.pl ‫]אסף‬. But God does not take away [QAL, yiqtol, 3m.sg ‫ ]נשׂא‬a life; he
devises [QAL, weqatalti, 3m.sg ‫ ]חשׁב‬plans so that an outcast [NIPHAL, ptc, m.sg. ‫ ]נדח‬is not banished [NIPHAL
yiqtol 3m.sg. ‫‘ דחח‬be pushed’; here: ‘be cast out’ (= ‫ דחה‬see HALOT p. 218)] from him.

Noi dobbiamo morire e siamo come acqua versata in terra che non si può più raccogliere. Ma
Dio non toglie la vita; fa/escogita i piani/progetti affinchè il fuggitivo non rimanga/sia
bandito [lontano] da lui.

2 Samuel 14:15

10
 The negative marker  ִ‫ ְל ִבלְּת‬ is usually used with infinitives construct, but occasionally also with yiqtols, 
functioning as a purpose sobordinating conjunction:  so that . . . not. . . 

34
‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶ֔זּה ִ ֥כּי ֵי ְֽ ר ֻ ֖א ִני‬
ַ ‫ל־ה ֶ ֤מּ ֶלְך ֲאד ִ ֹ֙ני ֶא‬
ַ ‫אתי ְל ַד ֵ֙בּר ֶא‬
ִ ‫ר־בּ‬
ָ֜ ‫ְו ַ֠ע ָתּה ֲא ֶשׁ‬
‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך אוּ ַל֛י יַ ֲע ֶ ֥שׂה ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך‬ ָ ‫אמר ִשׁ ְפ ָ ֽח ְת ָ֙ך ֲא ַד ְבּ ָר‬
ַ ‫ה־נּ֣א ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ָה ָ ֑עם וַ ֤תּ‬
‫ת־דּ ַ ֥בר ֲא ָמ ֽתוֹ׃‬
ְ ‫ֶא‬

It is now that I have come to say this thing/word to my lord the king because the people have
made me afraid [PIEL qatal11 3c.pl ‫ ירא‬+ suff. 1c.sg]; your servant said [to herself], 'I will speak [PIEL,
direct cohortative, ‫ ]דבר‬to the king; perhaps the king will do [according to] the word/request of his
servant.

È proprio adesso che io sono venuta a dire al re mio signore questa cosa, perché il popolo mi
ha fatto paura e la tua serva ha detto: Voglio parlare al re; forse il re farà/eseguirà la
richiesta/parola della sua serva!

2 Samuel 14:17

‫נוּחה ִ ֣כּי׀ ְכּ ַמ ְל ַ ֣אְך‬


֑ ָ ‫ר־אד ִ ֹ֥ני ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ִל ְמ‬
ֲ ‫ה־נּ֛א ְדּ ַב‬
ָ ֶ‫אמ ֙ר ִשׁ ְפ ָ ֣ח ְת ָ֔ך יִ ְֽהי‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙תּ‬
‫ֹלהיָך יְ ִ ֥הי‬ ָ ‫ֹלהים ֵכּ֣ן ֲאד ִֹנ֤י ַה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ִל ְשׁ ֙מ ֹ ַ ֙ע ַה ֣טּוֹב וְ ָה ָ ֔רע ַ ֽו‬
֖ ֶ ‫יהו֥ה ֱא‬ ִ֗ ‫ָה ֱא‬
‫ִע ָ ֽמְּך׃‬

Your servant thought/said [to herself], 'May the word of my lord the king set [QAL, direct jussive12, 3
m.sg ‫( ]היה‬me) at rest' (lit., let the word of my lord the king become a rest] for my lord the king
is like the angel of God, [able] to understand/discern (lit., hear) good and evil. May the LORD
your God be [QAL, direct jussive, 3 m.sg ‫ ]היה‬with you.' "

La tua serva diceva: Possa la parola del re, mio signore, darmi tranquillità! Poichè il re, mio
signore, è come un angelo di Dio [capace di] discernere/capire il bene dal male. Il SIGNORE, il
tuo Dio, sia con te».

2 Samuel 14:18

11
 It is erroneously parsed in BW8, as “imperfect.” 
12
 Morphologically, the form is unambiguously yiqtol ‫י ִ ְהי ֶה‬, however the volitive particle ‫נָא‬ indicates that ‫י ִ ְהי ֶה‬ is 
used to express a direct volitive. I will discuss this apparent confusion later on. The form ‫יְהִי‬ is morphologically 
jussive and is used only to express volitive function, whereas the forms like ‫י ִ ְהי ֶה‬, that is, yiqtol forms, are often
used to express volitive function as well. The presence of the volitive particle ‫ נָא‬unequivocally indicates direct
volitive mood. 

35
‫ל־ה ִא ָ֔שּׁה ַאל־נָ֙ א ְת ַכ ֲח ִ ֤די ִמ ֶ֙מּ ִ ֙נּי ָדּ ָ֔בר ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר‬
֣ ָ ‫אמ ֙ר ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ַיּ ַ֣ען ַה ֶ֗מּ ֶלְך ֙ ַויּ‬
ָ ‫אמ ֙ר ָ ֽה ִא ָ֔שּׁה יְ ַד ֶבּ‬
‫ר־נ֖א ֲאד ִ ֹ֥ני ַה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ָאנ ִ ֹ֖כי שׁ ֵ ֹ֣אל א ָ ֹ֑תְך וַ ֙תּ‬

Then the king answered the woman, "Do not hide/withhold [PIEL, direct jussive, 2f.sg. ‫‘ כחד‬hide’
from me anything I am about to ask you." The woman said, "Let my lord the king
nascondere]
speak."

Il re rispose e disse alla donna: “Non nascondermi quello che io ti sto per
domandare/chiedere”. La donna disse: «Parli pure il re, mio signore».

2 Samuel 14:19

‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ל־ז ֹאת וַ ַ ֣תּ ַען ָה ִא ָ ֣שּׁה וַ ֡תּ‬
֑ ‫יוֹאב ִא ָ ֖תְּך ְבּ ָכ‬
֛ ָ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ֲהַי֥ד‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
ִ ‫ם־אשׁ ְל ֵה ִ ֣מין וּ ְל ַה ְשׂ ִ֗מיל ִמ ֤ ֹכּל ֲא ֶשׁ‬
‫ר־דּ ֶבּ ֙ר‬ ֣ ִ ‫ֵ ֽחי־נַ ְפ ְשָׁך֩ ֲאד ִ֙ ֹני ַה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ִא‬
‫יוֹא ֙ב ֣הוּא ִצ ָ ֔וּ ִני וְ ֗הוּא ָ ֚שׂם ְבּ ִ ֣פי ִשׁ ְפ ָ ֽח ְת ָ֔ך ֵ ֥את‬
ָ ֤‫י־ע ְב ְדָּך‬
ַ ‫ֲאד ִֹנ֣י ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ִ ֽכּ‬
‫ל־ה ְדּ ָב ִ ֖רים ָה ֵ ֽא ֶלּה׃‬
ַ ‫ָכּ‬
‫ ְל ַה ְשׂ ִ֗מיל‬is a verb formed out of the noun ‫‘ שְׂמא ֹל‬left hand.’ Also: ‫ ְל ַהשְׂמאִיל‬. The manuscripts
offer various spelling of ‫א‬, with it or without.

The king said, "Is the hand of Joab with you in all this?" The woman answered and said, "As
surely as you live, my lord the king, no one can turn to the right [HIPHIL, inf. const. ‫‘ ימן‬stay/go to the
right’] or turn to the left [HIPHIL, inf. const. ‫‘ שׂמאל‬go to the left’] from anything my lord the king says. For
it was your servant Joab who commanded/instructed me, it was he who put all these words
into the mouth of your servant.

Disse il re: «La mano di Ioab non è forse con te in tutto questo?». La donna rispose e disse:
«Per la vita tua, o re, mio signore, non si può andare/girare a destra né andare/girare a
sinistra da tutto quello che ha detto il re, mio signore. Poichè il tuo servo Ioab è colui che ha
posto in bocca alla tua serva tutte queste parole.

2 Samuel 14:20

‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה‬


ַ ‫יוֹאב ֶא‬
֖ ָ ֥‫ת־פּ ֵנ֣י ַה ָדּ ָ֔בר ָע ָ ֛שׂה ַע ְב ְדָּך‬
ְ ‫ְל ַב ֲע ֤בוּר ַס ֵבּ ֙ב ֶא‬
‫ל־א ֶ ֥שׁר ָבּ ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬
ֲ ‫ת־כּ‬ ִ֔ ‫וַ אד ִֹנ֣י ָח ָ֗כם ְכּ ָח ְכ ַמ ֙ת ַמ ְל ַ ֣אְך ָה ֱא‬
ָ ‫ֹלהים ָל ַ ֖ד ַעת ֶ ֽא‬

36
In order to change [PIEL, inf. const. ‫ ]סבב‬the course of affairs (lit., the face of the thing) your
servant Joab did this. But my lord has wisdom like the wisdom of the angel of God to know
all things that are on the earth."

Il tuo servo Ioab ha fatto così per dare un altro aspetto alla vicenda; ma il mio signore è
saggio come un angelo di Dio per capire tutto quello che vi è sulla terra».

2 Samuel 14:21

‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה[ וְ ֵלְ֛ך‬


ַ ‫ה־נ֥א ] ָע ִ ֖שׂ ִיתי ֶא‬
ָ ֵ‫ל־יוֹאב ִהנּ‬
ָ֔ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫ת־א ְב ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬
ַ ‫ת־ה ַנּ ַ֖ער ֶא‬
ַ ‫ָה ֵ ֥שׁב ֶא‬
About the ‫ ִהנֵּ ה־נָ א‬that is in the following clause followed by imperatives, see Lambdin §136.
The king said to Joab, "I WILL [QAL, qatal, 1c.sg ‫( עשׂה‬in the sense: it is done/it is decided then)] do it/this thing.
Go [QAL imperative ‫]הלְך‬, bring back [HIPHIL imperative ‫ ]שׁוב‬the young man Absalom."

Allora il re disse a Ioab: «Ecco dunque, ho deciso la questione: va', fa' ritornare il giovane
Absalom».

2 Samuel 14:22

‫יוֹאב‬
ָ֡ ‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ת־ה ֶ ֑מּ ֶלְך וַ ֣יּ‬
ַ ‫ל־פּ ָנ֥יו ַ ֛א ְר ָצה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ ֖תּחוּ וַ יְ ָ ֣ב ֶרְך ֶא‬
ָ ‫יוֹאב ֶא‬
ָ֙ ‫וַ יִּ ֹפּ ֩ל‬
ָ ‫אתי ֵ ֤חן ְבּ ֵע ֶ֙ינ ֙יָך ֲאד ִֹנ֣י ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ֲא ֶשׁר‬
‫־ע ָ ֥שׂה‬ ִ ‫י־מ ֙ ָצ‬
ָ ‫יּוֹם יָ ַ ֙דע ַע ְב ְדּ ָ֜ך ִכּ‬
֩ ‫ַה‬
‫[׃‬Qere ‫ת־דּ ַ ֥בר ] ַע ְב ֶ ֽדָּך‬
ְ ‫ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ֶא‬

Joab fell with his face to the ground and prostrated himself, and he blessed the king. Joab
said, "Today your servant knows that he has found favor in your eyes, my lord the king, in
that the king has granted the request of his servant."

Ioab si gettò con la faccia a terra, si prostrò, benedisse il re e disse: «Oggi il tuo servo
riconosce che ha trovato grazia agli occhi tuoi, o re, mio signore; poiché il re ha fatto quello
che il suo servo gli ha chiesto».

2 Samuel 14:23

‫רוּשׁ ָ ֽלםִ׃‬
ָ ְ‫ת־א ְב ָשׁ ֖לוֹם י‬
ַ ‫יוֹאב וַ ֵיּ ֶ֣לְך ְגּ ֑שׁ ָוּרה וַ יָּ ֵ ֥בא ֶא‬
֖ ָ ‫וַ ָיּ ָ֥ קם‬
Then Joab went to Geshur, and brought Absalom to Jerusalem.

37
Ioab dunque partì, andò a Ghesur e fece tornare Absalom a Gerusalemme.

2 Samuel 14:24

‫לוֹם‬
֙ ‫סּב ַא ְב ָשׁ‬
ֹ ֤ ִ‫וּפ ַנ֖י ֣ל ֹא יִ ְר ֶ ֑אה וַ יּ‬
ָ ‫יתוֹ‬
֔ ‫ל־בּ‬
ֵ ‫סּב ֶא‬
ֹ ֣ ִ‫אמר ַה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך י‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫וּפ ֵנ֥י ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ֥ל ֹא ָר ָ ֽאה׃‬
ְ ‫יתוֹ‬
֔ ‫ל־בּ‬
ֵ ‫ֶא‬

The king said, "Let him go [QAL, direct jussive, 3m.sg ‫ ]סבב‬to his own house; he shall not see my
face." So Absalom went [QAL, wayy. 3m.sg ‫ ]סבב‬to his own house, and he did not see the face of
the king.

Ma il re disse: «Si rivolga nella sua casa, non potrà vedere il mio volto!». Absalom andò nella
sua casa e non vide la faccia del re.

2 Samuel 14:26

‫י־כ ֵ ֥בד‬ ֣ ֶ ‫חוֹ ֶאת־רֹאשׁוֹ ]ְ ֽו ָ֠היָ ה ִמ ֵ ֙קּץ יָ ִ ֤מים ַליָּ ִמ ֙ים ֲא‬
ָ ‫שׁר יְ ַג ֔ ֵלּ ַח ִ ֽכּ‬ ֘ ‫וּֽ ְב ַג ְלּ‬

‫אתיִ ם ְשׁ ָק ִ ֖לים ְבּ ֶ ֥א ֶבן ַה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬


֥ ַ ‫אשׁוֹ ָמ‬ ְ ‫ָע ָ ֖ליו וְ ִג ְלּ ֑חוֹ[ וְ ָשׁ ַקל֙ ֶא‬
֔ ֹ ‫ת־שׂ ַע֣ר ר‬

JM 125v (already in Joüon’s 1923 edition): A subject of a nominal clause can be turned into a direct
object with a number of verbs (e.g., ‫ ָעשָׂה‬, ‫ק ָָרא‬, ‫ ָבּנָה‬, ‫ )יָצַר‬that make constructions with two
objects, roughly in the semse: “MAKE sth/sb INTO sth/sb.”

ֶ n.f. STONE 1. single stone Gn 2811; — 2. coll. stones Jb 283; — 3. precious stone Ex 257; — 6. weight: °eben
‫א ֶבן‬:
hammelek king’s weight 2S 1426;

And when he shaved [PIEL, inf. const. ‫ גלח‬+ 3m.sg] his head

[and it was/happened every year that he would shave [it]


(lit., at the end of, i.e., after/dopo…)

[PIEL, yiqtol, 3m.sg ‫גלח‬shave/radere] because it was heavy on him and so he would shave it

[PIEL, weqatalti + suff. 3m.sg] ]

38
he would weight [QAL,weqatalti, 3m.sg. ‫‘ שׁקל‬weigh’] the hair of his head: [and its weight was
always13] two hundred shekels by the king's weight/standard.

E nel radere il suo capo/la sua testa [il sintagma preposizionale topicalizzato con l’infinito costrutto] (=
Quando radeva il suo capo)
[e era/succedeva ogni anno che radeva (il capo/la testa) perché [la capigliatura gli] era
pesante e la radeva]
egli pesava la capigliatura della sua testa: (ogni volta/sempre erano) duecento sicli a
peso del re/al peso regio.

2 Samuel 14:30

‫לוֹ־שׁם ְשׂע ִ ֹ֔רים ְל ֖כוּ‬


ָ֣ ְ‫יוֹאב ֶאל־יָ ִד֙י ו‬
֤ ָ ‫ל־ע ָב ָ ֜דיו ְראוּ֩ ֶח ְל ַ ֙קת‬
ֲ ‫אמר ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬
ַ ‫[ ָב ֵ ֑אשׁ וַ יַּ ִ֜צּתוּ ַע ְב ֵ ֧די ַא ְב ָשׁ ֛לוֹם ֶא‬Q ‫וּה‬
‫ת־ה ֶח ְל  ָ ֖קה‬ ֣ ‫( ]וְ ַה ִצּ‬K ‫יה‬
ָ ‫ית‬ ָ ‫)וְ ַהו ִצ ִתּ‬
‫ָבּ ֵ ֽאשׁ׃‬

‫ יצת‬HIPHIL ‘set on fire’: This verb often behaves morphologically in hiphil as if it were first NUN,
rather than first YOD.14 (See also GKC §71; HALOT: ‫ יצת‬- forms like those of ‫)נצת‬

The ketib is ‫ וְהוֹצִתִּ י ָה‬HIPHIL weqatalti 1c.sg ‫ יצת‬+ suff. 3f.sg. The qere is vocalized as if it were
HIPHIL imperative m.pl from FIRST NUN (or ‫ נצת‬root), rather than FIRST YOD (or ‫יצת‬
root).

Then he said to his servants, "Look, Joab's field is next to mine, and he has barley there; go
and KETIB I will set it on fire [Ketib: HIPHIL weqatalti c.sg ‫ יצת‬+ suff. 3f.sg] (QERE: and set it on fire!
HIPHIL imper m.pl + suff. 3f.sg]." So Absalom's servants set the field on fire [HIPHIL wayy. 3m.pl ‫]יצת‬.

Allora Absalom disse ai suoi servi: «Guardate! Il campo di Ioab è vicino al mio e c'è
dell'orzo; andate, KETIB io lo incendierò (QERE: incendiatelo/dategli fuoco!)» I servi di
Absalom incendiarono il campo.

2 Samuel 14:32

13
 The word ‘always’ has no explicit equivalent in Hebrew but I have added it to emphasize the frequentative‐
habitual aspect of the events described. 

14
If it behaved as expected, its hiphil imperatives were: qatal ‫הוֹצִית‬/yiqtol ‫יוֹצִית‬/ imperative:
‫הוֹצֵת‬/‫הוֹ ִ֫ציתִ י‬/‫הוֹ ִ֫ציתוּ‬/‫הוֹ ֵ֫צתְ נָה‬.
 

39
‫מר ֣בּ ֹא ֠ ֵהנָּ ה‬
ֹ ֡ ‫ל־יוֹאב ִה ֵנּ֣ה ָשׁ ַל ְ֣ח ִתּי ֵא ֶל֣יָך׀ ֵלא‬
ָ֡ ‫אמר ַא ְב ָשׁ ֣לוֹם ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
‫עד‬
ֹ ֣ ‫אתי ִמ ְגּ ֔שׁוּר ֥טוֹב ִ ֖לי‬
֙ ִ ‫מר ָל ָ֤מּה ָ֙בּ‬ ַ ‫וְ ֶא ְשׁ ְל ָח ֩ה א ְֹת ָ֙ך ֶא‬
ֹ ֗ ‫ל־ה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ֵלא‬
‫שׁ־בּי ָעוֹ֖ ן וֶ ֱה ִמ ָ ֽת ִני׃‬
֥ ִ ‫י־שׁם וְ ַע ָ֗תּה ֶא ְר ֶא ֙ה ְפּ ֵנ֣י ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וְ ִאם־ ֶי‬
֑ ָ ‫ֲא ִנ‬

Absalom answered Joab, "Look, I sent [word/a messenger] to you: Come [QAL imperative] here
that I may send you to the king [with the question] , 'Why have I come from Geshur? It would be
better for me to be there still.' Now I want to see the king's face; if there is guilt in me, let him
put me to death! (or: he shall/may put me to death) [HIPHIL, weqatalti, 3m.sg ‫ מות‬+ 1c.sg]."

Absalom rispose a Ioab: «Io ti avevo mandato a dire: Vieni qua, perché possa mandarti dal re
[con la domanda-per dirgli]: "Perché sono tornato da Ghesur? Sarebbe meglio per me se io fossi
ancora là!" Ora voglio vedere il volto del re e se c'è in me una colpa, mi faccia morire!».

2 Samuel 15:2

‫ל־י֖ד ֶ ֣דּ ֶרְך ַה ָ ֑שּׁ ַער‬


ַ ‫וְ ִה ְשׁ ִכּ ֙ים ַא ְב ָשׁ ֔לוֹם וְ ָע ַ֕מד ַע‬
[‫ל־ה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ַל ִמּ ְשׁ ֗ ָפּט‬
ַ ‫־לּוֹ־ריב֩ ָל ֙בוֹא ֶא‬
ִ ‫ל־ה ִ ֣אישׁ ֲא ֶ ֽשׁר־יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
ָ ‫וַ יְ ִ֡הי ] ָכּ‬
‫אמר ֵמ ַא ַ ֥חד‬
ֶ ֹ ‫י־מ ֶזּ֥ה ִע ֙יר ַ֔א ָתּה וַ ֕יּ‬
ִ ‫אמר ֵ ֽא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֙רא ַא ְב ָשׁ ֤לוֹם ֵא ָל ֙יו וַ ֗יּ‬
‫ִשׁ ְב ֵ ֽטי־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֖אל ַע ְב ֶ ֽדָּך׃‬

In this verse, there is a somewhat unexpected15, abrupt passage from weqatalti and yiqtol
(that expresses here frequentative-habitual aspect) to wayyiqtol (that expresses perfective
aspect).

Absalom used to/would rise early [HIPHIL, weqatalti, 3m.sg. ‫ ]שׁכם‬and stand [QAL, weqatalti, 3m.sg ‫ ]עמד‬beside
the road of [= leading to] the city-gate.
And when anyone who would need to come to the king with a suit/case for a judgment,
Absalom called out and said, "From what city are you?" He said, "Your servant is from one
of the tribes of Israel."

15
 In my view, the text would be more harmonized grammatically if we had weqataltis  in  place of the 
wayyiqtols (marked in red). 

40
Absalom si alzava la mattina presto e si metteva/si poneva a lato della strada della [= che
conduceva alla] porta della città.
Quando qualcuno aveva una causa da dover andare (e doveva andare) dal re per il giudizio,
Absalom lo chiamò e disse: «Di quale città sei?» L'altro gli disse: «Il tuo servo è di una tribù
d'Israele».

2 Samuel 15:5

‫ב־אישׁ ְל ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֹ֖ ת ֑לוֹ ֹ[ וְ ָשׁ ַ ֧לח ֶאת־יָ ֛דוֹ וְ ֶה ֱח ִ ֥זיק ֖לוֹ וְ ָנ ַ֥שׁק‬


ִ֔ ‫וְ ָהיָ ֙ה ] ִבּ ְק ָר‬
‫ֽלוֹ׃‬
A series of weqataltis.

Whenever someone came near to prostrate himself to him, he would put out his hand and take
hold of him, and kiss him.

quando qualcuno si avvicinava per prostrarsi davanti a lui, egli porgeva la mano, lo afferrava
e lo baciava.

2 Samuel 15:6

‫וַ יַּ֙ ַעשׂ ַא ְב ָשׁ ֜לוֹם ַכּ ָדּ ָ ֤בר ַהזֶּ ֙ה ְל ָכל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל ֲא ֶשׁר־יָ ֥בֹאוּ ַל ִמּ ְשׁ ָ ֖פּט‬
‫ת־ל֖ב ַאנְ ֵ ֥שׁי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬
ֵ ‫ל־ה ֶ ֑מּ ֶלְך וַ יְ גַ נֵּ ֙ב ַא ְב ָשׁ ֔לוֹם ֶא‬
ַ ‫ֶא‬

Thus Absalom did to every Israelite who would come to the king for judgment. So Absalom
stole [PIEL, wayy. 3m.sg. ‫‘ גנב‬steal away’] the heart of the people of Israel.

Absalom fece così con tutti gli Israeliti che venivano dal re per il giudizio. Così/in questo
modo Absalom sedusse/rubò il cuore della gente d'Israele.

2 Samuel 15:7

‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ֵ ֣א ֲל ָכה ֗ ָנּא‬


ַ ‫לוֹם ֶא‬
֙ ‫אמר ַא ְב ָשׁ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יְ ִ֕הי ] ִמ ֵ ֖קּץ ַא ְר ָבּ ִ ֣עים ָשׁ ָנ֑ה[ וַ ֤יּ‬
‫יהו֖ה ְבּ ֶח ְב ֽרוֹן׃‬
ָ ‫וַ ֲא ַשׁ ֵלּ֛ם ֶאת־נִ ְד ִ ֛רי ֲא ֶשׁר־נָ ַ ֥ד ְר ִתּי ַ ֽל‬

At the end of fourty [LXX: fourty; Vulgate: four] years Absalom said to the king, "Let me go [QAL, direct
cohortative, ‫ ]הלְך‬to fulfill/pay [PIEL, indirect cohortative, 1c.sg. ‫ ]שׁלם‬a vow of mine that I have made to the
LORD in Hebron.
41
Quarantanni [LXX: quarantanni; Volgata: quattro] anni dopo, Absalom disse al re: «Lasciami andare
(Lascia che io vada) a compiere un mio voto che ho fatto al SIGNORE a Ebron.

2 Samuel 15:8

‫מר‬
ֹ ֑ ‫ִכּי־נֵ֙ ֶד ֙ר נָ ַ ֣דר ַע ְב ְדּ ָ֔ך ְבּ ִשׁ ְב ִ ֥תּי ִב ְג ֛שׁוּר ַבּ ֲא ָ ֖רם ֵלא‬
‫הוה׃‬
ֽ ָ ְ‫וּשׁ ֔ ַל ִם וְ ָע ַב ְד ִ ֖תּי ֶאת־י‬ ֤ ֵ ‫( ]ישׁוב [ יְ ִשׁ‬
ָ ‫יב ִני יְ הוָ ֙ה יְ ֣ר‬ qere ketib ‫ִאם־) ָישׁיֹב‬

Io concordo con Driver che il qere, cioè ‫[ י ָשׁוֹב‬QAL, inf. abs. ‫‘ ישׁב‬sedersi; abitare’], non possa
accompagnare il HIPHIL di ‫‘ שׁוּב‬far ritornare.’ Quindi, nel posto del ketib (che non è
accettabile) e del qere (che neppure fa senso), dobbiamo proporre ‫[ הָשֵׁ ב‬HIPHIL inf. abs. ‫]שׁוב‬.

For your servant made a vow when I lived [QAL, inf. const. ‫ ]ישׁב‬at Geshur in Aram:
“If the LORD will indeed bring me back [HIPHIL, yiqtol, 3m.sg ‫ שׁוב‬+ 1c.sg.] to Jerusalem, then [QAL,
weqatalti] I will worship the LORD in Hebron.”

Poichè il tuo servo fece un voto quando stavo/abitavo a Ghesur, in Aram:


“Se il SIGNORE davvero mi riconduce a Gerusalemme, allora io servirò il SIGNORE a
Ebron”.

2 Samuel 15:10

‫מר ְכּ ָשׁ ְמ ֲע ֶכ ֙ם‬
ֹ ֑ ‫ל־שׁ ְב ֵ ֥טי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֖אל ֵלא‬
ִ ‫לוֹם ְמ ַר ְגּ ֔ ִלים ְבּ ָכ‬
֙ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל֤ח ַא ְב ָשׁ‬
‫ת־קוֹל ַהשּׁ ֔ ָֹפר וַ ֲא ַמ ְר ֶ֕תּם ָמ ַ ֥לְך ַא ְב ָשׁ ֖לוֹם ְבּ ֶח ְב ֽרוֹן׃‬
֣ ‫ֶא‬

Absalom sent messengers throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, "When you hear [QAL inf.
const ‫ ]שׁמע‬the sound of the trumpet, then say/proclaim [QAL, weqatalti, ‫]אמר‬: Absalom has become king
at Hebron!"

Absalom mandò le spie in tutte le tribù d'Israele, a dire: «Quando udrete/sentirete il suono
della tromba, dite/direte: "Absalom è diventato re a Ebron"».

2 Samuel 15:12

42
‫ירוֹ ִמ ִגּ ֹ֔לה‬
֙ ‫יוֹע֣ץ ָדּ ִ֗וד ֵ ֽמ ִע‬
ֵ ‫יֹלני‬
ִ ֜ ‫ת־א ִחי ֙ת ֹ ֶפל ַה ִ ֽגּ‬
ֲ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל֣ח ֠ ַא ְב ָשׁלוֹם ֶא‬
֥ ֵ ‫ת־הזְּ ָב ִ ֑חים וַ יְ ִ ֤הי ַ֙ה ֶקּ ֶשׁ ֙ר ַא ִ֔מּץ וְ ָה ָ ֛עם‬
‫הוֹלְך וָ ָ ֖רב‬ ַ ‫ְבּזָ ְב ֖חוֹ ֶא‬
‫ת־א ְב ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬
ַ ‫ֶא‬

‫הוֹלְך וָ ָ ֖רב‬
֥ ֵ - AUXILIARY VERB CONSTRUCTION/Costruzione del verbo ausiliare: THE AUXILIARY ‫ָהלְַך‬
‘do/happen gradually’; ‘fare/succedere gradualmente’ as QAL act. ptc., and THE LEXICAL VERB as QAL ptc,
the stative verb ‫‘ רבב‬be a lot; essere molto/essere numeroso’.

Questo versetto presenta qualche difficoltà. Io lo rendo come sta in ebraico, non come sta in Bible Works. Il
contesto suggerische che si possa mettere ‫“ ַויִּק ְָרא‬lui chiamò” nel posto di ‫“ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַלח‬lui mandò”.

Absalom sent (called) Ahithophel the Gilonite, David's counselor [QAL, act. ptc. m.sg ‫‘ יעץ‬advise,
counsel’], from his city, from Giloh, while he (= Absalom) was offering the sacrifices. The
conspiracy became strong, and the people with Absalom kept growing/increasing in
number (was growing more and more numerous)

Absalom mandò (chiamò) Aitofel, il Ghilonita, consigliere di Davide, dalla sua città, da
Ghilo, mentre lui (= Absalom) offriva i sacrifici. La congiura divenne forte e il popolo con (= intorno
ad) Absalom diventava sempre più numeroso (andava sempre aumentando).

spagnolo: e la gente con Absalom iba aumentando.

2 Samuel 15:13

‫ב־אישׁ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֖אל ַא ֲח ֵ ֥רי ַא ְב ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬


֥ ִ ‫מר ָהָי֛ה ֶל‬
ֹ ֑ ‫ל־דִּ ֖וד ֵלא‬
ָ ‫וַ יָּ ב ֹ ֙א ַה ַמּ ֔ ִגּיד ֶא‬

A messenger [HIPHIL, ptc. m.sg. ‫ ]נגד‬came to David, saying, "The hearts of the Israelites have
gone (lit., were/became/turned) after Absalom."

Venne a Davide un messaggero, per dirgli: «Il cuore degli Israeliti si è volto verso (lit.,
fu/divenne dietro a/seguendo) Absalom».

2 Samuel 15:14

43
‫ירוּשׁ ַל ֙םִ ֣קוּמוּ וְ נִ ְב ָ ֔ר ָחה ִ ֛כּי‬
ָ֙ ‫ר־א ֤תּוֹ ִב‬
ִ ‫ל־ע ָב ָ ֙דיו ֲא ֶשׁ‬
ֲ ‫אמר ָ ֠דּוִ ד ְל ָכ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
‫יטה ִמ ְפּ ֵנ֣י ַא ְב ָשׁ ֑לוֹם ַמ ֲה ֣רוּ ָל ֗ ֶל ֶכת ֶפּן־יְ ַמ ֵ ֤הר‬
֖ ָ ‫ה־לּנוּ ְפ ֵל‬
֥ ָ ֶ‫א־ת ְהי‬
ִֽ ֹ ‫ל‬
‫י־ח ֶרב׃‬
ֽ ָ ‫ת־ה ָר ֔ ָעה וְ ִה ָ ֥כּה ָה ִ ֖עיר ְל ִפ‬
֣ ָ ‫ינוּ ֶא‬
֙ ‫וְ ִה ִשּׂגָ֙ ֙נוּ וְ ִה ִ ֤דּ ַיח ָע ֵ ֙ל‬

() OSSERVAZIONE: Dobbiamo esere molto grati all’autore ispirato per usare una serie di
verbi in HIPHIL, prima NUN [‫נשׂג‬, ‫נדח‬, ‫]נכה‬, nella proposizione subordinata (introdotta da ‫פֶּן‬
‘lest’/’affinchè non’) perchè così ci si ricorda meglio per l’esame.

‫“ ֣קוּמוּ וְ נִ ְב ָ ֔ר ָחה‬Let us flee immediately!” “Scappiamo subito!” [QAL, imperative, m.pl. ‫ ]קום‬+
[QAL, indirect cohortative, 1 c.pl. ‫]ברח‬

‫ ַמ ֲה ֣רוּ ָל ֗ ֶל ֶכת‬auxiliary + infinitive with ‫ ְל‬: “Go quickly!” “Andate velocemente!” [PIEL
imperative m.pl ‫ מהר‬aux. ‘do quickly’/‘fare velocemente

‫ יְ ַמ ֵ ֤הר וְ ִה ִשּׂגָ֙ ֙נוּ‬auxiliary two-finite-verb construction (la costruzione del verbo ausiliare con le
due verbi in modo finito): yiqtol AUX + weqatalti LEX [HIPHIL weqatalti 3m.sg. ‫נשׂג‬
‘overtake’/’raggiungere’ + suff. 1.c.pl.]

Then David said to all his servants who were with him at Jerusalem, "Let us flee
immediately for there will be no escape for us from Absalom! Go quickly
lest he quickly overtake us, and bring [HIPHIL weqatalti 3m.sg. ‫‘ נדח‬bring’ (direct object: a disaster) ‫ עַל‬upon]
disaster/ruin upon us, and attack/strike [HIPHIL weqatalti 3m.sg. ‫‘ נכה‬strike, hit, attack, kill’] the city with
the edge of the sword!"

(The following translation is also good, but less recommended because it does not express the
notion of purpose of the Hebrew sentence: or/otherwise he will quickly overtake us and bring
disaster upon us and attack the city with the edge of the sword).

Allora Davide disse a tutti i servi che erano con lui a Gerusalemme: “Scappiamo subito
perchè non avremo scampo davanti ad Absalom! Andate/partite velocemente affinchè non
ci raggiunga velocemente e porti [HIPHIL weqatalti 3m.sg. ‫‘ נדח‬portare’ (complemento diretto: un disastro) ‫עַל‬
su] su di noi il disastro e colpisca [HIPHIL weqatalti 3m.sg. ‫‘ נכה‬colpire, attaccare, uccidere’] la città a fil di
spada».

2 Samuel 15:19

‫ם־א ָ ֖תּה ִא ָ ֑תּנוּ ֣שׁוּב וְ ֵ ֤שׁב‬


ַ ַ‫ל־א ַ ֣תּי ַהגִּ ִ֔תּי ָל ָ֧מּה ֵת ֵלְ֛ך גּ‬
ִ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫קוֹמָך׃‬
ֽ ֶ ‫ם־ה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ִ ֽכּי־נָ ְכ ִ ֣רי ַ֔א ָתּה וְ גַ ם־גּ ֶ ֹ֥לה ַא ָ ֖תּה ִל ְמ‬
ַ ‫ִע‬
44
Then the king said to Ittai the Gittite, "Why are you also going [QAL yiqtol16 2m.s. ‫ ]הלְך‬with us?
Go back, and stay with the king; for you are a foreigner, and also an exile from your
place/homeland.

Allora il re disse a Ittai di Gat: «Perché stai andando anche tu con noi? Torna indietro e
rimani con il re, perché tu sei forestiero ed anche esule dal tuo paese.

2 Samuel 15:21

‫חי ֲאד ִֹנ֣י ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ֠ ִכּי‬


֙ ֵ ְ‫הוה ו‬
ָ֗ ְ‫אמר ַחי־י‬
֑ ַ ֹ ‫ת־ה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך וַ יּ‬
ַ ‫וַ ַיּ ַ֧ען ִא ַ ֛תּי ֶא‬
‫־ל ַח ִ֔יּים‬ ְ ‫ה־שּׁם ֲאד ִֹנ֣י ַה ֶ֗מּ ֶלְך ִאם‬
ְ ‫־ל ָ֙מוֶ ֙ת ִאם‬ ֣ ָ ֶ‫ם־בּ ְמ ֞קוֹם ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר יִ ְֽהי‬
ִ ‫ִא‬
‫י־שׁם יִ ְה ֶי֥ה ַע ְב ֶ ֽדָּך׃‬
֖ ָ ‫ִכּ‬

But Ittai answered the king, "As the LORD lives, and as my lord the king lives, wherever my
lord the king may be, whether for death or for life, there also your servant will be."

Ma Ittai rispose al re e disse: «Per la vita del Signore e per la vita del re, mio signore,
dovunque sarà il re, mio signore, sia per la morte che per la vita, là sarà il tuo servo!».

2 Samuel 15:24

‫ֹלהים‬
ִ֔ ‫רוֹן ְבּ ִ ֣רית ָה ֱא‬
֙ ‫ת־א‬
ֲ ‫ל־ה ְלוִ ִיּ֣ם ִא ֗תּוֹ ֹֽנ ְשׂ ִא ֙ים ֶא‬
ַ ‫ם־צ ֜דוֹק וְ ָ ֽכ‬
ָ ַ‫וְ ִהנֵּ֙ ה ג‬
‫ל־ה ָ ֖עם ַל ֲע ֥בוֹר‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ֹלהים וַ ַיּ ַ֖על ֶא ְביָ ָ ֑תר ַעד־‬
ָ ‫תּם ָכּ‬ ִ֔ ‫ת־א ֣רוֹן ָה ֱא‬
ֲ ‫קוּ ֶא‬
֙ ‫וַ יַּ ֙ ִצּ‬
‫ן־ה ִ ֽעיר׃‬
ָ ‫ִמ‬

‫קוּ‬
֙ ‫וַ יַּ ֙ ִצּ‬ [HIPHIL wayy. 3m.pl. ‫‘ יצק‬pour out’/‘versare’]. This verb is unsuitable for this
context (i.e., the water cannot be ‘poured out’ not the ark). Therefore read/Quindi si deve
leggere (e.g., as in 2 Sam 6:17): ‫[ וַ יַּ ֫ ִצּגוּ‬HIPHIL wayy. 3m.pl ‫‘ יצג‬set (down), place’/’posare,
deporre’].

16
 This yiqtol expresses progressive aspect, probably with a shade of modality, as in “Come mai anche tu stai 
andando con noi?”. 

45
Also Zadok, with all the Levites who were with him, were carrying [QAL act. ptc. m.pl ‫ ]נשׂא‬the ark
of the covenant with (lit., of) God. They set down the ark of God, and Abiathar offered
burnt-offerings [!!! HIPHIL wayy 3m.sg ‫‘ עלה‬offer burnt-offerings’] until all the people finished [QAL inf.
const. ‫‘ תּמם‬finish (doing)’] leaving (lit. passing from) the city.

Ecco, Anche Zadok (Sadoc), e tutti i leviti che erano con lui, portavano l'arca dell’alleanza
con (let., di) Dio. Essi posarono/deposero l'arca di Dio ed Abiatar offrì gli olocausti, finché
tutto il popolo finì di uscire (let., passare) dalla città.

2 Samuel 15:25

‫ם־א ְמ ָ ֥צא‬
ֶ ‫ֹלהים ָה ִ ֑עיר ִא‬
֖ ִ ‫ת־א ֥רוֹן ָה ֱא‬
ֲ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֙מּ ֶל ְ֙ך ְל ָצ ֔דוֹק ָה ֵ ֛שׁב ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫הוה וֶ ֱה ִשׁ ַ֕ב ִני וְ ִה ְר ַ ֥א ִני א ֹ֖תוֹ וְ ֶאת־נָ ֵוֽהוּ׃‬
ָ֔ ְ‫חן ְבּ ֵע ֵינ֣י י‬
ֵ֙

Then the king said to Zadok, "Take the ark of God back [HIPHIL imperative m.sg. ‫ ]שׁוב‬into the city.
If I find favor in the eyes of the LORD, (then APODOSIS) he will bring me back [HIPHIL weqatalti
3m.sg ‫ שׁוב‬+ suff. 1c.sg.] and let me see [HIPHIL weqatalti 3m.sg ‫ ראה‬+ suff. 1.c.sg.] both it and the place
where it stays (lit. let me see it and its abode/its residence/its delling place).

Il re disse a Sadoc: “Riporta in città l'arca di Dio. Se io trovo grazia agli occhi del
SIGNORE, (allora APODOSI) egli mi farà tornare e mi farà vedere l'arca e la sua dimora”

2 Samuel 15:30

‫וּבוֹכה‬
ֶ֗ ‫וְ ָד ִ ֡וד ע ֶֹל ֩ה ְב ַמ ֲע ֵ ֙לה ַהזֵּ ִ֜יתים ע ֶֹל֣ה‬
‫וְ ֥ר ֹאשׁ ֙לוֹ ָח ֔פוּי וְ ֖הוּא ה ֵֹלְ֣ך יָ ֵ ֑חף‬

‫אשׁוֹ‬
֔ ֹ ‫פוּ ִ ֣אישׁ ר‬
֙ ‫ר־א ֗תּוֹ ָח‬
ִ ‫ל־ה ָ ֣עם ֲא ֶשׁ‬
ָ ‫וְ ָכ‬

‫וּב ֽכֹה׃‬
ָ ‫וְ ָעל֥ וּ ָע ֹ֖לה‬

[In the meantime] Davidwas going up the ascent of the Mount of Olives, weeping as
he went (lit., going up and weeping [a sequence of two QAL act. ptc. m.sg. ‫עלה‬/‫)]בכה‬, with his head
covered (lit., and head to him covered [QAL pass. ptc ‫‘ חפה‬cover’]) and he was walking
46
barefoot (adj.); and all the people who were with him each covered [QAL qatal 3c.pl. ‫חפה‬
‘cover’] his head, and they were going up [QAL weqatalti, 3c.pl. ‫ ]עלה‬weeping as they
went (lit., going up and weeping) [a sequence of two QAL infinitives absolute ‫עלה‬/‫]בכה‬.

Davide saliva (o: stava salendo) il monte degli Ulivi piangendo (let., salendo e
piangendo), a capo coperto (let., e capo gli [era] coperto), e camminava (stava
cammindando) scalzo/a piedi scalzi, e tutto il popolo che era con lui, ciascuno
coprì il suo capo, e salivano piangendo.

There seems to be no difference in terms of aspectual distinction between the two


simultaneous events expressed by a sequence of two participles ‫וּבוֹכה‬
ֶ֗ ‫“ ע ֶֹל֣ה‬going up and
ָ ‫“ ָע ֹ֖לה‬going up
weeping” and those expressed by a sequence of two infinitives absolute ‫וּב ֽכֹה‬
and weeping. This seems to suggest that both a sequence of participles and a sequence of
infinitives absolute are capable of presenting the verbal meaning as ongoing events (=
progressive aspect). The syntax of this verse, 2 Sam 15:30, reveals also a general tendency to
couple a sequence of infinitives absolute with a finite verb (here: ‫ )וְ ָע ֥לוּ‬on the one hand,
and a sequence of participles with a predicatively used participle (here: ֩‫ )וְדָ ֡ ִוד עֹלֶה‬on the
other, when there is a need to express the simultaneity of two parallel (= occurring at the same
time) events.

Summing up: In Biblical Hebrew, one of the strategies to express an ongoing event (EVENT
B) that takes place at the same time as another, slightly more foregrounded, event (EVENT
A) is to repeat the verbal root of the verb that expresses “EVENT A” as infinitive absolute (if
“EVENT A” is a finite verb) or as a participle (if “EVENT A” is a predicatively used
participle) followed by a similar nonfinite form (i.e., an infinitive absolute or a participle) of
the verb that expresses the EVEN B.
!!! La traduzione (vedi la versione NRV): “tutto il popolo . . . salendo piangeva” non riflette
bene la grammatica ebraica. In ebraico sta scritto: “salivano piangendo”. Inoltre, un’altra
traduzione in BibleWorks (la versione NVB) “piangendo continuamente” riflette una
comprensione inaccurata del traduttore (e di tanti altri ebraisti) della sequenza di due participi
o due infiniti assoluti usati per esprimere la simultaneità di due eventi. La parola
“continuamente” è superflua, e un poco ingannevole (superfluous and misleading) perchè il
concetto “continuamente” non è espresso in queste costruzioni. Queste costruzioni
semplicemente esprimono un concetto come: saliva piangendo.

2 Samuel 15:35

‫ל־ה ָדּ ָב ֙ר ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר‬
ַ ‫וַ ֲה ֤לוֹא ִע ְמּ ָ֙ך ָ֔שׁם ָצ ֥דוֹק וְ ֶא ְביָ ָ ֖תר ַהכּ ֲֹה ִנ֑ים וְ ָה ָ֗יה ָכּ‬
‫וּל ֶא ְביָ ָ ֖תר ַהכּ ֲֹה ִ ֽנים׃‬
ְ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַמ ֙ע ִמ ֵבּ֣ית ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ַתּ ֕ ִגּיד ְל ָצ ֥דוֹק‬
47
The priests Zadok and Abiathar will be with you there. Whatever you hear from the king's
house, you shall tell it to the priests Zadok and Abiathar.
Avrai con te (let., non [ci saranno] forse con te? = [ci saranno] con te!) i sacerdoti Sadoc e Abiatar. Tutto quello
che sentirai dire della casa del re, lo dirai/riferirai ai sacerdoti Sadoc e Abiatar.

2 Samuel 15:36

‫ימ ַעץ ְל ָצ ֔דוֹק וִ יהוֹנָ ָ ֖תן ְל ֶא ְביָ ָ ֑תר‬


֣ ַ ‫יהם ֲא ִח‬
ֶ֔ ‫ה־שׁם ִע ָמּ ֙ם ְשׁ ֵנ֣י ְב ֵנ‬
֤ ָ ֵ‫ִהנּ‬
‫ל־דּ ָ ֖בר ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִתּ ְשׁ ָ ֽמעוּ׃‬
ָ ‫וּשׁ ַל ְח ֶ ֤תּם ְבּיָ ָד ֙ם ֵא ֔ ַלי ָכּ‬
ְ

Their two sons are with them there, Zadok's son Ahimaaz and Abiathar's son Jonathan. By
them report to me (or: you shall report to me) [lit., you shall send by their hand to me: QAL weqatalti 2m.pl
‫ ]שׁלח‬everything you hear."

Ecco, sono là con essi i loro due figli, Achimaaz di Zadok e Gionata di Ebiatar: per mezzo di
loro/tramite loro fatemi sapere! (o: mi farete sapere) [let., mandate!/manderete a me tutto
quello che sentirete».

2 Samuel 15:37

‫רוּשׁ ָ ֽלםִ׃‬
ָ ְ‫חוּשׁי ֵר ֶ ֥עה ָדִ ֖וד ָה ִ ֑עיר וְ ַא ְב ָשׁ ֹ֔לם יָ ֖ב ֹא י‬
֛ ַ ‫וַ יָּ ֥ב ֹא‬

So Hushai, David's friend, entered (came into) [QAL wayyiqtol 3m.sg. ‫ ]בוא‬the city, just as [lit., and]
Absalom was entering [QAL yiqtol 3m.sg. ‫ ]בוא‬Jerusalem.
Cusai, amico di Davide, arrivò in (entrò a) città, proprio mentre (let., e) Assalonne
entrava/arrivava (stava entrando/stava arrivando) a Gerusalemme.
Questo versetto mostra bene la differenza tra un evento passato, espresso in aspetto
perfettivo, tramite un wayyiqtol, e un evento che si stava svolgendo, di aspetto progressivo,
espresso tramite uno yiqtol. Mentre il wayyiqtol localizza l’evento nel passato esplicitamente
(= esprime sia il tempo passato sia l’aspetto perfettivo esplicitamente, allo stesso tempo), il
valore temporale (cioè la collocazione nel tempo) dello yiqtol si può solamente dedurre dal
contesto (qui, per esempio, la proposizione è ormai localizzata nel passato tramite il
wayyiqtol). Vuol dire che uno yiqtol esprime, prima di tutto, l’aspetto imperfettivo
(frequentativo-abituale oppure progressivo, il che dipende dal contesto) o modalità (devi,
puoi, vuoi). Il contesto ci aiuterà nell’interpretazione e traduzione di uno yiqtol, almeno nella
maggior parte dei casi. Qui, in 2 Sam 15:37, il wayyiqtol ‫ וַ יָּ ֥ב ֹא‬introduce un evento specifico,
48
unico, alla maniera associata con l’aspetto perfettivo. L’azione dell’evento è collocata nel
passato. Perciò nella frase che segue (ִ‫רוּשׁ ָ ֽלם‬
ָ ְ‫)וְ ַא ְב ָשׁ ֹ֔לם יָ ֖ב ֹא י‬, con uno yiqtol, siamo sempre nel
passato. Un tale yiqtol può esprimere anzittutto l’aspetto imperfettivo. Ora, visto che siamo
nel contesto di un evento specifico espresso tramite il wayyiqtol (piuttosto che nel contesto di
una serie di eventi che si ripetono), lo yiqtol ‫ יָ ֖ב ֹא‬esprime un evento che si sta svolgendo,
nell’aspetto imperfettivo progressivo (piuttosto che nell’aspetto imperfettivo frequentativo-
abituale).

2 Samuel 16:5

‫חוּרים‬
֑ ִ ‫ד־בּ‬
ֽ ַ ‫וּבא ַה ֶ ֥מּ ֶלְך ָדִּ ֖וד ַע‬
ָ֛
‫מוֹ ִשׁ ְמ ִ ֣עי ֶבן־גֵּ ָ ֔רא‬
֙ ‫וּשׁ‬ ָ ‫יוֹצא ִמ ִמּ ְשׁ ַ ֣פּ ַחת ֵבּ‬
ְ ‫ית־שׁ ֗אוּל‬ ֵ֜ ‫וְ ִה ֵנּ֣ה ִמ ָשּׁ ֩ם ִ֙אישׁ‬
ְ ‫י ֵ ֹ֥צא יָ ֖צוֹא‬
‫וּמ ַק ֵ ֽלּל׃‬

According to Driver “Notes,” p. 318: ‫[ ובא‬QAL, weqatalti, 3m.sg., ‫ ]בוא‬is irregular and ‫[ וַ יָּ בֹא‬QAL,
wayyiqtol] should be restored. (What do you think? Because I think Driver is right.)

JM §123n: Instead of a second inf. abs., a participle is found in 2 Sam 16:5, to express TWO
SIMULTANEOUS EVENTS. (See also Driver p. 318: he thinks it is best to emend the
participle ‫וּמ ַק ֵ ֽלּל‬
ְ into infinitive ‫) ְו ַקלֵּל‬.

When King David came to Bahurim, a man of the family of the house of Saul was coming
out. His name was Shimei son of Gera. [He was] coming out cursing [PIEL, ptc m.sg ‫קלל‬
‘curse/maledire’].

Quando Davide giunse a Bacurìm, ecco uscire da là un uomo della famiglia/stirpe della casa
di Saul, di nome Simeì, figlio di Ghera: usciva lanciando maledizioni.

καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Δαυιδ ἕως Βαουριμ καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐκεῖθεν ἀνὴρ ἐξεπορεύετο ἐκ
συγγενείας οἴκου Σαουλ καὶ ὄνομα αὐτῷ Σεμεϊ υἱὸς Γηρα ἐξῆλθεν ἐκπορευόμενος καὶ
καταρώμενος

venit ergo rex David usque Baurim et ecce egrediebatur inde vir de cognatione domus Saul
nomine Semei filius Gera procedebat egrediens et maledicebat

2 Samuel 16:9

49
‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫ן־צרוּיָ ֙ה ֶא‬
ְ ‫ישׁי ֶבּ‬
֤ ַ ‫אמר ֲא ִב‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬
ֲ ‫ַה ֶ֔זּה ֶא‬
‫ת־אד ִֹנ֖י ַה ֶ ֑מּ ֶלְך‬ ‫ָל ָ֣מּה יְ ַק ֞ ֵלּל ַה ֶכּ ֶ֤לב ַה ֵמּ ֙ת‬
‫אשׁוֹ׃‬
ֽ ֹ ‫ה־נּ֖א וְ ָא ִ ֥ס ָירה ֶאת־ר‬
ָ ‫ֶא ְע ְבּ ָר‬

Then Abishai son of Zeruiah said to the king, "Why should (may/can/is allowed) this
dead dog [SUBJECT] curse [PIEL yiqtol 3 m.sg ‫ ]קלל‬my lord the king [DIRECT OBJECT]? Let me go over
[QAL, direct cohortative, 1c.sg ‫]עבר‬ to take off (or: and take off) [HIPH indirect cohortative 1c.sg. ‫‘ סור‬remove’] his
head."

Allora Abisai, figlio di Seruia, disse al re: «Perché questo cane morto deve (può/si
permette di/osa) maledire il re mio signore? Ti prego, lasciami andare a mozzargli la testa!»
(Oppure: Lascia che io vada a troncargli la testa).

2 Samuel 16:10

‫ה־לּי וְ ָל ֶ ֖כם ְבּ ֵנ֣י ְצ ֻר ָי֑ה‬


֥ ִ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ַמ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
‫[ יְ ַק ֗ ֵלּל‬Qere ‫( ] ֣כֹּה‬Ketib ‫) ִכּי‬
ָ ‫[ יְ הוָ ֙ה ָ ֤א ַמר ֙לוֹ ַק ֵלּ֣ל ֶא‬Qere ‫( ] ִ ֤כּי‬Ketib ‫) וְ ִכי‬
‫ת־דּ ִ ֔וד‬
‫יתה ֵ ֽכּן׃‬
ָ ‫אמר ַמ ֖דּ ַוּע ָע ִ ֥שׂ‬
ַ֔ ֹ ‫וּ ִ ֣מי י‬

But the king said, "What have I to do with you, sons of Zeruiah? He is cursing [PIEL yiqtol 3
m.sg ‫‘ קלל‬curse/maledire’] so because the LORD has said to him, 'Curse David.' Who then17
shall say, 'Why have you done so?'"

17
 This is a sentence that starts with a WAW followed by a non‐verbal element, here the interrogative ‫‘ מִי‬who.’ 
Such sentences often express some contrast (byt not necessarily a strong or sharp contrast!) in relation to the 
preceding statement. Apart from contrast, such sentences can also express a number of other notions, such as 
some background information that is not on the same line of events. Such sentences (i.e., starting with waw + 
something that is not a finite verb) can be contrasted with sentences that start with a sequential finite verb 
such as wayyiqtol or weqatalti. Due to its syntactic position, I rendered this WAW here by ‘then/dunque.’ But 
this is a matter of translating the force of WAW in this specific context, or one of the possible ways of 
translating it. Although such a translation can be sometimes a good idiomatic (= naturally sounding) rendering, it 
should be applied with caution, and never mechanically. 

50
Ma il re rispose: «Che ho io in comune con voi, figli di Seruià? Lui maledice così perché il
Signore gli ha detto: “Maledici Davide!”. Chi dunque potrà dire: “Perché hai fatto così?”».

2 Samuel 16:11

‫ל־ע ָב ָ ֔דיו ִה ֵנּ֥ה ְב ִנ֛י ֲא ֶשׁר־יָ ָ ֥צא ִמ ֵמּ ַ ֖עי‬


ֲ ‫ל־כּ‬
ָ ‫ישׁי וְ ֶא‬
֙ ַ ‫ל־א ִב‬
ֲ ‫אמר ָדִּו֤ד ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬
‫ן־היְ ִמ ֗ ִיני ַה ִנּ֤חוּ ֙לוֹ‬
ַ ‫י־ע ָ֜תּה ֶבּ‬
ַ ‫ְמ ַב ֵ ֣קּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפ ִ ֑שׁי וְ ַ֙אף ִ ֽכּ‬
‫הוה׃‬
ֽ ָ ְ‫ר־לוֹ י‬
֖ ‫ִ ֽו ַיק ֔ ֵלּל ִ ֥כּי ָ ֽא ַמ‬

‫‘ אַף כִּי‬how much more…’


David said to Abishai and to all his servants, "My son, who is of my own flesh/who came
forth from my loins,seeks/is seeking my life; how much more now [may] [this] Benjaminite [do
so]! Let/leave him alone [HIPHIL imperative m.pl. ‫‘ נוח‬leave/let alone/lasciare in pace’] that he may curse [PIEL
indirect jussive 3 m.sg ‫ ;]קלל‬for the LORD has told him [to do so].

Davide disse ad Abisài e a tutti i suoi servi: «Ecco, mio figlio che è uscito dalle mie viscere-
dal mio seno, cerca di togliermi la vita, quanto più ora [questo] Beniaminita! lasciatelo che
maledica, perché glielo ha detto/ordinato il Signore [di fare così].

2 Samuel 16:12

[Qere “into my eye” ‫( ] ְבּ ֵע ִינ֑י‬Ketib “on my iniquity” ‫הו֖ה) ְבּ ֲע ִוֹני‬


ָ ְ‫אוּל֛י יִ ְר ֶ ֥אה י‬
ַ
‫טוֹבה ַ ֥תּ ַחת ִק ְל ָל ֖תוֹ ַהיּ֥ וֹם ַה ֶזּֽה׃‬
ָ֔ ‫הו֥ה ִ ֙לי‬
ָ ְ‫וְ ֵה ִ֙שׁיב י‬

Driver (p. 318): Ketib ‫“ ַבּעֲוֹנִי בעוני‬on my iniquity” (in the sense: iniquity done to me) = on my
affliction.distress. Qere: to look “into/upon my eye”, that is, to notice “my tears.”

Perhaps the LORD will look on my distress, and the LORD will repay [HIPHIL weqatalti 3m.sg ‫]שׂוב‬
me with good for (in place of) this cursing of his today."

Forse il Signore guarderà la mia afflizione e mi renderà il bene in cambio (al posto) della sua
maledizione di oggi/di questo giorno».

2 Samuel 16:13 (+AP)____(see also 13:19)

‫וַ ֵיּ ֶ֧לְך ָדִּו֛ד וַ ֲאנָ ָ ֖שׁיו ַבּ ָ ֑דּ ֶרְך ס‬


‫וְ ִשׁ ְמ ֡ ִעי ה ֵֹלְך֩ ְבּ ֙ ֵצ ַלע ָה ָ֜הר ְל ֻע ָמּ ֗תוֹ‬

51
‫לוְֹך וַ יְ ַק ֔ ֵלּל וַ יְ ַס ֵ ֤קּל ָ ֽבּ ֲא ָב ִנ ֙ים ְל ֻע ָמּ ֔תוֹ וְ ִע ַ ֖פּר ֶבּ ָע ָ ֽפר׃‬
֙ ‫ָה‬
According to Driver (p. 319), the wayyiqtols ‫ וַ יְ ַק ֔ ֵלּל וַ יְ ַס ֵ ֤קּל‬should be probably emended to
infinitives18 ‫ ְו ַקלֵּל ְו ַסקֵּל‬, and probably also the weqatalti ‫ וְ ִע ַ ֖פּר‬should be repointed (revocalized)
to the infinitive ‫ ְו ַעפֵּר‬.19

[[Another option -- Driver notes, apart from emending the wayyiqtol ‫ וַ יְ ַק ֔ ֵלּל‬to the infinitive
‫ ְו ַקלֵּל‬-- would be to emend ‫ וַ יְ ַס ֵ ֤קּל‬into a weqatalti ‫ ְו ִסקֵּל‬, and leave the weqatalti ‫ וְ ִע ַ ֖פּר‬as it is in
the Masoretic text (= no change). In this option, we would have two weqataltis that express
verbal meaning in imperfective aspect, and only the infinitive ‫ ְו ַקלֵּל‬, proposed as an
emendation, would be a part of the construction with the infinitive absolute ‫לוְֹך‬ ֙ ‫ה‬, ָ that is, a
construction that portrays two events as taking place simultaneously (such as, he walked
cursing, camminava maledicendo.]]

Driver is probably right, but I want to share some observations I had in regard to this
troublesome construction, considering the Masoretic text (MT) as it is, that is, without any
changes. A word of caution: this translation of mine, below, is only an attempt to render the
possible meaning of this difficult verse:

David and his men went on the road. And [at the same time], while Shimei was walking on
the hillside opposite him (= David), he cursed [PIEL wayy. 3m.sg ‫ ]קלל‬and threw stones [PIEL wayy. 3m.sg
‫ ]סקל‬near him and kept on flinging [PIEL weqatalti 3 m.sg ‫ ]עפר‬dust.

Davide e la sua gente seguirono il cammino. E Simei, mentre camminava sul fianco del
monte, parallelamente a lui (= Davide), maledisse, gli (o: vicino a lui) tirò sassi e
ripetutamente buttò della polvere.

[Wayyiqtol esprime normalmente un’evento verbale nell’aspetto perfettivo e weqatalti può


esprimere l’azione verbale in quanto l’aspetto imperfettivo. (Rileggete quel piccolo sommario
che ho scritto sulle nozioni del tempo e dell’aspetto. Grazie!)]

Da paragonare con le altre traduzioni (citate da BibleWorks):

18
 Infinitives absolute in PIEL are relatively rare and usually infinitives construct are used instead. 
19
 This is how Ehrlich suggested the emendations for this verse in Randglossen zur Hebräischen Bible, Vol. 3, p. 
315 (Leipzig: 1910). 

52
NRS
So David and his men went on the road, while Shimei went along on the hillside opposite
him and cursed as he went, throwing stones and flinging dust at him.
CEN
Davide e la sua gente continuarono il cammino e Simei camminava sul fianco del monte,
parallelamente a Davide, e cammin facendo malediceva, gli tirava sassi e gli lanciava
polvere.
IEP
Davide seguitò con i suoi uomini il cammino, mentre Simeì camminava sul fianco del
monte dirimpetto a lui sempre maledicendo e lanciando sassi verso di lui e gettando polvere.

These translations could be considered good renderings of the Hebrew text AFTER the
emendations proposed by Driver, but not of the Masoretic text as it is in BHS.

Dalla dissertazione del professore, pages 219-220 «Verbal Hendiadys Revisited.


Grammaticalization and Auxiliation in Biblical Hebrew Verbs.» Washington, DC: Catholic
University of America, 2011):

Marginally, it must be noted that apart from the lexical sequence of two infinitives
absolute, additionally there are four instances20 where halok is followed by finite
verbs, arguably with similar, if not the same, function. The co-occurrence of finite
verbs, rather than infinitives absolute, in this lexical construction with ‫ ָהלְַך‬is
problematic and their function is rather difficult to pinpoint.21 In Joüon-Muraoka
(§123n), all these forms are considered doubtful. Although this observation might be
correct, perhaps it is possible to view those occurrences as another way of expressing
simultaneity of two events. While the sequence of two infinitives absolute expresses
the simultaneity of two events, usually of equal duration, the finite verbs in place of
the second infinitive absolute are perhaps used to express other nuances of
simultaneity. If this assumption were correct, we would not need to emend those finite
verbs into the expected forms of infinitive absolute.

In reference to 2 Sam 16:13, I also wrote:


If the verbs ‫ ַקלֵּל‬and ‫ ַסקֵּל‬were in the forms of infinitive absolute, the events of
cursing and throwing stones would be presented as taking place at the same time, and
with equal duration, as the event of walking expressed by ‫הָלוְֹך‬. Although I do not
deny the difficulty inherent in the interpretation of this verse, I think it is possible to
view the wayyiqtol forms as events presenting the verbal meaning in a way associated
with perfective aspect (that is, as single unanalyzable wholes without reference to
their temporal structure), against the background of the durative event of walking, just
as it is suggested by my translation. In other words, the author chose the wayyiqtol
forms to say that “while Shimei was walking, he cursed and threw stones” rather than
“while he was walking, he was cursing and throwing stones.” The infinitive absolute
‫ הָלוְֹך‬makes it explicit that the following finite verbs describe the events that took
place while Shimei was walking.

20. Josh 6:13, 1 Sam 19:23, 2 Sam 13:19, 16:13.

21. Wayyiqtol forms in 1Sam 19:23 and 2 Sam 16:13 and weqatalti forms in Josh
6:13, 2 Sam 13:19, Jer 50:40.

53
2 Samuel 16:23

[Qere ‫ת ֶפל ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר יָ ַע ֙ץ ַבּיָּ ִ ֣מים ָה ֵ֔הם ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר יִ ְשׁ ַאל־ ] ִ ֖אישׁ‬


ֹ ֗ ‫וַ ֲע ַצ֣ת ֲא ִחי‬
‫ם־ל ָדִ ֖וד ַגּ֥ם ְל ַא ְב ָשׁ ֹֽלם׃‬
ְ ַ‫ת ֶפל גּ‬
ֹ ֔ ‫ל־ע ַצ֣ת ֲא ִחי‬
ֲ ‫ֹלהים ֵ ֚כּן ָכּ‬
֑ ִ ‫ִבּ ְד ַ ֣בר ָה ֱא‬

(A NOTE) I believe Driver is right (see p. 320) when he points out that the subject ‫‘ הַשּׁ ֹאֵל‬the
one who inquires/colui che chiede (un consiglio o un’oracolo)’ is understood with ‫יִשְׁאַל‬, even
though it is not explicitly expressed. The qere reading, proposed by the Masoretes, is then not
needed.

Now in those days the counsel/advice Ahithophel gave was as if one consulted the oracle of
God (was like that of one who inquires of God); so all the counsel of Ahithophel was
esteemed, both by David and by Absalom.

In quei giorni un consiglio dato da Achitòfel era come se si fosse consultata la parola di Dio.
Così era ogni consiglio di Achitòfel sia per Davide sia per Assalonne.

2 Samuel 17:1

‫ים־ע ָ ֥שׂר ֶ֙א ֶל ֙ף ִ֔אישׁ‬


ָ ‫ל־א ְב ָשׁ ֹ֑לם ֶא ְב ֲח ָ ֣רה ֗ ָנּא ְשׁ ֵנ‬
ַ ‫ת ֶפל ֶא‬
ֹ ֖ ‫אמר ֲא ִחי‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֥יּ‬
ָ ‫וּמה וְ ֶא ְר ְדּ ָ ֥פה ַא ֲח ֵר‬
‫י־דִ ֖וד ַה ָ ֽלּיְ ָלה׃‬ ָ ‫וְ ָא ֛ק‬

Ahithophel said to Absalom, "Let me choose [QAL direct cohortative] twelve thousand men to set out
(or: and I will set out) [QAL indirect coh.] and pursue [QAL indirect coh.] David tonight.

Achitòfel disse ad Assalonne: « Lasciami scegliere dodicimila uomini e mi metterò a


inseguire Davide questa notte.
Disse Achitòfel ad Assalonne: «Lasciami scegliere dodicimila uomini, perché possa mettermi
ad inseguire Davide questa notte.

2 Samuel 17:2

‫ל־ה ָ ֣עם‬
ָ ‫וְ ָא ֣בוֹא ָע ֗ ָליו וְ ֤הוּא יָ גֵ֙ ַ ֙ע ְוּר ֵ ֣פה יָ ַ ֔דיִ ם וְ ַ ֽה ֲח ַר ְד ִ ֣תּי א ֹ֔תוֹ וְ ָ ֖נס ָכּ‬
‫ת־ה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ְל ַב ֽדּוֹ׃‬ ֥ ִ ‫ר־א ֑תּוֹ וְ ִה ֵכּ‬
ַ ‫יתי ֶא‬ ִ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬
‫ר ֶפה‬:ָ cs. ‫ ְ;ר ֵפּה‬pl. f. ‫רפוֹת‬:ָ slack, feeble Nu 1318; y¹dayim r¹fôt Is 353 Jb 43; r®f¢h y¹dayim discouraged 2S 172. †

54
and come upon him [QAL indir.coh.]22 while he is weary and discouraged, and throw [HIPHIL weqatalti
1c.sg. ‫‘ חרד‬strike with terror, feel with panic, frighten’] him into a panic; and all the people who are with him
will flee [QAL weqatalti 3 m.sg. ‫]נוס‬, and (then) I will strike down [HIPHIL weqatalti 1c.sg. ‫ ]נכה‬only
the king,

gli piomberò addosso mentre egli è stanco e ha le braccia fiacche, lo spaventerò e tutta la
gente che è con lui si darà alla fuga, e (poi) io colpirò solo il re
piombare su di lui mentre è stanco e scoraggiato: gli incuterò spavento e tutto il popolo che è
con lui se ne fuggirà e così potrò colpire il re solo.

2 Samuel 17:3 (Driver: MT is mutilated)

‫ל־ה ָ ֖עם ֵא ֶ ֑ליָך ְכּ ֣שׁוּב‬


ָ ‫וְ ָא ִ ֥שׁ ָיבה ָכ‬
‫ישׁ ֲא ֶ ֣שׁר ַא ָ ֣תּה ְמ ַב ֵ ֔קּשׁ‬
֙ ‫ָה ִא‬ ‫ַה ֔כֹּל‬
‫ל־ה ָ ֖עם יִ ְה ֶ ֥יה ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬
ָ ‫ָכּ‬
and I will bring [HIPHIL indir.coh., c.sg., ‫ ]שׁוב‬all the people back to you as [LXX: a bride] returns [LXX:
to her husband.] You seek LXX the life of only one man, and all the people will be at peace."

e ricondurrò a te tutto il popolo, come ritorna la sposa al suo uomo. La vita di un solo uomo
tu cerchi: la gente rimarrà tranquilla».

Allora riporterei a te tutto il popolo, come ritorna la fidanzata al suo sposo: solo la vita di un
uomo tu vai cercando; tutto il popolo sarà in pace».

καὶ ἐπιστρέψω πάντα τὸν λαὸν πρὸς σέ ὃν τρόπον ἐπιστρέφει ἡ νύμφη πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς
πλὴν ψυχὴν ἑνὸς ἀνδρὸς σὺ ζητεῖς καὶ παντὶ τῷ λαῷ ἔσται εἰρήνη

ὃν τρόπον in the manner in which = (just) as Mt 23:37; Lk 13; 34; Ac 1:11; 7:28; 2 Ti 3:8.

2 Samuel 17:5

‫ה־בּ ִ ֖פיו‬
ְ ‫חוּשׁי ָה ַא ְר ִ ֑כּי וְ נִ ְשׁ ְמ ָ ֥עה ַמ‬
֣ ַ ‫אמ ֙ר ַא ְב ָשׁ ֔לוֹם ְק ָ ֣רא ָ֔נא ַ ֖גּם ְל‬
ֶ ֹ ‫֙ ַויּ‬
‫ם־הוּא׃‬
ֽ ַ‫גּ‬
Then Absalom said, "Call [QAL imperative, m.sg., ‫ ]קרא ְל‬Hushai the Archite also and hear [QAL indir.cog
c.pl. ‫ ]שׁמע‬too what he has to say."

22
 Although it is not a cohortative form, the context suggests it is an indirect cohortative. 

55
Ma Assalonne disse: «Chiamate anche Cusài, l’Archita per sentire (o: e sentiamo) ciò che ha
in bocca anche lui».

2 Samuel 17:11

‫ד־בּ ֵ ֣אר ֶ֔שׁ ַבע ַכּ ֥חוֹל‬


ְ ‫ִ ֣כּי יָ ֗ ַע ְצ ִתּי ֠ ֵה ָאסֹף יֵ ָא ֵ֙סף ָע ֶ ֤ליָך ָכל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל֙ ִמ ָ ֙דּן וְ ַע‬
‫ה ְל ִ ֖כים ַבּ ְק ָ ֽרב׃‬ ָ ‫ל־הָ ֖יּם ָל ֑רֹב‬
ֹ ‫וּפ ֶ ֥ניָך‬ ַ ‫ר־ע‬
ַ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬
‫‘ ק ְָרב‬battle’ is an Aramaic word, in Hebrew mainly in later writers. Consequently, since “later
writers” cannot be applied to the books of Samuel, Driver (p. 322) thinks we should read here
‫ְבּק ְִר ָבּם‬“in their midst/in mezzo a loro” in accordance with the Septuagint. (= Driver is
very smart.) In other words, a scribe failed to write the final MEM.

But my counsel is that all Israel be gathered [NIPHAL inf.abs. + direct jussive 3m.sg. ‫ ]אסף‬to you, from
Dan to Beer-sheba, like the sand by the sea for multitude, and that you go to battle
[LXX/Vulgate: in their midst] in person.

Io consiglio: si raduni presso di te tutto Israele da Dan fino a Bersabea, numeroso come la
sabbia/rena che è presso il mare e tu in persona marcerai in battaglia [LXX/Vulgate: in
mezzo a loro].

ὅτι οὕτως συμβουλεύων ἐγὼ συνεβούλευσα καὶ συναγόμενος συναχθήσεται ἐπὶ σὲ πᾶς
Ισραηλ ἀπὸ Δαν καὶ ἕως Βηρσαβεε ὡς ἡ ἄμμος ἡ ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης εἰς πλῆθος καὶ τὸ
πρόσωπόν σου πορευόμενον ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν
sed hoc mihi videtur rectum esse consilium congregetur ad te universus Israhel a Dan usque
Bersabee quasi harena maris innumerabilis et tu eris in medio eorum

2 Samuel 17:14

֣ ַ ‫טוֹבה ֲע ַצ ֙ת‬
‫חוּשׁי ָה ַא ְר ִ֔כּי‬ ָ֗ ‫ל־אישׁ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל‬
֣ ִ ‫לוֹם וְ ָכ‬
֙ ‫אמר ַא ְב ָשׁ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬

‫טּוֹבה‬
ָ֔ ‫ת־ע ַ ֤צת ֲא ִחי ֙ת ֹ ֶפל֙ ַה‬
ֲ ‫יהוה ִצ ָ ֗וּה ְל ָה ֞ ֵפר ֶא‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ֵמ ֲע ַ ֖צת ֲא ִחי‬
֣ ָ ַ‫ת ֶפל ו‬
‫ת־ה ָר ָ ֽעה׃ ס‬
ָ ‫ל־א ְב ָשׁ ֖לוֹם ֶא‬
ַ ‫הוה ֶא‬
֛ ָ ְ‫ְל ַב ֲע ֗בוּר ָה ִ ֧ביא י‬
Absalom and all the men of Israel said, "The counsel of Hushai the Archite is better than the
counsel of Ahithophel." For the LORD had ordained to defeat [HIPHIL inf.constr. ‫‘ פרר‬frustrate,
render ineffective/render nullo, inefficace’] the good counsel of Ahithophel, so that the LORD might
bring [HIPHIL inf.constr. ‫ ]בוא‬ruin on Absalom.

56
Assalonne e tutti gli Israeliti dissero: «Il consiglio di Cusài, l’Archita, è migliore di quello di
Achitòfel». Il Signore aveva stabilito di render nullo il buon consiglio di Achitòfel per far
cadere la rovina su Assalonne.

2 Samuel 17:16 (+AP)

‫ל־תּ ֶלן ַה ַ ֙לּיְ ָל ֙ה ְבּ ַ ֽע ְר ֣בוֹת‬


֤ ָ ‫מר ַא‬
ֹ ֗ ‫הגּידוּ ְל ָד ִ֜וד ֵלא‬ִ֙ ַ ְ‫וְ ַע ָ֡תּה ִשׁ ְל ֣חוּ ְמ ֵה ָר ֩ה ו‬
ָ ‫ַה ִמּ ְד ָ֔בּר וְ ַ ֖גם ָע ֣בוֹר ַתּ ֲע ֑בוֹר ֶ ֚פּן יְ ֻב ַ ֣לּע ַל ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ְוּל ָכ‬
‫ל־ה ָ ֖עם ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִא ֽתּוֹ׃‬

‫ בלע‬I QAL to swallow/inghiottire; PIEL to swallow, devour; fig. destroy;


III to communicate (Jb 37:20, 2Sam 17:16?, )23

Therefore send [QAL imperative m.pl. ‫ ]שׁלח‬quickly and tell [HIPHIL imperative m.pl. ‫ ]נגד‬David, 'Do not
lodge tonight (stay overnight) [QAL direct jussive 2 m.sg. ‫ ]לין‬at the fords of the wilderness, but by
all means cross over [QAL inf.abs. + yiqtol 2m.sg ‫ ;]עבר‬otherwise the king and all the people who are
with him will be swallowed up/devoured/destroyed [PUAL yiqtol 3 m.sg ‫ בלע‬I or III
possible].'" [Or: “lest the king and all the people be destroyed.”]
--If the root III: “lest it be communicated to the king and all the people”24

Ora dunque mandate in fretta a informare Davide e ditegli: “Non passare la notte presso i
guadi del deserto, ma passa subito dall’altra parte, perché non sia annientato il re e tutto il
popolo che è con lui"».

23
 Solo due occorrenze di un significato nell’AT, quindi non è molto convincente, anche se forse è possibile. 
24
 See Clines, Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, vol. 2, p. 180. 

57