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nodar elizbaraSvili

zurab daviTaSvili
nikoloz beruCaSvili

geografia
VII klasi
moswavlis wigni
geografia

geografia
VII klAAasi

nodar elizbaraSvili
zurab daviTaSvili
nikoloz beruCaSvili

redaqtorebi: iamze ecetaZe


pedagogikis doqtori
darejan faRava
pedagogi

kompiuteruli
uzrunvelyofa: nugzar arCemaSvili

© gamomcemloba `klio~ 2012


© gamomcemloba `meridiani~ 2012
© n. elizbaraSvili, z. daviTaSvili, n. beruCaSvili, 2012

yvela ufleba daculia

Nodar Elizbarashvili
Zurab Davitashvili
Nikoloz Berouchashvili
GEOGRAPHY
7th Grade Textbook

gamomcemloba `klio~
aRmaSeneblis gamziri 181, Tbilisi, 0112, saqarTvelo
tel.: (+995 32) 234 04 30
E-mail: book@klio.ge
www. klio. ge

gamomcemloba `meridiani~
al. yazbegis gamz. 47, Tbilisi, 0112, saqarTvelo
tel.: (+995 32) 239 15 22

ISBN 978-9941-415-91-3

2
Sinaarsi
geografia

I Tavi. geografiis sagani VII Tavi. biosfero da niadagebi


da amocanebi 7.1. biosfero. mcenareuli safari...92
1.1. ras Seiswavlis geografia.........5 7.2. biosfero. cxovelTa samyaro..95
1.2. geografiis ganviTarebis 7.3. niadagebi........................................................98
istoria........................................................................9
1.3. geografiis struqtura...................13 VIII Tavi. geografiuli sartylebi
da bunebrivi zonebi
II Tavi. geografiuli ruka 8.1. geografiuli garsi
2.1. horizontis mxareebi......................17 da geografiuli garemo......................101
2.2. globusi da geografiuli 8.2. zogadi geografiuli
ruka................................................................................19 kanonzomierebebi...........................................104
2.3. rukis ena.......................................................23 8.3. arqtikuli (antarqtikuli)
2.4. msoflios geografiuli sartyeli. _ arqtikuli
nomenklatura....................................................25 (antarqtikuli) udabnoebi.
subarqtikuli sartyeli _
III Ta­vi. de­da­mi­wa tundra, tyetundra....................................109
3.1. mzis sis­te­ma. de­da­mi­wis 8.4. zomieri sartyeli. wiwvovani
for­ma da agebuleba.................................28 da Sereuli tyeebi ...................................112
3.2. de­da­mi­wis gan­vi­Ta­re­bis 8.5. zomieri sartyeli.
is­to­ria....................................................................31 farTofoTlovani tyeebis da
3.3. de­da­mi­wis brun­va. tyestepis bunebrivi zona................115
sasaaTo sartylebi...................................34 8.6. zomieri sartyeli. stepebis,
naxevradudabnoebis da udabnoebis
IV Tavi. liTosfero bunebrivi zona................................................117
4.1. liTosfero da reliefi.............42 8.7. subtropikuli sartyeli.
4.2. re­li­e­fis for­mi­re­ba. maradmwvane tyeebisa da buCqnarebis
Si­na­ga­ni Za­le­bi. miwisZvrebi ........45 bunebrivi zona ..............................................120
4.3. vulkanebi. geizerebi......................47 8.8. tropikuli sartyeli.
4.4. re­li­e­fis for­mi­re­ba. savanebis da naTeli tyeebis
ga­re­ga­ni Za­le­bi..............................................49 bunebrivi zona................................................122
4.5. mewyeri da Rvarcofi.....................52 8.9. subekvatoruli sartyeli
4.6. re­li­e­fis Zi­ri­Ta­di for­me­bi. _ cvalebadteniani tyeebis
va­ke­e­bi.........................................................................54 bunebrivi zona. ekvatoruli
4.7. re­li­e­fis Zi­ri­Ta­di for­me­bi. sartyeli _ teniani tyeebis
mTebi..............................................................................56 bunebrivi zona................................................125
8.10. zonaloba msoflio okeaneSi
V Ta­vi. at­mos­fe­ro da mTebSi.................................................................128
5.1. at­mos­fe­ros age­bu­le­ba da
mniS­v­ne­lo­ba..........................................................59 IX Tavi. bunebrivi resursebi
5.2. at­mos­fe­ros gaT­bo­ba.....................61 da garemos aTviseba
5.3. at­mos­fe­ros cir­ku­la­cia. 9.1. bunebrivi resursebi........................131
qarebi..........................................................................63 9.2. bunebrivi resursebis
5.4. at­mos­fe­ru­li na­le­qe­bi...............66 aTviseba....................................................................134
5.5. amin­di da ha­va..........................................69 9.3. bunebaTsargeblobis problemebi.
energiis alternatiuli wyaroebi.138
VI Tavi. hidrosfero 9.4. garemos degradacia
6.1. wyali bunebaSi........................................74 da dabinZureba.................................................141
6.2. okeaneebi........................................................77
6.3. wylis moZ­ra­o­ba oke­a­neeb­Si.....80 X Ta­vi. mo­sax­le­o­ba da sa­xel­m­wi­fo­e­bi
6.4. xme­le­Tis wyle­bi. mdi­na­re­e­bi 10.1. de­da­mi­wis mo­sax­le­o­bis
da mi­wis­q­ve­Sa wyle­bi..............................83 di­na­mi­ka......................................................................144
6.5. xme­le­Tis wyle­bi. tbe­bi, 10.2. mo­sax­le­o­bis struq­tu­ra........147
Wa­o­be­bi, myin­va­re­bi.....................................86 10.3. mo­sax­le­o­bis gan­la­ge­ba da
6.6. wylis resursebis ganawileba sim­Wid­ro­ve. sa­qa­la­qo da
dedamiwaze.............................................................89 sa­­so­f­­­lo gan­sax­le­ba................................150
10.4. sa­xel­m­wi­fo­e­bi msof­lio
ru­ka­ze.........................................................................153
4
VII klasi

I Tavi. geografiis sagani da amocanebi


1.1. ras Seiswavlis geografia

leqsikoni
geografiuli koordinati – geografiuli ganedisa da grZedis gadakveTis adgili, riTac gan-
isazRvreba geografiuli obieqtis mdebareoba dedamiwis zedapirze.
obieqti _ movlena, sagani an piri, romliskenaa mimarTuli yuradReba.
procesi _ movlenaTa Tanmimdevruli cvla.
lokaluri _ konkretuli, SedarebiT mcire adgilisTvis damaxasiaTebeli.
regioni _ msxvili bunebrivi (magaliTad, kavkasia) an administraciuli (magaliTad, samxreT ka-
vkasiis qveynebi) erTeuli.
mdgradi ganviTareba – sazogadoebis iseTi saqmianoba, romelic ar azianebs bunebriv garemos da
iTvalis­winebs Tanamedrove da momavali Taobis interesebs (ZiriTad sasicocxlo moTxovnebs).

sivrce da dro

sivrces aqvs sami ganzomileba: sigrZe, si- lenas gaaCnia geografiuli koordinati. maT
gane da simaRle (siRrme), dros ki mxolod geografiul sivrceSi, garda ganedisa da
erTi _ xangrZlivoba. sivrceSi gadaadgile- grZedisa, gaaCnia garkveuli adgilmdebareo-
ba SeiZleba horizontis nebismier mxa­ res, ba (magaliTad, simaRle an siRrme zRvis
droSi ki mxolod erTi mi­ ma­
rTulebiT – donidan). amrigad, grZeds da ganeds emateba
warsulidan awmyoSi, xo­ lo awmyodan _ mo- mesame koordinatic _ adgil­ mdebareoba
mavalSi. sivrce da dro mWidrodaa dakav- deda­miwis zedapirze.
Sirebuli erTmaneTTan. nebismieri sagani an
movlena, romelic arsebobs sivrceSi, icv- kiTxvebi
leba droSi. amis gamo geografiuli obi- 1. ramdeni ganzomileba gaaCnia geografiul
eqtebis, movlenebis Tu procese­ bis daxasi- sivrces?
aTebisas Zi­
riTadi yuradReba eqceva maT gan- 2. rogor SeiZleba sivrceSi gadaadgileba?
3. ras eqceva ZiriTadi yuradReba geografi-
lagebas sivrceSi da ganviTarebas droSi.
uli obieqtebis, movlenebis Tu procesebis
nebismier geografiul obieqts Tu mov- daxasiaTebisas?

saqarTvelo
Savi zRva

TurqeTi

somxeTi
nax. 1.1.1. saqarTvelos geografiuli sivrce, horizontis mxareebi (W-dasavleTi, E-aRmosavleTi, S-samxre-
Ti, N-CrdiloeTi) da geografiuli koordinatebi.

5
geografiis arsi
geografia

nax. 1.1.2. berZeni geografis ptolomes mier II saukuneSi Sedgenili msoflios erT-
erTi uZvelesi, Cvenamde moRweuli ruka.
geografia Cvens garSemoa, igi yvelga-
naa. sainformacio gamoSvebebidan yoveldRi-
urad vigebT dedamiwaze momxdari bunebrivi
movlenebis Tu adamianis saqmianobis Sede-
gebis Sesaxeb. geografiul sivrceSi mimdi-
nare nebismieri procesi ki _ wyaldidoba,
gvalva, mosaxleobis gadaadgileba, tvirTis
gadatana, haeris an niadagebis dabinZureba
da mravali sxva, rac sivrceSi viTardeba,
ge­
og­rafiis kvlevis sagania.
geografia uZvelesi mecnierebaa. adami-
ani uxsovari droidan aRwers da swavlobs
garemomcvel bunebas, mogzaurobs da ecnoba
axal qveynebs, akvirdeba bunebriv movle-
nebsa da procesebs. dReisaTvis geografiu-
li aRmoCenebis, aRwerisa da Seswavlis um-
niSvnelovanesi etapi istoriis kuTvnileba
gaxda. geografiam kacobriobas udidesi
saCuqari miuZRvna – yvelasTvis „TvalsaCi-
no da nacnobi~ gaxada mTeli dedamiwa, misi
buneba, qveynebi da kontinentebi, xalxebi
da civilizaciebi. Tumca dedamiwaze geo-
grafiuli movlenebi da procesebi swrafad nax. 1.1.3-4. savele gamokvlevebi da misi Sedegebis
viTardeba. Cndeba axali dasaxlebuli pun- gan­xil­va qarTveli da Svedi geografebis mier
Tbilisis midamoebSi.
6
VII klasi

qtebi da saavtomobilo magistralebi, • kiTxvaze sad? geografi eZebs, pou-


gazsadenebi da navTobsadenebi, mcirdeba lobs da gansazRvravs romelime geografi-
tyiT dafaruli farTobebi; iqmneba daculi ul obieqtis an movlenis geografiuli
teritoriebi, izrdeba udabnoebiT dakavebu- mdebareobas, daaqvs igi rukaze.
li farTobebi da a.S. geografiuli obi- • kiTxvaze ra? geografi gansazRvravs
eqtebis, movlenebisa da procesebis gavr­ ge­
o­g­
rafiuli obieqtis an movlenis geo-
celebis Taviseburebebis Ses­ wavla geo- grafiul maxasiaTeblebs.
grafiis amocanaa. • kiTxvaze ratom? geografi adgens geo-
grafiuli obieqtis ZiriTad Taviseburebebs
geografiis kvlevis sagani an movlenis gamomwvev mizezebs.
geografiis kvlevis sagania geografiul • kiTxvaze rogor? geografi gansaz-
sivrceSi arsebuli nebismieri obieqti, ro­ Rvravs geog­rafiuli obieqtis an movlenis
mel­ sac gaaCnia konkretuli adgilmdeba­ ganviTarebis ZiriTad Taviseburebebs.
reoba dedamiwis zedapiris mimarT, aisa­ xeba
geografiuli koordinatebiT da SesaZlebe- rogor muSaoben geografebi
lia misi gamosaxva rukaze. geografiuli informaciis mopovebis ara­
geografiis kvlevis sagani SeiZleba iyos erTi saSualeba arsebobs, romelTagan Ziri­
bunebrivi (qedi, vake, mdinare, niadagi, Tadia savele (eqspediciuri) gamokvlevebi,
landSafti da a.S.) Tu xelovnuri (qveyana, rukebis, fotosuraTebis (maT Soris kosmo-
qalaqi, sofeli, satransporto kvanZi da sidan gadaRebuli) da sxvadasxva wyaroebis
a.S.) obieqti, movlena (wvima, qari da sxv.) (maT Soris istoriuli) analizi. Tu ruka
da procesi (wylis ganawileba, mosaxleo- teritoriaze anu or ganzomilebaze (sig-
bis zrda, qalaqebis ganviTareba da sxv.). rZeze da siganeze) iZleva warmodgenas, spe-
cialuri gamosaxulebebiT geografiuli
ra kiTxvebze pasuxobs geografia sivrcis (anu sami ganzomilebis) daxasiaTe-
geografiam ukve upasuxa kiTxvebze: sad? bacaa SesaZlebeli. amJamad gamoiyeneba geo-
da ra? pasuxobs kiTxvebze: sad? ra? da grafiuli sivrcis samganzomilebiani gamo-
ratom? cdilobs, upasuxos kiTxvebze: sad? saxulebebi, romlebic ganTavsebulia inter-
ra? ratom? da rogor? amgvari kiTxvebi netSi. maTi meSveobiT SesaZlebelia Se-
yoveldRiurad gvesmis, masze pasuxis gacema viswavloT nebismieri geografiuli obieqti.
ki geografebis valia.

nax. 1.1.5-6. myinvar WalaaTis fotosuraTi da samganzomilebiani kompiuteruli modeli,


mopovebuli internetidan
7
geografia

kiTxvebi
1. romel ZiriTad kiTxvebs pasuxobs geografia?
2. ra aqvT saerTo istoriasa da geografias?

sad muSaoben geografebi


geografebi muSaoben sxvadasxva samecnie-
ro, saswavlo, saganmanaTleblo, saxelm-
wifo, di plomatiur Tu sameurneo dawesebu­
lebebSi. samecniero dawesebulebebidan sa­
qar­
TveloSi cnobilia vaxuSti bagrationis
saxelobis geografiis instituti, saswav­
lo-samecniero dawesebulebebidan _ iv.
nax. 1.1.7. saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia
java­
xiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelm-
saqarTvelos geografiul sazogadoebaSi.
wifo universiteti, akaki wereTlis saxe­
lobis quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti, erT-­erTi uZvelesi dawesebu­le­baa Cvens qve­
SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis baTumis sax- yanaSi, romelic 1850 wels daarsda. masSi 2
elmwifo universiteti da sxv. saganmana- aTasze meti mecnieri, po­­
litikosi, mo­ gz
­auri,
Tleblo saq­ mia­
nobiT aqtiuradaa dakavebuli maswavlebeli Tu mos­wavlea gaerTianebuli.
aleqsandre javaxiSvilis saxelobis saqa- saqarTvelos geografiuli sazogadoeba
rTvelos geografiuli sazogadoeba, ro- aq­
tiurad TanamSromlobs saerTaSoriso
melic TbilisSi, qaSueTis eklesiis siax- geo­g­­
rafiul kavSirTan, romelic 1922 wels
loves, gudiaSvilis q. 11 aris ganTavsebuli. daarsda briuselSi. amJamad masSi msoflios
saqarTvelos geografiuli sazogadoeba 100-mde saxelmwifoa gaerTianebuli.

es aucilebelia icodeT:
geografiis Seswavlis obieqtia geografiuli sivrce anu ramdenime aTeuli kilometris mqone fena,
romelSic `duRs~ sicocxle, yalibdeba amindi, moZraobs wyali, saqmianobs adamiani da sxv. es fena
geografiuli garsis saxelwodebiTacaa cnobili. geografiul garsTan mWidro urTierTkavSirSia
rogorc bunebrivi, ise sazogadoebrivi procesebi. magaliTad, haeris temperaturis umniSvnelo
ryevam SesaZlebelia xeli Seuwyos grigals da sacxovrebeli saxlebis dazianebas, erTi xis moW-
ram SeiZleba gamoiwvios Rvarcofi da mewyeri, Rvarcofma _ mTeli soflis mosaxleobis gayvana,
erTi navTobmzidi tankeris daRupvam ki _ aTasobiT tona cocxali organizmis daRupva, plaJebis
mospoba da sakurorto sezonis CaSla.

es sainteresoa:
• jer kidev 25 saukunis win Zvelma berZenma istorikosma da geografma herodotem md. nilo-
sis mimdebare teritoriebis nayofiereba amave mdinaris motanil masalas daukavSira;
• XVIII saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi qarTvelma geografma da istorikosma vaxuSti bagration-
ma mTebSi simaRlis matebasTan erTad bunebrivi pirobebis cvla sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis
gavrcelebas da nayofierebas daukavSira;
• geografia Tavisi arsiT gamoyenebiTi mecnierebaa. mas bunebrivi garemos SenarCunebis da bune-
brivi resursebis gonivruli gamoyenebis saqmeSi udidesi roli eniWeba. amJamad mosalodnel ekolo-
giur katastrofaze, globalur daTbobaze Tu msoflio okeanis donis matebaze saubrobs yvela _
politikosi, mecnieri Tu moqalaqe. bunebrivi garemos SenarCunebis mizniT sistematurad imarTeba
mitingebi, demonstraciebi, Sexvedrebi Tu konferenciebi. mis dasacavad iqmneba saerTaSoriso orga-
nizaciebi, fondebi, kanonebi da sxv. cnobilia, rom mdgradi ganviTarebis principebis ganxorciele-
baze damokidebulia ara marto calkeuli saxelmwifoebis an xalxebis, aramed mTeli dedamiwis
momavali. usafrTxo da mravalferovani garemos SenarCunebis saqmeSi erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi
sityva geografebsa da geografias ekuTvnis.

8
ra­
lur xe­ li­
suf­ le­ ba­
ze ari­an da­mo­ ki­
de­bu­li
geografia

da ara­ na­­ i av­to­no­mia ar ga­


ir aC­
ni­aT. gan­ s­ es sainteresoa:

va­
ve­bu­
li vi­ Ta­re­baa fe­de­ra­ci­ul sa­ xel­m­ • war­ sul­ Si yve­ la­ze di­ di ko­ lo­ ni­ur­i
wi­
fo­ Si, sa­
dac te­ ri­to­ ri­
ul er­ Te­uls aqvs im­
pe­ria iyo di­ di bri­ ta­ne­
Ti. XX sa­ uk­u­nis
Ta­
vi­si ka­non­

deb­ lo­ ba, par­
la­men­ti, ar­ Ce­
u­li da­
sawyi­ si­saT­ vis mi­ si ko­ lo­ ni­
e­bis far­ To­bi
xel­m­ZR­
va­
ne­
li da sxva sa­ xel­ mw
­ i­
fo­ eb­
ri­vi 109-jer aRe­ ma­te­bo­da sa­ kuT­ riv di­ di bri­ ta­
ne­
Tis far­ Tobs. di­ di ko­ lo­ ni­
u­ ri im­ pe­ri­e­
bi
ele­men­te­
bi. fe­ de­ra­ci­u­li sa­ xel­ m­wi­
fo­ e­
bia
iy­

nen saf­ ran­ ge­
Ti, es­ pa­
ne­Ti, por­ tu­ga­lia da
aSS, ka­
na­
da, meq­
si­ka, bra­zi­lia, ger­ma­nia, av­
st
­­ ho­lan­ dia. am­ Ja­mad far­ To­biT yve­ la­ ze di­ di
ria, Sve­i­
ca­ria, ru­ se­
Ti, in­do­e­
Ti, av­ s­
t­ra­lia ara­su­ve­
re­nu­li qve­ ya­naa gren­lan­ dia, ro­ me­lic
da sxv. da­
ni­is av­to­ no­ mi­
u­ri (TviT­ mar­T­va­di) te­ ri­ to­
ri­is sta­ tu­ si aqvs. mo­ sax­le­ o­bis ra­ o­de­no­biT
kiTxvebi ki (4,0 mi­ li­ o­ ni ka­ci) aSS-Tan ne­ ba­
yof­ lo­ biT
1. ro­me­li qvey­
ne­
bi ari­
an ara­ su­ ve­
re­nu­
li, da­ mi­
er­Te­bu­li qvey­ nis sta­ tu­sis mqo­ ne pu­ er­
mo­ki­
de­bu­li sa­
xel­m­
wi­
fo­ eb­i? mo­ Zeb­
neT isi­ni to-ri­ ko.
ru­ka­
ze. • po­li­ ti­kur-ge­ og­ra­fi­u­
li Tval­ saz­ri­siT
2. ev­
ro­ pis ro­
me­
li qvey­ne­
bi mi­ek­uT­v­
ne­
bi­
an mo­ sak­ma­
od di­ di mniS­ v­
ne­lo­ ba aqvs sa­ xel­ m­
wi­ fos
nar­qi­
ebs? te­ri­to­ ri­is for­ mas. yve­ la­ ze xel­ say­re­lad
iT­v­
le­ ba kom­paq­ tu­ri te­ ri­to­ ria anu wres­ Tan
an kvad­ rat­ Tan mi­ ax­lo­ e­
bu­li for­ ma. kom­ paq­
davaleba tu­ ri sa­xel­ mw
­ i­fo­e­
bis ma­ ga­
li­ Tia saf­ ran­ge­Ti
da po­ lo­ ne­
Ti. maT­ gan gan­ s­
x­va­
ve­biT Ci­ le da
Se­

da­reT er­ T­ma­
neTs sap­
re­zi­den­
to res­ pub­ nor­ ve­
gia wag­ r­Ze­
le­ bu­li for­ mis qvey­ ne­bia,
li­ka, sa­
par­
la­men­
to res­pub­li­ ka da kon­
s­ti­ rac sam­ xed­ ro-stra­ te­gi­ul
­ i Tval­ saz­ ri­siT
tu­ci­u­ri mo­
nar­qia da da­

sa­
bu­TeT Ti­To­
e­ul
­i ara­xel­ say­rel te­ ri­ to­ri­ad iT­ v­
le­ ba.
maT­
ga­nis da­
de­bi­
Ti da uar­ yo­
fi­Ti mxa­
re­

bi.

nax. 10.4.4. brunei. sulTnis sasaxle

154