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MOMENTS OF Zionism

Zionism Apostles Essay


Text Documentary

Zionism = National Movement of the Jews for Return in Country of Zion – ‘The
Holly Land’ (or ‘The Promise Land’) and the formation of Eretz Israel State (not
necessarily a definition).
Development Zionist movements in European countries and the U.S. (mid-
section. XIX - sec. XX) becomes the engine and sponsor (through organizations
Joint type) of various stages of Jewish Return, in a land barren and then hostile;
social phenomenon is called generic: ALYA. National consciousness develops in
jewish communities in Europe based on two social vectors: Simultaneous event
in communities in Europe, two contradictory states of mind: Integration into
the daily lives of the majority population of Jews (and in some cases, the
assimilation through mixed marriages).
Resistance and organizing demonstrations in front of anti-Semitism and
intolerance of other ethnic populations in the majority.
How this sequence have different times in different European countries,
including the Russian Empire, hebrew communities were in a continuous search
for solutions. Formation of national consciousness. The join around Jewish
That although many times there were open conflicts between the rabbi.
Although many families of Hebrew in the middle class realized why not go in the
wilderness when going very well where they lived, with the majority population.
Therefore the first who left were poor people - schnorers. A large number of
immigrants took to the road America beginning sec. XIX (where, no more than
70 years and will come before the main financial support of the Jewish Joint).
Another initiative was jew tycoon Moritz de Hirsh (finance, among others the
construction of railways in the Balkans and East) send to 7000 in Russia
Hebrew poverty in Argentina. Jew tycoon Edmond de Rotchschild funds
directly (1870-1910) the creation of compact settlements in Palestine ...
Individual events and punctual.
It was to be like, before Messaiah (God sent) waiting at a handful of Hebrew, the
rabbi to lawyers, bankers, men of culture, etc. from all jewish communities in
Europe and Russia, and social conditions very different; but united by the belief
that Return is the only way to true peace and dignity Hebrew people. It
confirmed the tragical Schoah of the Jews in European fascism and
communism, the harbinger of countless pogroms neighborhoods of big cities
but in small urban settlements at the end of sec. XIX and early XX century.
Is unpleasant, but correctly noted that this process was not idyllic place.
The five social vectors: The Council of Rabbies (the classic and Hassid are in a
continuous war of deaf and leading jewish communities).
Considered class (great bankers of Europe, accustomed to generous gestures
singular, too full of them to mix with the herd – is famous that say Rotchschild
bankers to Zionist leader Theodor Herzl: ‘What do you think that, with 100,000
schnorers (poor) to cure a Country of Israel ?!’), middle class (swing between
satisfaction and empowerment recent idea of financial support and
participation - especially the Hebrew of these young families – to build
economic infrastructure to the future new Hebrew State).
Poor People (ordinary people today to live together, side by side with the
majority poor population, but having a higher education community and
practice of faith for thousands of years) - They will mobilize by Theodor Herzl,
(after being rejected by bankers Hirsch and Rotchschild) They constitute a
majority in the firsts ALYA.
Zioniştii (heterogeneous group as social class of origin and countries of origin,
gathered around the idea of achieving the Jew - Eretz Israel during 1840 - 1897
which will be the rule of law and fact in the Basel Congress in 1897 had many
moments in which opinions and attitudes were different. Unity of purpose and
location of the miracle right leaders in the latter exodus Hebrew of the people
resulted in the establishment of the State of Hebrew (1948). The road was
opened for business two Rabbi: Yehuda Solomon Alcalai

Yehuda Solomon Alkalai


(Yehudah Ben Shlomo Alkalai, Judah Alkalay) (1798-1878).
He was born in Sarajevo in Bosnia. After a period of study in Jerusalem (where
become advocates of teaching Kabbala) is return in Serbia, where leads a small
sephard community Semlim (Zemun) near Belgrade (1825).
Under the influence of origin nationalist movements in the Balkans and Europe
(which will culminate with the 1948 revolutions across the continent), but also
in consonance with the desire to reform life, which are generated in the sec.
XVIII Hassid spiritual movement initiated by Yisroel (Israel) ben Eliezer Called
the Baal Shem Tov (Besht - Shin Bet Ayin Tes) (1698 -1760) and Dov Ber of
Mezritsh (1704-1772); Alkalay of work in 1834, ‘Shema Yisrael ‘(‘ Listen to the
people of Israel ‘) starts from the idea that you pray and deplores the Jew in
Galut (exile) to God by asking for expressions Force Him to be displaced again
in ‘the Holy Land’ (something commonly practiced in the synagogues of the
Diaspora jewish communities and in Jerusalem, where he preached his pending
Messaiah to restore them in Hebrew on Israel and release of Galut) is not
sufficient. Jews must act and held for real Return as more and their spiritual
and real life in their country, in those days called Palestine. ‘Then the God will
come!’ Said Rabbi Alkalay. There he issued the first modern doctrine In the
introduction to a book of Hebrew grammar (Darkhei No’am), in 1839, and
‘Shelom Yerushalayim’ (1840), he urges people to prepare both spiritual and
material resources through the collection - proposes the allocation of each
family of Hebrew tenths of an income ‘tithe’ to support those who want to settle
in Jerusalem. Provides also future dangers of living in the Diaspora and future
effects of the welfare of the majority population accumulated exponentially
because of Hebrew children’s early education, a system of socialization and
support specific to jewish communities, which the majority population not know
to apply and generate forms of early anti-Semitism - which in fact will happen
over the next years ... In the same year, 1840 in Damascus, are killed in Hebrew
reason to be killed Christians for ritual manufacture matzot map (azyme) for
Easter. Comment: This was the Franciscan brother Thomas and his greek
servant, then disappeared. French consul in Damascus Turkish governor alerts
claiming that murder is a ritual practiced by the Hebrew. This starts an
investigation, during which a barber Jew recognizes as torture deed and he
accuses the three. have held shares of pogrom at the Hebrew settlements in the
Middle East. Funeral disappeared two Christians are held in their absence
bodies ...
That confirms it’s Alkalay that Jews can be free only in their own (from the
Ottoman Empire) on which to base jews settlements. Idea taken and Theodor
Herzl (whose grandfather was friends with Alkalay). In 1874 is established in
Palestine to contribute to the settlements of Hebrew. Died in 1878.

Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795 --- 1874)

Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795 - 1874)


In the same period a rabbi in Poland (aschenaz) militate for the same idea:
Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795 - 1874), rabbi of the community in Torun. In
1862 he declared that the Return to Zion the Hebrew p emoupuslset tboe
greinin wstiathll concrete, practicing agriculture and self as a means of
implantation.
He traveled up and across to Germany asking for fund-raising by the Jewish
state with settlement projects of jewish families in Palestine, including bankers
Berlin branch of the Rothschild family. 1862 paper published in ‘Drishat Tziyon
veHevrat Erez Noshevet’ (“looking for the Zion”), a first training manual for
modern agricultural settlements in Israel.
Both rabbis were aware that community empowerment of the first decade of the
XIX century in France , the Habsburg Empire and Germany, by Napoleon I, was
not sufficient. It induces a selfmiddle class and Hebrew magnaţilor across the
everyday life: a mortal danger to induce that state of mind of what a sacrifice
was establish land arid and response to our hospitable local population in
Palestine (which and what happened after 1890). Therefore militants for
systematic development of national consciousness within the Hebrew
community, in close collaboration with Talmudic training and community
socialization of the young generation as a first step in the process of Return.
Kalisher succeeds in 1864 to establish the Central Committee for setting the
region of Israel, in Berlin. Manages to raise awareness Jewess Universal Alliance
in support of agricultural settlements in Israel and the first agricultural school:
Mikve Yisrael in 1870. He suggests that residents of settlements to combine
farming with that of self-defending in local Guard Units to counter attacks
robbery against Yishuv (Palestinian Settlements of Jews). Today, a religious
kibutz valley Bet Shen have his name. Both promoters of ALYA encountered
resistance from traditionalist rabbi weather but they have their ideas by way of
Return those who have followed and developed, theoretically and practically:
Theodr Herzl, Judah Leib (Leon) Pinsker, Ber Borochov, Nachman Syrkin, Ze’ev
(Vladimir) Jabotinsky, Asher Ginsberg (Ahad Ha’Am); Rabis Shmuel Mohilever,
Naphthali Zvi Yehudah. Chaim Weizmann, who will become in 1948 the first
President State of Eretz Israel and many…many others.
2

FIGHT OF JEWS FOR RETURN IN ERETZ ISRAEL


FROM VISION TO ACTUALLY
THEODOR HERZL – CONGRESS OF BASEL 1897

Theodor Herzl (Binyamin Ze’ev Herzl)


(1860 - 1904) was born in Budapest into a family of bankers Hebrew Sephardim
from Zemun (where his grandfather was a disciple of Rabbi Yehuda Solomon
Alkalay, Apostle of the Zionist Movement). When he was 18 years, the family
has moved to Vienna. He follow the Faculty of Law in Vienna. After completing
faculty a short time working at the Ministry of Justice of the Habsburg Empire
after which, as a press correspondent of the newspaper “Neue Freie Presse”
(Vienna) to visit London, Paris Istanbul. Are of a literary columnist and
religious point of view was not concerned about the destiny of Hebrew
communities - until the outbreak of “ Dreyfuss Affair” in France (Paris 1894).
For 10 years, this confrontation between pro-and anti-Semitism of the French.
That fact will mobilize young journalist energy will trigger an action, in the
beginning itself, and then collectively Return for Jews in Eretz Israel. A few
words about “Dreyfuss Affair ”. Artillery Captain Alfred Dreyfuss,
environmental officer in the service of French intelligence (Bureau Two) is
investigated, beginning with October 13 1894 on charge of being supplied
intelligence service intelligence German. Although graphologic expertise a
document with the data was not relevant intelligence and investigation was
underway are leaking information to newspapers. In the October 29 start in the
newspaper “La Libre Parole “ a press campaign to logs taken with anti-Semitic
orientation as ameans of pressure on the Army Staff of the French.
On December 4 the means of pressure on the Army Staff of the French. On
December 4 the War Council meets to judge this case. Captain is convicted,
irrespective of the absence of a final opinion from the committee of inquiry on
the basis of our audited statements, issued a general (Mercier) and a colonel
(Henry).
Sentenced (22 November) and then degraded in public (5 January 1895) is
being deported to Devil Island in French Guiana. His brother and a friend
(writer Bernard Lazare) moves to start the review process. Member addresses to
Jew deputy in French Parliament Joseph Reinah and the Great Rabbi of France
Zadoc Kahn. Both adopt non involvement position. The initiators of the review
process works without any support from the Jewish authority and opacity of the
Ministry of War. The new investigator (mars 1896) Picquart, discovers the
identity of a writing master Walsin Ferdinand Esterhazy (known by his life
Adventurous). War Ministry decided not to reopen the case. Finding of this fact,
Bernard Lazare awareness goes to press in November 1986 by publishing the
booklet “A miscarriage of justice - the truth Dreyfuss Affair”. Issue review
process reaches the French Senate, this time assisted by deputy Jew Joseph
Reinah. The intellectuals of the caliber of Charles Péguy, André Gide, Marcel
Proust, Daniel Halévy, Lucien Herr, Emile Zola, the French takes position to
defend Dreyfuss. The population is divided into pros and cons Dreyfuss. In
1899, after various diversion to keep the allegations and the Esterhazy exempt
by false statements and documents, before the trials, the Major State of French
Army is forced to bring in detention in order to Reine trial on review.
Alfred Dreyfuss is relieved of charges, but some time passes until you will be
reintegrated in the army (21 July 1906). We fight in the First World War and
will retire with the lieutenant colonel rank. With all that has been criticized by
some leaders Hebrew obedience to his attitude, over those 12 years, man
Dreyfuss has demonstrated a stoicism and respect for the law to honor them
(especially since before this disaster in his personal life was rated as a brilliant
military future of the Head Staff, gen. Boisfedre).
In the beginning of the “Dreyfuss Affair” as a journalist in Paris, the position of
young Theodor Herzl is changed in the wave of anti-Semitism generated.
Influenced by ideas of Rabbi Alkalay and he becomes a fervent proponent of
Return Jews in Eretz Israel. Understand that ideas assmilation of Jews by the
performance in a majority of each country (ideas promoted in the emancipation
movement “Haskala” - Jew in the community equal citizen in the society of the
country) and hope that anti-Semitism field is history and will not be repeated is
illusory and counterproductive for the Hebrew people. The same ideas are
shared and Max West (Commentary), which will meet in Paris at the beginning
of the process Dreyfuss. Given to its pragmatic spirit, Theodor Herzl move to
immediate action to raise Jews tycoons in Europe without too much success.
Meeting with Belgian banker Moritz de Hirsch (Commentary) takes place in
May 1895. Meeting is tough and without effect. Maybe pride Baron von Hirsch,
style may directly, and our ardent young Herzl’s protocol ... Tenacious, Theodor
Herzl prepare, by November 1895, a meeting with English banker Edmond
James de Rothschild (Commentary). For this purpose write a draft for
discussion, 64 pages, later called “Der Judenstaat” (“Hebrew State”). Meeting,
in which Herzl proposes bankers to take over leadership of a large organization,
all Jews, for the accumulation of financial assets and organization actions for
Return in Eretz Israel. Rothschild say: ‘What do you think that, with 100,000
schnorers (poor) to cure a ‘Country of Israel ?!’. Herzl’s reply was: “Then I’ll
refer to people”. And in this case was the result of failure of subjective attitudes
of the two. Each will contribute decisively to the creation of theoretical bases,
organizational (Herzl) or funding the training Eretz Israel (Rothschild).
Another perspective, in both cases, it would be like to be! Effort-will be played
the whole Hebrew nation, from visionary Herzl, who followed him after the
Basle Congress, and why not, the majority of financial and industrial Jews elite,
who during the rally organized by the structure of Congress, contributing
financially and logistically, on the road or one hundred years before the
establishment of the State of Eretz Israel. That is an example of a concerted
effort to be worthy of other people, to be applied, adapted to their own
prosperity. Failure of Rothschild meeting is compensated by the draft “der
Judenstaat”, which first published in Vienna on 14 February 1895, is spread
with the speed of fire in all Jewish communities.
From the young students of Hebrew in European capitals to the Russian Jewish
communities (where it was copied by hand in thousands of copies).
An example is David Wolfsohn (Commentary).
Rabinate reaction was, with some exceptions (eg the Grand Rabbi of Vienna)
retained and sometimes laughably. Herzl was baptized as an “attic” of Retour in
Holly Land. Since April 1896, when the English edition of the “Hebrew State”
are publish, Theodor Herzl is recognized as a leader of the Movement of Return
in Eretz Israel – Zionism Mouvement. “Der Judenstaat” (“Hebrew State”),
assemble energy in Hebrew communities up-and across Europe, and Russia, the
United States.
Is So naturally, given the ideas simple, clear and revolutionary in the text. Anti -
Semitism occurs wherever there is a significant number of Hebrew, is manifest
not long after their presence at any place within the majority population. It is
observed in various forms, from school, sports, business, religious intolerance,
and even as a reason for self-defense of majority. It is a phenomenon that can
not be offset in the local, regional, should be addressed by the countries in a
Interstate Agreement. The oppression and persecution could not exterminate
the Hebrew. Integration of Jews in the place is not resolved by either waiving
the Judaic tradition, imitation, assimilation, through mixed marriages. Jewish
poverty problem, which is currently moving from one place to another in search
of jobs is not resolved through individual philanthropy: they can be generated or
generating anti-Semitism.
Anywere they emigrate, shortly Jews middle class accumulate economic power.
Sooner or later most people will respond by induction of some forms of anti-
Semitic behavior. Example is France (in just the first run, hysterical anti-
Semitic, the ‘Dreyfuss Affair’). Jews must to Return in large numbers, their
colonization in Eretz Israel to be assisted financially and logistically for the
standard of living does not decreased for those who get there than in the place
where they went. This can be achieved, financial and logistical, one
philanthropist, for some. Organization is needed and sees as a corporation,
accompanied by a “Hebrew Company “ as a productive economic resources and
management of their use.
Herzl describes the detailed operation and interpenetration between: the local
community as the basic structure; Jewish society, as a body superior to all the
communities through elected representatives; Company Hebrew: financial
support to projects Return in a Jewish Eretz Israel.
In the chapter “Local Community” Theodor Herzl describes the difficulty of
massive migration, as to departure forbiddance psychologically (attachment to
the place, neighbors, tombs, traditions). He propose to make immigration
groups.
Preparation groups will be in time “guide”, each having a “district” and a
committee of representatives designated for this purpose within each local
community. Each family can choose, depending on the opportunities to
emigrate. At the same time Hebrew Company will provide transport (train,
boat) and accommodation space for the first period of settlement, in a group or
individually, in Eretz Israel.
Herzl put an emphasis on cooperation with local community Rabbis. Each
group will have its Rabbi, its spiritual leader, who will receive regular
information from the Hebrew Company, and will distribute and explain the
Group members. Committee representatives will be led by Rabbis. Local groups
will receive compensation for buildings and facilities free of reconstruction in
the new country. The Philanthropic institutions should be included in a system
which allows the complementarity of actions and funding. Education
community, the meaning of training for productive activities in the new location
will be coordinated by the “Hebrew Society” and supported the local
community. Elderly population will be involved in activities, light feeling to have
utility, along with the members. He write, finally: “We will do what’s best to use
moral force to the work of salvation of any man any age and class (social), and
so our people will find new strength from working on his own ground seven
hours a day.
“The Jews Society” is intended as a promoter of “Spiritual State”: a state that
combines the concept of Rousseau on state as a social contract with the
“Spiritual Hebrew State” of Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, “in the Conciliation
Jasmina” (70-90). Type of organization should promote and convey the
concepts of spiritual development, educational and organizational, uniform in
all local communities.
The “Hebrew Company” is a form of organization that aims to purchase land in
Palestine. Also, as administrator of the Hebrew goods, regulates the conversion
value of transferable assets (land, buildings, etc.) in the country of departure,
the new location of Eretz Israel. Undertake and coordinate enterprises
construction Hebrew workers, providing conditions for work (7 hours) and
payment in kind and in cash.
The Funds for those who can not work (pregnant women, children, elderly),
funds for education, funds for self-defense of the Jewish settlements.
Facilitate trade in consumer goods inside and outside Jewish settlements in
Palestine (Yishuv). It will facilitate investment in small industry, the rental of
industrial and agricultural machinery. During the movements of groups of
migrants ‘Hebrew Company’ will ensure all direct and indirect costs.
In April 1896, Theodor Hertzl make first trip to Constantinople, by mediating
the Grand Duke of Baden (who will assist in further efforts to further Jewish
settlement of legal and purchase land in Palestine - under Ottoman husbandry).
This bears the first official talks with the Turks. On his return visit Hebrew
community in Sofia, Vienna, Berlin, London ... Everywhere people it claims it
receives and enthusiastically, with some reservations elite (it is the case, for
example, Maccabees Group in London). Feeling that something terrible is about
to happen Hebrew population abroad (which will become visible soon after
1904 -the Chisinau pogrom – Bessarabia and death of the Hebrew 6,000,000 in
35-45 years of XX century) gives the energy to persevere. In July 1986 has a new
meeting with Baron Edmond de Rothschild.
The two ways: infiltration at any price unlawfully (Edmond de Rothschild has
applied this method since 1882 - first Aliya, leading to the establishment of the
first rural settlement of Moshav), and immigration legal assistance by the
Ottoman supported Herzl, not find a compromise formula.
In the same period, start to organize Zionist movement with the support of Max
Nordau (Comment), Aryeh Leib Motzkin and Avraham Usishkin. First
Organization: ‘Jewish Association’in 1987. In March 1897 preparation
Conference takes place.
Congress to be held in München. The opposition of German Rabbis Council
determine the location change.
August 1897 - Switzerland - Basel: hotel gable which float on the white flag with
blue stripes and Magen David (Star of the six corners of David), representatives
of Jews from 16 countries discussed first plan to Return in Eretz Israel. The
formation and Basel World Zionist Organization, with the following
coordinates: The Systematic and programmatic support to the development of
Jewish agricultural settlements, industrial and craftsmen.The Unification of
Hebrew organizations in the state of each country in accordance with the laws of
that State. Strengthening the spirit of individual conscience and national
Jewry.Preparation work for obtaining the various governments to accept and
support the Zionist aim of Return in Eretz Israel.
Formation of a Committee of Action, based in Vienna, which includes
representatives of major Hebrew community. Max Bodeheimer proposes to
establish a Bank and a National Fund, to centralize and manage financial
resources accruing from collective or individual donations.
Professor Shapira proposes to establish a Hebrew University in Eretz Israel. He
took being first Zionist Organization. It was sing the first hymn future status
Hebrew (Hatikvah - Hope) lyrics by poet Naftali Herz Imber (1856 – 1909
Romanian Jew) and music of Bedrich Smetana.
Herzl consider getting a “International Agreement” for Jewish settlement in
Eretz Israel to be safe. He criticized illegal infiltrations (Aliya). This view has
created confusion in dealing the Return. It will take place in fact, over the 41
years before the establishment of Israel, both ways: legal and illegal, according
to the international political situation.
In June 1898, at his own expense set up weekly ‘Die Welt’ (The World), which
discuss tactics in the political, social, educational and spiritual unification of the
various linguistic communities in Europe, Russia and America, to support what
Hebrew grant settlements in Eretz Israel.
In August 1898, is second Zionist Congress in Basel. Within this formation was
‘Jewish Colonial Trust’ - coordination role with the amounts donated to the
purchase of land, agricultural and industrial development, education, social
assistance to those who are Return in Eretz Israel.
Theodor Herzl launched the concept of “the conquest” - in response to hostile
attitudes of some rabbis and Hebrew opinion leaders from Europe to New
Zionist organizations. Provide the focus of attention and funding necessary to
support the harmonization of the structures of educational communities. And
mutual support in case of oppression by the “majority” population of state
oppression in the country (it had the immediate realities of the Russian
Empire). This mode of organization and management of funds at the global
level is the present “Joint” of the Jews and at the same time, the symbiosis
between political and social Zionism. Within Congress, the socialist leaders have
requested representation in the organization’s management.
In October 1898, Herzl arrives in Jerusalem lead a Zionist delegation, where
they were members of the World Zionist Congress (including the David
Wolfshon). Visit first ancestral lands. He is impressed by the vitality of the
Hebrew people agricultural settlements. He is accompanied by a group of riders
who protects him. They are hardy, healthy, work their land. Compare mental
vitality and freedom with that of the Hebrew state in subsistence poverty, fear of
pogroms, of thousands of Hebrew in Europe and Russia. Has a concrete vision
that will mean for the hundreds of thousands of Hebrew Return in Eretz Israel
and the way: that in the concerted efforts of Diaspora Jews to the accumulation
of funds, purchase of land in Palestine and the spiritual reinforcement becoming
free people in their own country. Emperor Wilhelm II - visiting the same area
lead an official delegation of the German Empire in Turkey. Herzl’s opportunity
is to present its agricultural Hebrew estates. And are visited Jaffa Rishon
Lezion, Ness Zion, Rehovot and Mikve Israel Agricultural School.
In March 1999 Jewish Colonial Trust is registered in London as the bank shares.
In May 1899, Herzl a new trip to Istanbul, where (through mediation of sister
Sultan coach) has a meeting with Sultan on buying land in Palestine (then
integrated in the Ottoman Empire). Sultan asked him instead to cover the huge
deficit of Turks treasury. Preparations made later Hebrew European bankers to
create a joint fund for this purpose fail (although subsequent Jews financial will
implement separate funding but without effect in terms of Herzl’s idea). The
Three Congress of the Basel takes place in August 1899. Herzl in it makes a
report on the steps and meetings with German officials (including King Wilhelm
II to Jerusalem and from Constantinople).
Even if it recognizes the efforts that had no practical effect, he insists the issue
has increased in prestige Zionist Organization. Congress limited the use of funds
to Palestine and Syria. Personnel and undemocratic way in which Herzl
organization makes its decisions creates animosities among members of
Congress, such as Asher Ginzberg (Ahad Ha Am).
1900 and 1901 is an effort that sterile Zionist leader makes them the
governments European and Ottoman and Russian empires. Congress in London
(the Four - 1900) Herzl take action against the expatriation of thousands of
Hebrew in Romania but did not mention the persecutions major Czarist
Empire. He hopes that negotiations to allow Russian officials will give positive
results. Rabbi are limiting Organization which require only the political issues
(in order not to interfere with the field of spiritual and cultural with Rabbis).
The fifth century the Basel Congress (December 1901) confirms the
ineffectiveness of political contacts with the Ottoman Empire.
Frames are formed in Congressional opposition to the way in which Theodor
Herzl drive - called ‘Democratic faction’. The group led by Leo Motzkin, Martin
Buber and Chaim Weizmann require a focus on the achievement of a uniform
culture and education among Hebrew communities. Also ask for
democratization of the movement as a warning to single-member leadership of
Herzl. The only concrete achievement, impact in the coming years will be
statutory Jewish National Fund (Jewish National Fund - JNF), which had the
objective of accumulating funds to purchase land in Palestina.
Swan song of Herzl’s visionary materializes in 1902 by publication in the
October 1902 essay ‘Altneuland’ (Our held). He describes a Jew with a European
culture with a developed social protection. To be a free country, with a complete
freedom of religion, separate from political power, the Jews and non Jews have
equal rights. Jew State is not a country of national oppression but a place where
the feeling of brotherhood and equality will prevail. Immediate reaction will go
from the fact that Herzl did not specify that the only language will be Ivrid.
Ahad Ha Am became a fierce and constant critic of, ‘cosmopolitan ideas’ of the
Herzl essay.
Year for 1902 -1903 are years of exploratory Herzl the British officials,
Ottoman and Russian. Go to Russia to minimize the effects of anti Jews laws. It
is received with great warmth and hope of the Jews in the area of Pale, with a
grand reception in Vilnius. Caught between promises and false alternatives, on
the one hand, and the increasingly poor Jews from Eastern Europe, the
devastating pogroms subject and the lack of prospect of escape from the vicious
circle, Herzl accepted the proposal of the Secretary British state for colonies,
Joseph Chamberlain (October 1903), to establish a Hebrew State on the current
territory of Uganda - as an immediate emigration of hundreds of thousands of
Hebrew persecuted. The project is subject to the of Basel six Congress
(December 1903). The Comments are highly contradictory.
From the accusations of betrayal of ideals in motion to the idea that a solution
would be like a ‘night shelter’ (Max Nordau) .
Resolution making the study, Uganda Plan ‘is passed by 295 votes to 178 against
(all Russian Zionist delegates) and 98 abstentions. The prestige of Herzl’s
leadership will be seriously touched in the Congress. But its efforts on actions
impendence large saving Jews from Eastern Europe recently are confirmed:
Pogrom in Chisinau on 6-7 April 1903.
On April 6, a Russian child is found murdered in the town Dubossary. Local
Newspapers anti-Semitic incitement to revenge against the Jews on the grounds
that it would be a ritual murder - the blood to produce matzot of Easter - that
was after he was killed by a relative ... Between 7-9 April in Chisinau community
is devastated: 49 dead, 59 seriously wounded, 500 wounded, 700 houses
destroyed. Intervention is no Czarist authorities, during the pogrom.) Hertzl in
its route from the Russian Empire in 1903, finds that all the promises are to
form, manifest disdain towards the Jews is doubled along the order they are
used as valve embezzlement discontent of the majority population towards
inefficient administration empire, hunger and social misery of generalized
Russian empire. Movements anti Czar (another pogrom, 19-20 October 1905,
also in Chisinau, will result in the diversion of such riots, in which 19 Hebrew
killed will be mistreated and 56) will grind Czarist empire to his fall in 1917.
Theodor Hertzl had visions of saving his people from oppression and
humiliation, the immediate concrete situations (see the case Dreyfuss). He had
the genius of the possible solutions. But many of his notable not have given us
the vision rally danger that hover over their people, whether in Holocaust of the
years ‘40 of the last century.
1904 - Sick and almost alone, Hertzl has a series of meetings: the Pope and King
of Italy - in January, with the Zionist action - in April (to settle conflicts in the
Zionist Movement). He died in the sanatorium Badlach (Austria) of pneumonia
at 44 years. The news came in all communities. Thousands Hebrews have taken
the way of Vienna to be with their visionary leader in him last road. The
Mortuary convey endless drain on the boulevards of Vienna, the Hebrew
Cemetery Sephard Rite. The silent is crowd, when the body are fit in the grave,
liven suddenly.

Screaming with pain, Jews break their clothes on them; the cry of thousands of
desperate people, while creating an unforgettable moment, that they will
remember the friends and its enemies (as Stephen Tzveig writer and publicist
Jew Austrian proponent of assimilation of Jews as and constant opponent of
Herzl, assisting in the funeral recognized events in Jewish supreme evidence of
the value of Herzl’s symbol for millions of Hebrew Diaspora). Herzl was the first
Jew who, after 1800 years, it take action and declare before the world that Jews
are a people with rights of any nation, and continues through to convince
millions Hebrew to follow him. A face in spite of evidence and contest of
representatives Hebrew (spiritual or financial), following the vision of the
organization until the Zionist Movement its materiality - World Zionist
Organization.
Max Nordau
Was born in Budapest in 1849, the son of Gabriel Südfeld an Orthodox rabbi of
Sephardi origin. Following courses at primary school Hebrew, Catholic college
and obtain licensee in Medicine. Is married to a Protestant Christian, and is set
in Paris where he opened a medicine cabinet. At the same time is a writer and
correspondent for the press. He meets Theodor Herzl in the preliminary stages
of the process Dreyfuss. Both share the belief that anti-Semitism is a universal
fact. Assimilation that practiced the Hebrew is bankrupt; Return that in Eretz
Israel and the formation of a Jew is the only way for the Jews. Become a friend
and comrade of ideas and promotion of the Zionist movement, Theodor Herzl.
It will be noticed as an organizer of the first Zionist congress. At first Congress
(1897) will be the secretary of Congress.
In the speech was addressed to those present in the courtroom, he underline as
a characteristic of Hebrew communities mess everywhere, not so much material
-present more or less supportive of the misery existing in the majority
population living in each community-such as moral. Even in Western countries
- Europe, declared the equality of Jews with the majority of the state, is
accompanied by inducement of majority of the population that a Jew can have a
sense of honor, sense of duty, patriotism and morality as they are.
Arguments related to pre-existing feelings of hate a Jew. Emancipation of Jews
in Western Europe has created a feeling among them that “Hebrew in the
Ghetto” became a frustration their daily life where they suffered shame and
humiliation. They forget that for hundreds of years he was a place of refuge and
preserve spiritual and moral values of people ... Those who choose the path of
assimilation, social and cultural, and want to be French, German ... before being
considered Jew, believing in such a life of dignity and decent society in which
the majority live. From this posture minimizes the manifestations of anti-
Semitism that observed around him. But these phenomena, apparently more or
less minor, while it induces a feeling misery moral, social support in the absence
of the Hebrew native traditions which went on the road to assimilation.
He asks Congress to find ways to build financial and educational structures able
to achieve unity of Jewish spiritual recovery through education and training to
regenerate links with local communities. Staff will remain in the future
Congress, as president or vice president, promoting a democratic debate and
decision making. In1892 published his best known: “degeneration” which
criticizes the so-called degenerate art based on the negative social effects that
have rapid urbanization on the human body and psyche. Dies in 1923.

Baron Moritz de Hirsch


Moritz De Hirsch was born in Munich, on 9.12.1831. Belonged to a family of
bankers who claimed the Hebrew king Bavaria. The family received a rank of
noble baron “von” Hirsch. They kept mosaic faith, they build a small synagogue
in his own house. Here Moritz taught Jewish religious instruction and Ivrid
language.
School followed her to Munich, not to excel in the study. At 17 years employed in
as a new employee to a strong bank “Bischoffsheim & Goldschmidt” in Brussels.
Is performing in the company, but upswing is guaranteed marriage to Clara,
daughter of the owner of the bank (1855). Soon set up its own bank and invest in
building the railway sugar plantations, and mines copper. Use of a bankruptcy
banker to take up the construction of railways in Turkish Empire and the
Balkans, first connection with Middle Europe in 1883 by opening the railway
Vienna - Constantinople. He Becomes very rich and popular in the High Life
(such as friend of the Prince of Wales, future King Edward of England). From
this position it will occupy the lives of indigent Jews bordering countries of
Western Europe, subject to the restrictions of social origin (employment) and
ethnic (anti-Semitism). He donated 1,000,000 francs (1873) to ‘Alliance
Israelite Universelle’ (Paris) to establish trade schools for Hebrew in the
Balkans and in Turkey, the process continued through annual donations of
400,000 francs. In 1889 established a charitable fund in support of Hebrew
refugees persecuted in the Russian Empire, which has benefited to a lesser or
greater extent Hebrew 5,000,000 in Russia, Lithuania and Poland, located in
the so-called “region Pale” (from that Jews were not allowed to leave at that
time). This double tax and was not allowed to live in big cities. Bear successive
pogroms they destroy homes, businesses and synagogues. From 1887 Jews are
prohibited access to secondary education in the Pale. Hirsch proposes the
amount of 50,000,000 francs to establish separate schools for Hebrew in the
region but refused to stipulate that the conditions as these amounts are not
defalcate from officials of Czarist empire.
The Families of thousands of Hebrew flee to the Austro-Hungarian border,
around the city Brod. Under these conditions Hirsch argues in 1891, ‘Jewish
Colonization Association’ (Jewish Colonization Association (JCA) in England) to
support the Jewish colonization in Russia and elsewhere in Argentina will not
be subjected to discrimination – in Europe, Asia, North America or South, for to
determine to make agricultural activities, commercial work of any kind. Send
emissary to buy land in Argentina, Canada. Intend to ensure the issue of
Russian passports to the departure of 20,000 in first year Hebrew. JCA cover
cost of travel to South America. Even though only about 7,000 Hebrew followed
this road, was the first experiment of Hebrew pastoral life he has done it before
being cast out of Israel (in section I and II of the first millennium). In the
Europe accounts for the years 1880 1900, the population displacement from
Pale to less restrictive areas (Poland, Ukraine, Austria-Hungary, Bucovina,
Romania). In the North America, forming communities of Hebrew farmers in
New Jersey, including the College of Agricultural and Hirsch. Will bequeath to
his death (1899) $ 45,000,000 for Jewish colonization Association).

Baron Edmond Benjamin


James de Rothschild
It was born in Paris (19.08.1845)- in the family castle of French bankers
Rothschild.
Concerned with art, with a vast collection of paintings, many donated to Louvre
Museum in Paris will be geared to support Jewish settlements in Erez Israel
(1882), at great hardship. He donated huge sums of money from its assets to
buy land in Palestine. He established the first two Hebrew estates who
cultivated large areas of vines: Rezhon Lezion, Zichron Yaakov (after the name
of his grandfather). He financed the development of wine industry and
economic development of settlements in the Middle East. For this purpose he
create “Association of Hebrew colonization of Palestine” (Palestine Jewish
colonization Association - PICA). After the first Zionist Congress in Basel, he
will support the Zionist movement’s own name, without being integrated
directly in its organizational structure and politics. He died in 02.11.1934
David Wolfshon
He was born in Lithuania, in the town Darbenai. with Max Bodenheimer will
establish in the German Colony locality, “Association for development of
agriculture in the country of Israel” (under the local organization “Chovevei
Zion”). Immediately after reading Herzl’s book, will leave in Vienna to meet
with the author. I joined them, traveling with him in 1888 in Constantinople
and in Eretz Israel, meeting with Emperor Wilhelm II - century. Wolffsohn will
become the first president of the Jewish Colonial Trust, which aimed at the
accumulation of financial resources and their use in Eretz Israel for the
purchase of land and Hebrew settlements implantation. After Herzl’s death
(1904), is elected president of the World Zionist Organization “until 1911.

HEBREW ORGANIZATIONS IN SELF DEFENSE YISHUV


(HEBREW COMMUNITY IN ISRAEL)
The phenomenon of population development of self defense Yishuv (Hebrew
population in Palestine) during 1918 - 1948 was long and with numerous’
syncope ‘, caused both by the conditions existing during the British occupation
(1918-1920), the British mandate over Palestine (1920 -1948), and that the
Hebrew people of Palestine have no experience of extremist attacks, which
began in 1920, against the Hebrew settlements in the region.
To understand where they should have come, we present some excerpts from
‘World Zionist Organization Declaration’ made on 03.02.1919, session Peace
Conference in Paris:
“I. Palestine should be placed under such political conditions, administrative
and economic establishment that will ensure that the ‘Hebrew National House’
... being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the
civil and religious rights of the existing us - Hebrew in Palestine or the political
rights enjoyed by the status of Hebrew in any other country .”... .
“II. Will forever be one the most complete freedom of religion for all religious
creeds in Palestine. There is no discrimination among people with regard to
citizenship and civil rights on grounds of religion or race. “ Palestine is not large
enough to receive more than one of the Jews in the world. Most of the fourteen
million, scattered through all countries must remain in their current locations ...
Hebrew National House will be of great value to them ..., this will inspire
millions of Hebrew, often before despairing , a new hope ... will have a high
standard of living for our citizens Hebrew and no Hebrew in places where they
live “ require setting the border is in the following coordinates:

North: Mediterranean Sea south of Sidon, on the capture of springs Lebanon


Mountains (KARAON EL) EL BIRE following the line of demarcation between
the two basins: Wad El Kook and Wadi Et Teim, thence in a direction from line
of demarcation between the eastern slopes of the Hermon and West.
East: Hermon, NAHR MUGHANIYE following Hedjaz rail to the South Bay
Akaba.
South: to be negotiated with the Egyptian Government
West: the Mediterranean
The peace negotiations, the San Remo (Italy) will be final produce ‘Map of San-
Remo 1920’ for Palestine, which ensures a clear separation of the two areas
(Hebrew and Arabic) with the Jordan River border.
This document reminds me of the essay ‘Altneuland’ (Our held) written by
Theodor Hertzl in October 1902. He describes a Hebrew State with an economy
based on new technologies, with a European culture with a developed social
protection. A free country, with a complete freedom of religion, separate from
political power, in which Jews and non Jews have equal rights: ‘Hebrew State is
not a country of national oppression but a place where the feeling of
brotherhood and equality will prevail’ ; wrote Hertl the visionary Zionist twenty
years before this time.
Premises were a resolution of the Jewish Return to the ‘Promised Land’, to form
a multi racial state in which would be prospered both Jews and Arabs, with the
technology and funds infused by the Jewish World.
There were between 1918-1920 negotiations between Chaim Weitzmann,
leader of the World Zionist Congress and Emir Feisal, the future king of Saudi
Arabia.
In 6 February 1919 Emir Feisal, advocated in his speech before the Peace
Conference, which requires independence of Arabian State, the agreement and a
guarantee for Palestine: enclave of ‘Zionist Hebrew’. His hope was that
Weitzmann support total the Arabs in their dispute with France for the Syrian
coast, forming a ‘Semitic Alliance’ . Negotiations failed in 1920, once the starting
‘Arab riots’ in Palestine.
Final strike given to the opportunity of cohabitation between Arab and Hebrew
is done the British Empire. In 1921 77% of Palestine, is assigned to a new state:
Arab Emirate of Jordan. Thus the UK ensure their control over a territory
claimed by King Feisal of Saudi Arabia, giving him to a faithful Emir Hussein,
the future King of Jordan. New state is supported, financially and militarily by
the British Empire. Basically it was the right of the Jordan River, as the map was
assigned (San Remo Map), to Arab population of Palestine.

Tacitly Britain imposed a further division of the territory allocated Hebrew


community (Yishuv) ... between Hebrews and Arabs - without the opportunity
to establish a natural territorial boundary - the Jordan river.
In 1922 the United Nations granted the British Mandate government over 23%
of the territory remained of Palestina. Thus, the so-called “Pax Britanica” was
the germ of long fight between Arabs and Hebrews of the territory under British
Mandate: on a territory not enough for each of the two peoples; and the
transformation of real social expectations in a bloody game ‘of the cat and
mouse’ which is the almost one hundred years.
Between 1920 - 1947 the rate of economic growth in Palestine was: Hebrew to
13.2% (due to infusion of labor immigrants and capital) and 6.5% at Arabs.
Graduation rate of normal schools and courses was 86% in Hebrew and 22% of
Arabs. During this period the Arabs of Palestine were more evolved, their life is
among the highest in the area, the second after the Arabs in Lebanon. From a
UN statistic that in 1939, Jews in Palestine were ranked 15, the Arabs of
Palestine ranked 30 (vs. Egypt - 33 Turkey - 35). It can be concluded that in
terms of socio-economically, the two communities have evolved towards social
welfare. Coexistence between the vast majority of Arabs and Jews “together”
there, despite the Arabs extremism and later Jews extremism.

Paramilitary unit ‘Bar Giora


Paramilitary unit ‘Bar Giora’ - founded in 1907 - was the Hebrew clandestine
organization, during the two-to Alya - emigration of 40,000 Hebrews in
Ottoman Empire - Palestine - from 1904 to 1914 - the majority coming from
Russia and Poland, countries where the social instability and pogroms against
the Hebrew communities were ‘blooming’. Nearly half of these immigrants leave
Palestine during the First World War.
Members of organization, about 100, had aimed to replace the Arab
mercenaries. Hebrew pay Arabs to protect their properties. This promote
penetration and theft on these properties (in which work was performed by the
Arabs). Initiator has been a group of militants of the organization ‘Poale Zion’ -
Hebrew Social Democratic Workers (Hebrew movement of workers, Marxist
orientation, founded in Russia in 1901). Leaders were Itzac Ben-Zvi (the future
second president of the Eretz-Israel in 1952) and Israel Schocat.
They militate for a change in the optical core at the situation of that time: the
result of investment bankers Edmond de Rothschild, in the period 1890 - 1910,
was forming a blanket of small Hebrew landowner, owners of relatively large
plantations. They use Arab agricultural workers and security guards, much
‘cheaper’ than the Hebrews immigrants . Consequence: during that period was a
more accelerated growth of Arab population immigrated to Ottoman Palestine,
than the Hebrew immigration. This migration will have major consequences in
the interwar period: the purpose of increasing the number of Arabs workers - a
source of ‘cannon fodder’ for Arab extremism.
The phenomenon we meet today in European countries where extremism is
recruiting Arab followers among Muslim immigration (coming to work instead
of locals ‘more expensive ‘). In the East, is recruiting in Palestinian campuses of
Arab refugees in Palestinian territory, Jordan, Iran ... Everywhere where there
are Arabs living in poor conditions and hatred accumulated over a period of
generations wander.
For Hebrews, the only way to become a nation was, in Ottoman Palestine to
work and defend their own land. Organization name was given as a symbol of
Jewish independence, to name a leader of uprisings against the Romans since
68 c.e - Simon Bar Giora.
They had a banner that quoted from the poem “Habiryonim (Yaakov Cohen):
‘In blood and fire Judea fell, in blood and fire Judea will revive’. Members of the
organization have experience in field work. Made agriculture and guard Galilee
in the area Sejera and Mes’ha (Kfar Tavor).
The organization will be integrated - 1909 - the organization ‘Hashomer.

Paramilitary unit ‘HaShomer’

Paramilitary unit ‘HaShomer’ (‘Man of the Guard’ - ‘Shomrim’) - Founded in


1909 by Israel Shochat, Manya Shochat, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Rachel Yanai, Mendel
Portugali (founding members of the organization and ‘Bar Giora’).
The purpose of the service was to provide security for all communities in
Hebrew Palestine (Yishuv), eliminating mercenaries Arab mercenaries, as many
times uncertain. Dress port after Circazian, Bedouin or Druze.
Acting on foot or horseback. Weapons were diverse: from the old Turkish
musketry, mauser pistols and hunting weapons. In such a panoply was almost
impossible to obtain bullets. Were tepid rudimentary small workshops
manufacturing ammunition.
Code of Conduct (written by Mendel Portugal) was to chase the intruders in the
Jewish lands by gunshots fired in the air. Using direct-fire was the intruder in
the case of self defense.
Organization has been successful in Yishuv but aroused hatred Arabs former
guards, which now incite people to attack Hebrew residents. Many veterans of
the Hebrew settlements feared that the presence in the territory of Shomrim will
destabilize the relationship of cohabitation with the Arab population. Ottoman
authorities concerned with their suspicion.
During the second World War many were exiled or killed in Anatolia. They are
considered as potential members of British intelligence in the region - work less
confirmed by the capture of the British ‘Nili‘ group, led by Yosef Lishanski,
Samuel Belkind, in which were 12 members HaShomer, but not the organization
as a whole. After the First World War self defense group decide to unify in a
single organization - ‘Haganah’.
Some of HaShomer members will join Hebrew Legion, others will join the
mounted police, established by the British occupation in Palestine.

Ze’ev Jabotinski
Ze’ev Jabotinski (Vladimir Evghenievici Jabotinski ) was born on October 18
1880 in Russia, in a family of Hebrew askenazi of the middle class, in Odessa.
Next primary, secondary and high school in the Russian education system.
Learn Ivrid in particular.
Ydish was the language they spoke in the family. Talent

journalist and it says in high school. After


graduation will go in Berne and Italy (where is the Faculty of Law at the
University of Rome) as a press correspondent of Russian and Hebrew
newspapers.
The pogrom of April 1903 in Chishinau Comment: The April 6, a Russian child
is? found murdered in the town Dubossary. Local Anti Semitic Newspapers
incitement to revenge against the Jews on the grounds that it would be a ritual
murder - the blood to produce matzot of Easter - that was after he was killed by
a relative ... Between 7-9 April Hebrew community of Chishinau is devastated:
49 dead, 59 seriously wounded, 500 wounded, 700 houses destroyed. Is no
Czarist authorities, intervention during the pogrom. Manifest disdain towards
the Jews is doubled along the order they are used as valve for discontents of
majority population against the inefficient administration of the empire, hunger
and generalized social misery of the Russian Empire. Ze’ev Jabotinski join the
Zionist Movement.
Soon says its talent how leader, orator and organizer. In the face of pogroms
and abuse often at Hebrew population in the area, will start in Odessa and
establish the first self-organization of Hebrew communities across Russia.
As happened with some Zionist leaders [see the case of Theodor Herzl, he
reached in conflict with the Hebrew local conservative leaders who postponed
the process of concrete realization of the self defense teams. There were reasons
both local pride and a fear of further retaliation by the Russian population.
The consequence was that the pogroms of the period 1904 - 1917 found Russian
Hebrew communities unprepared for self defense ...
As is picturesque, he change the first name of ‘Vladimir’ in ‘Ze’ev’ ( ‘Wolf’). Also
in the year 1903 became a member of the Zionist delegation from Russia to the
six Zionist Congress in Basel. After the death of Theodor Herzl (1904), will be
the leader of the right circle in Congress. In 1906, the Helsinki launches
sentence autonomy local ethnic minorities, as an economic viability of
maintaining social, cultural communities in Russia. Congress slogan: “Work
now” refers to the whole community of life, modernization of the religious and
secular Hebrew schools, the protection of people in communities. He has not
only been a short time after the 1917 revolution in Russia. But Ze’ev Jabotinski
extend this concept and the future coexistence between Arabs and Hebrew, in
Palestine: “Every ethnic community will be recognized as autonomous and
equal before the law.” That has not been done is not his fault.
In the years ‘30, he will become head of one of the most virulent extremist
Hebrew units in Palestine: Irgun Zeva’i Le’umi (National Military Organization -
Etzel, IZL - 1935).
During the first World War, with Joseph Trumpeldor will contribute to
establishing a first auxiliary Hebrew battalion in British Army (1915), to be
distinguished in the battles at Gallipoli. You will then initiate the formation of
the three battalions of the Hebrew Legion Jabotinsk is distinguished in the
battles of the Jordan Valley (1918) and is decorated for bravery with “Order of
British Empire” members. After the war is chosen in the first Elected Legislative
Assembly of Yishuv (Hebrew communities in Palestine) and the Executive
Committee of the World Zionist Organization. He participate in the defense of
Jews during the Arab extremist actions in April 1920 - the first ‘Arab Riot’ in
fact an order of Emir Feisal - the future king of Saudi Arabia - as discontent over
the fall of ‘Semitic Alliance’ parley with Weitzmann Irgun organization founded
- 1935 - militate for a virtually free immigration (legal or not) of Jews in Eretz
Israel, the opposite way of the action promoted by Chaim Weitzmann (legal
immigration). Irgun units will fight against both Arabs and members of the
British army on the mandate for the period 1940 to 1948.

Joseph Trumpeldor
Joseph Trumpeldor was born on 1.12.1880 in the town of Pyatigorsk, Russia.
His father, Wulf Trumpeldor, served 25 years in the Russian army, being in the
War in the Caucasus. In fights data loses an arm.
Being among the few Hebrew families considered “useful Jew”, his family was
allowed to settle in the area outside the residence of the West Russian Empire
(Pale area), outside which the Jews were forbidden to live. Joseph Trumpeldor
came as a volunteer in the Russian Army in 1902.
During the Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905), participated in defending the
Port Arthur siege of the Japanese army. Loses his left hand but asked to
continue fighting. After the conquest of the port is taken prisoner by the
Japanese until the cessation of hostilities. Repatriated to Russia received four
medals and order ‘Cross of St. George’. In 1906 also receives the captaincy rank
in the army reserve of Czar (unique case - the Jews had no right to higher
degrees in Russian army).
He next Faculty of Law in St. Petersburg. In the year 1911 he made Alya with a
group of young Zionist from Russia to Palestine (under the Ottoman
occupation), where work on a farm. Participate in the creation of the first
Kibbutz (agricultural socialist community): Degania.
At the beginning of World War I, that does not accept Turkish citizenship, it is
to be expelled from Alexandria (Egypt), along with other hundreds of Russian
Hebrew origin (Russia are enemy of Turkey, allied with German and Austro
Hungarian empires). This meets with Ze’ev (Vladimir) Jabotiski. Together form
the basis of Hebrew Legion - a way to participate in the British war effort for the
release of Palestina and Eretz Israel state building. Body is formed of Horse
Zion unit (Zion mule Corp). Participate in this unit (integrated in British Army)
in the battles at Gallipoli. Is again wounded in the shoulder. This unit is
disbanded in 1915. Together with Jabotinski moves two years for the
establishment of Hebrew Legion (1917).
In 1918 he return at Petersburg. This he form self defense squads of the
Hebrew communities in acts of vandalism before the gangs that haunted Russia
during the Civil War (1917 to 1921). In parallel organizations set up his young
Hebrew preparing to come to Israel (HeHalutz).
Returned to Palestine (1919) became a founding member of the Movement of
Socialist Zionist Yishuv. He lives in Kibbutz Kfar Gilad where lead a self-
Hashomer Hatzair area colony of Upper Galilee in Hebrew. On 1 March 1920,
together with ten comrades, he comes to defend Kibbutz Tel Chai (Tel Hai).
Dies, shot in the arm and stomach in the evening.
He said about him: “I am an anarchist-communist and a Zionist.” He militated
for the formation of a trade unionist and socialist community of Hebrew in
Russia.
He contributed to the generation of movement for the establishment of
settlements in Hebrew socialist organization (Kibbutz), which formed the
backbone of the Jewish Return and units Haganah self defense, between 1920 –
1948.
Members Zionist movement who were in Palestine at that time were
considered episode of Defense Hebrews in Tel Chai as the first major battle to
defend Hebrew settlements in Palestine. He also formed when changing
mentality: from passivity to persecution to a new type: strong reaction and
defense of their own resources, without waiting for others to come to give
‘protection’ (in this the case - the British Mandate).
Case Trumpledor hero is in itself demonstrative: from a family of Russian
Hebrew ‘assimilated’ majority population, without knowledge of childhood
Jewish tradition and Yiddish language.
He went to war in the imperial Russian army, where many young Hebrew
attempting to evade from service in Russian army.
He excelled as a soldier to defend the citadel-Port Arthur. Seriously injured
required to continue fighting. After that he is prisoner in Japan. Receives
military honor - “St. George Cross” and is the first Jew officer in the Russian
army. All they look at all the traditional image of the Jew : inhibited and timid in
front of opponent. He stood up to the last gasp kibbutz Tel Chai and drop dead
‘does not matter, it is good to die for your country’ (lamut tov b’ad artseinu -
words related to a comrade: Pinchas Shneiurson), words that became the
national slogan for the fighters of Haganah, Irgun, Palmah, Lehi organizations
and later to all the people of Eretz Israel. Marking the annual Tel Chai Day (11
Adar) was established in a ceremony at the national average – in institutions
and schools, in pilgrimages. Title of ‘hero amputate’ (ha-ha-gibor gidem) make
it glory.
Day becomes a celebration of Hebrew anonymous soldier, after the
establishment of Eretz Israel. The secular ‘ritual’ linked to personality of this
new type of behavior the Hebrew people, was essential in forming the Eretz
Israel and the behavior of reference for the thousands of ‘Trumpledor’ heroes
and heroine who sacrifice in the battles for territorial identity, which followed.

Hebrew Legion

Hebrew Legion - Created in 1915 from 500 Russian


Hebrew origin, expelled from Palestine to Egypt by the Turks. Led by Ze’ev
Jabotinski and Joseph Trumpeldor is officially recognized in 1917 as Battalion
38 in British Army. Hebrew come from Russia reached more than 1,000
combatants. When he added, in April 1918 consisting of 39 Battalion. Hebrew
came from the U.S. and Canada. Legion fought on the front in the Middle East,
led by General Allenby, until the end of hostilities. At the end of the war have
herd: 5000 soldiers in 5 battalions. According to statistics, made by Ze’ev
Jabotinski: 34% were from the U.S., 30% of Palestine, 28% UK, 6% from
Canada, 1% in Argentina. In June 1918, volunteers from 38 Battalion began
fighting with the Turkish army, about 20 mile north of Jerusalem, the Jordan
Valley.
Hebrew legionnaires participated in the battle of Megiddo in mid September
1918. They crossed the Jordan River by fighting, and were engaged in decisive
battle of the conquest of Damascus.
After the victory, most fighters were? demobilized in November 1918. Some of
them returned to their country of origin. Few have been established in Palestine
to support Alya of Jews in Eretz Israel. Hebrew Legion army is maintained in
the size of a British battalion, called ‘First Judeans’ badge with a distinctive sign
‘Menora‘ (six candle arms) and the slogan’ Kadima‘ (‘ Next ‘).
In 1921, Legion veterans are allocated land and desert, north of where Neghev
founded Avihayil moshav. Subsequently abandoned because of lack of water
source.
Will be embedded in 1946 in the moshav Ein HaOved inhabited by the Hebrew
Russia, Canada and the United States. There is now a museum of the Legion
and the Veterans Legion club.
The Beginning of Arab extremism mouvement in Palestine - 1920
Extremism in Arab Palestine has its roots in the “Directive” given by Emir Feisal
after the fall of negotiations between him and Chaim Weitzmann. Immediately
after this time are the first Arab revolt (4 April 1920) during the Spring Festival
Nabi Musa (in Arabic “The prophet Moses” - the celebration of Muslim prophet
in Palestinian folklore, for seven days - was in a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to
prophet tomb (regarded by the Arabs was in town Jeriho area). Pilgrimage was
established by Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyūb (Saladin) in the years 1150 to
counteract the Christian holidays of Easter in Jerusalem:
After three days of confrontations: 5 Hebrew dead, 211 injured, 4 dead Arabs, 21
Arabs injured, seven British soldiers killed. Three hundred Hebrews eject are
(‘clear’) in the Old City.
Paradoxically, they were attacked homes of Orthodox Jews - bitter enemies of
the Zionist movement ... during the commemoration of the Palestinians Arabs
prophet Moses ... Ze’ev Jabotinski is arrested for weapons possession and
sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. Sent to jail in Egypt and then to Accra.
Under the pressure of Jews in England and America is switching to a year
sentence. Are closed at 200 participants rebellion, 39 of which the Hebrews.
One of the most important consequences of riot in 1920 was that the Jews of
Yishuv have realized that the defense from the British occupation is uncertain in
the face of Arab revolt. They reacted putting into practice the idea of self
paramilitary units to ensure a consistent response to the attacks Arab extremists
on the land of Palestine. So take birth in 1921 paramilitary units ‘Haganah‘
(‘Defense‘, in ivrid, ‘HaHaganah’). These units will be accepted volens nolens of
the British mandate. This organization will convert into regular military units of
the Israeli army after independence the Eretz-Israel (14 May 1948), in 28 May
1948.
Paramilitary unit ‘Haganah’ - ‘Ha Haganah’ - ‘Protection’

British troops in the reaction sequence of the


Arab revolt of 1920-1921, the lack of conflict between Arab and Hebrew and to
remove gangs of Arab extremists, led leaders of Yishuv (Hebrew communities in
Palestine) to establish units of self defense throughout Palestine. Originally
formed by former members of the Jewish Legion, the organization protecting
farms (moshav and kibbutz), prevent people about possible imminent attacks of
gangs, intervene in fights with these people.
During 1920 -1929, Haganah has led lack of central coordination. Tenants could
defend as Haganah and members of the intervention was often late. In 23-24
August 1929 is Arabs attack to Hebrew Community of Hebron, located 30 km
from Jerusalem. It is the place where is located the tombs of Patriarchs and the
place where King David was invested.
Population (Arabic and Hebrew) coexistence of over 800 years. After 1920, as
in all Palestine, minor incidents provoked by Arab extremists were daily.
Daily complaints were addressed by the Jews to the British Mandate over
Palestine (1921-1948). August 15 is a demonstration in Jerusalem that
claimed the young Hebrew right to pray at the Western Wall remnant of the
Temple of Jerusalem (under the Esplanada of Al’Aqsa Mosque, built by Abd
al-Malik and completed by his son al-Walid in 705 c.e.). Demonstration,
approved by authorities, and ensured the maintenance of order, was used by
Arab extremists (the rumors that have been attacked local Arabs and were
utter abuse to Prophet Muhammad) to trigger the days that followed, attacks
Jews on the Western Wall. A young Jew is killed. His funeral turns into new
moments of confrontation. Meeting of British, Arab, Hebrew leaders
(Commissioner Harry Luke, Jamal al-Husayni, and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi) does not
lead to a feasible solution. As Haganah have information that will be attacked
Jewish settlement in Hebron offer their support to the defenders. The
Community of Hebron refused support by claiming that they will be protected
by the local Arab (A’yan). Comment: It is significant Member Haganah, Baruch
Katinka, who arrived ina day before the massacre with 12 fighters (10 men and 2
women) in the home of Eliezer Dan. Slon Dwek banker refuses help because the
Arabs, his creditors, will defend the Hebrew. Ten of them, then follow the other
two are sent back to Jerusalem.
Extremists launched rumor that Jews would attack Al’Aqsa Mosque. Gangs have
attacked the Hebrew people in Hebron and the territory under the British
Mandate. In Hebron there were 40 police officers (39 Arabs and a Jew). In the
afternoon the day is attacked Yeshiva (Jewish religious school) in Hebron (a
young person is killed). A two-and three-day Arabs attacked the Hebrew,
houses. Made ferocious crimes, mutilations, rapes. Much of the Hebrew fleeing
from the city, many of them are hidden by their Arab neighbors. Aid required to
Jerusalem come too late. Totals: 67 Hebrews dead, Hebrew inhabitants stolen
property, the community of Hebrew disbanded in Hebron (with minor
restoration attempts in 1931 - 160 people back, but again evacuated during the
Arab revolts 1936-1937) until the war of 1967 . In total, 195 Arabs and 34
Hebrew were sentenced by the courts of the mandate. Death sentence for 17
Arabs and 2 Hebrew, but were later switched to prison terms. Three Arabs were
hung.
Were offered financial compensation to families who had died by amending
Arab villages which originated from criminals ...
After 1929 is reorganized by Haganah enrollment of volunteers in each
location, throughout, and young adults (as an example: Ariel Sharon was 13
years’ observer ‘ of the emergence of groups of bandits in moshav Kfar Malal,
they lived. In 17 years in Haganah troops). Are purchased weapons and
organized in the Hebrew settlements small craft workshops for making
ammunition and grenades. Haganah becomes a powerful military ‘underground’
organization. In 1936 Haganah have 10,000 fighters and 40,000 reserve.
During 1936-1939 they participated actively against Arab extremist.
British authority not recognized officially Haganah, but its members work with
members encompassing Haganah how Auxiliary Units in the British Special
Forces patrol (trained and led by British colonel Orde Wingate). They receive a
full military training.
Haganah members were dissatisfied with the leadership position in Hebrew
Yishuv, restraint (havlagah) not to initiate against Arabs attacks the localities
from which came the extremist gangs.
Irgun directly supports illegal emigration, some examples:
1937 - 164 illegal immigrants in Austria
1938 - 1940 in Poland and Austria;
1939 - 1980 in Poland and Romania
1940 - 2300 in Europe
1940 to 1944 - 18,000 in Europe

In turn has formed the Lehi group (1940) (known as the “Stern Gang” after the
name of the leader, Abraham Stern). Irgun and Lehi organizations will attack
until 1948, British military objectives and centers of Arab extremism.
Some of them:
6.11.1944 - Lehi kill Lord Moyne in Cairo. It was official with the highest level of
British government in the area. Later, Yitzhak Shamir said that the
assassination was led for his Arab extremist leaders support and affirmation in
public of racial inferiority of Jews from Arab.
22.07.1946 - Irgun blow up the ‘King David‘ hotel in Jerusalem, Staff of the
British army: 91 dead 46 wounded.
12.01.1947 – Lehi attacked with dynamite British police station in Haifa. 4 dead
and 140 wounded.
4.05.1947 - Irgun attacked fortress prison Accra. 20 prisoners Irgun and Lehi 7
prisoners are released. Are killed 9 Irgun fighters. 182 Arab prisoners manage to
escape.
29.02.1948 - Lehi blow up a British military train at Northern Rehovot: 28
soldiers dead, 35 wounded.
9.04.1948 and Lehi attacked the Arab town of Deir Yassin. Are killed between
100-120 civilians.
17.09.1948 Lehi kill UN mediator Folke Bernadotte, in Jerusalem.
In 1939 British authorities set severe restrictions on Jews emigration in
Palestine. That when the extermination of Jews began 6 years earlier in
Germany and soon will expand throughout Europe, with the German
occupation. Haganah takes care to ensure illegal Jews coming to Palestine
(Palmach organization). By the end of the war, claimed to bring over 100,000
Hebrew, in which ships have broken the British naval blockade of Palestine.
Many other ships were stopped, both British and German naval forces (see, for
example ship ‘Struma’).
He held numerous protest actions against this ad hoc coalition between the
German and British, by reducing the rate of legal immigration. Organizations
Irgun and Lehi pass to armed action. Since 1943 the leadership of the Irgun is
taken by Menahem Beghin.

Palmach military units


Start of the second World War the British determined to ask the Jews of Yishuv
to contribute military units to the war effort. Are formed Palmach military units,
herds of Haganah. In total 12 companies (3 battalions), 19 May 1941. Palmach
members were recruited mostly from Kibbutz people, which had a strong
mutual and collective education. They held the agricultural work and were
mobilized according to the actions of military units belonging. They represented
the tip of the spear self defense military Yishuv. Shares had a wide range: from
supporting regular English troops to military action espionage, those selected
were very good knowledge of Arabic language and customs of the area.
After the battle of El’Alaim, Palmach units are removed by British army, but
maintain cohesion in underground. Each Kibbutz provide food and
accommodation of a platoon of fighters. They provided security and worked side
by side with members of Kibbutz’s work field. Each have 8 days of military
training, 14 days for agricultural work, 7 days off. This organization provides
flexibility for self defense actions and facilitate the recruitment of new members
of the settlements (Kibbutz and Moshav) raising funds for the organization for
armament Haganah, formation of military trained fighters and morally
motivated Zionist.
Zionist Youth Movement has agreed that every young person to perform, aged
between 18 and 20 years, training by members of Palmach: sports exercises,
field orientation, first aid, operations detachment of self defense training with
light weapons. Most were trained in performance handling explosives and
sabotage, espionage and reconnaissance, communications and radio Morse,
using heavy weapons. It made firing with weapons available.
So many of them ready to become members of the Nahal settlements
(settlements, military reinforcement, also called ‘tower and stockade’, which will
be implanted on the main routes of access Hebrew settlements) in the years
after the Declaration of Independence (15.05.1948) .
Between 1945-1946 Palmach units will attack the British infrastructure:
bridges, railroad lines, police stations and radars.
In 29.06.1946 units in the UK conducted an extensive operation to disarm
Hebrew units of self defense: Haganah, Palmah, Irgun, Lehi (the number of
British soldiers involved, estimated between 10,000 and 25,000).
Operation was a retaliation to an attack by rail (1.06.1946 - Lehi) and six officers
abduction (17.06.1946 - Irgun). Were seized hundreds of weapons, mortars,
grenades and thousands of hundreds of thousands of munitions related.
Were arrested in 2500 by fighters and leaders. In negotiations that followed the
release and exchange switching of death of Hebrew fighters and Palmach
Haganah agreed stopping hostilities. They have continued sporadically by Irgun
and Lehi. Palmach had a role in countering gangs of Arab fighters, who in turn
preparing the removing of Jews from Palestine by triggering Civil War between
Arab and Hebrew (1947-1948).
In the War of Independence (1948-1949) Palmach was established three combat
brigades led by Yigal Alon. They fought with regular armies of five Arab
countries (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria).
The structure and cohesion of Palmah and Haganah were the nucleus around
which was founded, the new state army Eretz Israel. Drivers Palmach unit,
among which we mention: Yigal Allon, Moshe Dayan, Yitzhak Rabin, Haim Bar-
Lev, Uzi Narkiss, Ezer Weizman will become political and military leaders in the
new State Eretz Israel.

Civil war between Arab and Hebrew 1947 - 1948


It started after 30.12.1947, the date on which the United Nations (General
Assembly Resolution 181 UN) established on 14.05.1948 as the date of
termination of the British mandate in Palestine and approved. Plan to share

Palestine after mandate ended. Each state? would comprise three major
sections, and the Arab enclave Iaffa. Jews get 56% of territory (499,000
Hebrews and 438,000 Arabs).
Palestinians receive 42% of territory (818,000 Arabs and 10,000 Hebrew).
Jerusalem and Bethleem were to be administered by the UN.
UN decided that by that time the British Mandate and British military units had
the role to ensure order in Palestine.
Time produced a great joy among the Jews of Yishuv and despair among Arabs.
Neither the UK was not satisfied.
Competition circumstances or premeditated strategy, applied to the scheme that
was supposed to demonstrate that the territory can not self govern – to provoke
a civil war between Hebrew and Arabic in Palestine ... the use of the tense of the
two communities.
They re-start violence. Population of 2,000,000 (Arabic and Hebrew) has
sustained thousands of human losses, the dead and wounded in this fight
between ‘cousins’.
Were involved, fighters of Palestine and beyond. Arab Liberation Army and the
extended local area attacks Jews. Arab fighters from Egypt came under the
command of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, a face without any reaction from the
British army ... the thousands of volunteers recruited Arabs have achieved the
blockade of 100,000 Hebrew in Jerusalem. Haganah attempts to send food and
to break the blockade has resulted in thousands of Hebrew warriors, dead and
wounded, hundreds of armored cars and buses destroyed. Arab attacks extend
Negev and Galilee in the North. The Hebrew defend each pocket of land.
Arab propaganda convinced that Jews would soon be ‘thrown into the sea‘. A
hundred thousand of Palestinian Arabs refuge in camps outside of Palestine.
British Gouvernment proposed annexation Palestinian area in the Hashemite
Kingdom of Jordan)... Ben Gurion asked that every man and woman to be
trained and incorporated into military units Haganah. Golda Meir obtain huge
funds from Jews in the Diaspora and official support of Stalin for Zionist
Movement. Are produced significant quantities of military equipment through
the raising of arms exporters and Haganah agencies in Europe. They go to the
theater of battle to March 1948. Ygal Yadim plan a response to the announced
Arab international invasion in Palestine (The Dalet Plan). Between 5-20 April
1918 is to unlock the battle of Jerusalem, and killed Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni.
Also during this time of the Arab population massacre of Deir Yassin
(organizations Irgun and Lehi), which, combined with the death of the leader
Arabic (Egyptian), causes a new wave of Palestinian immigrants, ‘caught in the
middle’ and depressed the inefficiency of the facts weapons of its leaders. Is the
defeat of the Arab Liberation Army from Mishmar Ha Emek (Kibbutz; basic
training Haganah units since 1942) by units Palmach fighters and the
withdrawal of Arab alliance with Druze. To ensure the link between the Jewish
settlements, and Haganah Irgun troops conquer towns Tiberias, Haifa, Safed,
Beisan, Jaffa, crab. Another
250,000 Palestinians Arabs take out his exile. Hope those remaining was the
Arab Legion of Jordan, well-equipped and trained by the British. This attack
Kfar Etzion on May 13 1948.
In 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion declared independence of Israel. On the
same day, the invasion by troops of the five Arab states begin first Arab-Israeli
war.
In 31.05.1948 In Haganah and Palmah formally declared ‘Israeli Defense Force’
- IDF, becoming a regular army of the State Eretz Israel.
Thus ends with lights and shadows, the history of the movement of Jewish self
defense of Yishuv (Palestine) for 41 years. A story worthy of being told of any
nation, friend or foe of the Hebrew people, because:
Is an example of adaptation and organization at a rapid initial unfavorable -
numerical superiority and hatred Arab extremists, since 1920, to a population
(Jews of Yishuv) morally and militarily not prepared for military struggle.
Is a mix of individual heroism of the group of Hebrew fighters. If die a
leading, five other were ready to take the lead. If die an Arab leader (where Abd
al-Qadir al-Husayni) to neutralize an army instantly. After many years, another
Arab military leader - Osama bin Laden will incorporate ‘Jewish experience’ to
the troops in Al Quaid ...
Is a mobilization of funds and logistical resources of the Community of Jews in
the world, well managed by different Hebrew belief, the same purpose:
Return on ancestral lands. What people would like to have such a group of
leaders and organization to weather the tribulation!