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1. What Is diagnosis? Ethiology? Prognosis?

a. A diagnosis is distinguishing one illness from another.

b. Eltiology is the apparent causation and developmental history of an
c. A prognosis is a forecast about the probable course of an illness.
2. How domental health clinicians diagnose if an individual is exhibiting abnormal
a. They Diagnose abnormal behavior using the following criteria:
i. Deviance –if the behavior deviates from what society considers
normal. Ex transvetic fetishism.
b. Maladaptive behavior –is the inability of a person to adjust to certain
situations Ex. Drug addiction.
c. Personal distress – is based on an individuals person disress Ex.
Depressive and anxierty disorders.
3. Discuss myths about psychological disorders. THESE ARE NOT TRUE IN
a. Psychological disorders are incurable.
b. People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous.
c. People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very
different from normal people.
4. How are disorders classified?
a. The American psychiatric Association, published the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to classify about 100 psychological
disorders. It is a multiaxial system; Information is recorded on the
following five Axes
i. Axis I –Clinical syndromes
ii. Axis II –Personality disorders or mental disorders
iii. Axis III – General medical conditions
iv. Axis IV—psychosocial and environmental problems
v. Axis V –Global assssment of function (GAF) scale.
5. What is epidemiology? What is prevalence?
a. Epidemiology is the study of distribution of mental or physical disorders
in a population
b. Prevalence is the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during
a specificed time period.
c. Psychological disorders are that uncommon, about 51% of the population
show clear signs of mental illness at sometimes in their lives. Some critics
feel these numbers are too high because individuals with mild disorders
(often don’t need ttreatment) are included. Defedeants of the studysuggest
that these disorders might progress into a more severe disorder if it wasn’t
identified and an intervention performed.
6. Describe anxierty disorders.
a. Anxierty disorders are a class of disorders marked by feeling of excessive
apprehension and anxierty. They occur in approximately 20% of the
b. The five principal types of anxierty disorders are as follows:
i. Generalized anxierty disorder – it is marked by a chronic high
level of anxierty that is not tied to any specific threat. Individuals
with GAD worry constantly, even worrying about worrying. They
also display physcal symptom like trembling, muscle tension,
diarrhea, dizziness, faintness, sweating and heart palpitations.
ii. Phobic disorders – It is marked by a persistent and irrational fear of
an object or situation that presents no realistic danger.
iii. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia – panic disorder is characterized
by recurrent attacks of overwhelmning anxiety that usually occur
suddenly and unexpectedly. Individualswith panic disorder often
worry when their next debilitating attack will occur. About 2/3 of
the individuals with panic disorder are female and onset usually
occurs during late adolescence or early adulthood.
iv. Agoraphobia is the fear of going out to public places.
v. Obessessive compulsive disorder (OCD) – it is marked by
persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts
(obsessions) and urges to engage on senseless rituals
(compulsions). It occur in approximately 2.5% of the population
and the general ageof onset is late adolescence (75% occurring
before age 30).
vi. Postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) –it involves enduring
psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major
traumatic event. Common symptoms of PTSD are nightmares,
flashbacks, emotional numbing, alienation, probles in social
relations, and increased sense of vulnerability, elevatd arousal,
anxiety, anger and guilt.
7. Discuss the etiology of anxiety disorders.
a. Anxierty disorders develop out of biological and psychological factors.
i. Biologically – anxierty disorders show a strong concordance rate.
This simly means there is a genetic predisposition with anxiety
1. Some individuals are also sensitive to the internal physical
symptoms of anxierty and overact with fear.
2. Brain chemistry (neurotransmaistters also seem to play a
role in anxiety disorders.
ii. Conditiong and learning –anxierty responses could be acquired.
Through classical conditioning and maintaine through operant
coniditioning. When a fear is acquired through classical
conditioning (neutral stimulus paired with a frightening event) the
person begins avoiding the stimulus that causes the anxiety, and
this avoidance maintains the phobia (operant conditioning).
iii. Cognitive factors –certain types of thinking make some people
more vulnerable to anxierty disorder. People that are more likely to
have anxierty disorders generally:
1. Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening
2. Focus excessive attention on perceived threats
3. Selectively recall information that seems threatening
iv. An example of this would be asking individuals to interpret this
sentence, “the docter examined little emma’s growth”
v. Stress – Anxiety disorders can be stess related.
a. Somatoform disorders are physical ailments that cannot be fully explained
by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors.
b. People with somatoform disorders generally seek treatment from
physicians that are psychiatric/psychology field.
c. Stress Increases the perceived ailments.
9. What are conversion disorders
a. Conversion disorders are characterized by a signifigant loss of physical
function (with no papparent prganic basis), usually in a single organ
b. Common symptoms in conversion disorders or complete blindness or loss
of hearing, partial paralysis, laryngitis or mutism, and loss of feling or
function in limbs
10. What is hypochondriasis?
a. Hypochondriasis (Hypochondria) is excessive preoccupation with health
concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness.
b. Hypothcondriacs often don’t believe their doctors when they are told they
have no real illness. They feel the physician is incompetent and frequently
look for a second opinion.
11. What is the etiology of somatoform disorders?
a. Personlity factors –People who are histrionic (self-centered, suggestible,
excitable, highly emotional, and overly dramatic). Are more likely to have
somatoform disorders. Neuroticism is another indictator.
b. Cognitive factors –indviduals with somatoform disorders draw
catastrophic conclusions from minor bodily complaints.
c. Sick role – some people enjoy being sick. They can avoid life’s challenges
(if you are sick on one can place demands on you), have an excuse if they
fail and gain attention.
12. Dissociative disorders
Dissociative disorders are a group of disorders in which people lose
contact with portions of their consciousness of memory, resulting in
disruptions in their sense of identity.
13. List and discuss dissociative disorders.
a. Dissociatve amnesia a sudden loss of memory for important personal
information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. Amnesia
has been noted after individuals have been exposed to accidents, disaters,
combat, abuse, rape, viewing, violent deaths, or traumas.
c. Dissociative fugue is where people lose their memory for their entire lives
along with their sense of personal identity. They do remember matters that
aren’t related to their identity
d. Dissociative indentity disorder (DID) is the coexistence is one person of
two or more largely complete, and usually vary different personalities.
This used to be known as multiple personality disorder. Individuals with
DID feel like they have more than one identity, and each indvidual
personality has their own name. The indvidual personalities are unaware
of each other, and the additional personalities are quite different from the
indivudal’s true personality (race, sex, age, sexual orientation). The
personalities also can transition suddenly. Patients that have DID generally
have anxiety, mood, and personality disorders.
14. What is mood disorder?
a. Mood disorders. Are a group of disorders marked by emotional
disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical,
perceptual, social and thought processes.
b. There are two types of mood disorders, unipolar (emotional extremes at
one end of the mood continuum (depression) and bipolar (emotional
extremes at both ends of the mood continuum (depression and mania
15. Discuss major depressive disorder
a. Inviduals with major depressive disorders have persistent feeling and
despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure.
b. Symptoms of depression are as follow: changes in appetite, changes in
sleep, sluggish, anxierty, irritability, giving up previously enjoyed activies,
feeling of worthlessness, decreased sex drive, impaired thought, worry,
inability to make decisions, feeling of guilt, delusions of disease, and low
self esteem.
c. Depression can occur at any time in one’s life, but often occurs before the
age of 40. The median length of a depressive episode is approximately 5
months, an sufferers of depression generally have more than one episode
in their lifetime. About 7 to 18% of Americans have a depressive disorder
at some point, and women and twice as likely as men to experience.
16. What is dysthymic disorder?
a. Dysthymic disorder is chronic depression that isn’t severe enough to
warrant a diagnosis of a major depressive episode.
17. Discuss Bi polar disorder.
a. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience one or more manic episodes
as well as periods of depression.
b. During manic episodes individuals experience high self-esteem, increased
energy (can go days without sleep), talks rapidly, racing thoughts,
impaired thoughts, sexual recklessness, spend money recklessly, and
c. Depressive symptoms are the same as in a major depressive disorder.
d. About 1 to 2.5% of the population has bipolar disorder, and it seen in
males and females. The peak age of onset is between 20 and 29.
e. Genetic factors play in larger role in bipolar disorder than in unipolar
18. Discuss the tiology of mood disorders.
a. Mood disorders have:
i. Genetic component (especially in women)
ii. Heredity contributing to abnormal levels of norepinephrine and
iii. Smaller hippocampus (memory consolation)
iv. A pessimistic explanatory style (attribute setbacks to personal
v. Learned helplessness
vi. Ruminate (wallow in depression)
vii. Less sources of social support due to irritable, pessimistic attitude
viii. Stress
19. Discuss schizophrenic disorders
a. Schizophrenic disorders are a class of disorders marked by delusion,
hallucination, disorganized speech, and deterioation of adaptive behaviors.
b. It occurs in about 1% of the population and onset begins during late
adolescenece or early adulthood.
20. Discuss the symptoms of schizophrenia.
a. Delusions and irrational thoughts –Schizophrenics have false beliefs are
maintained even though they are clearly out of touch with reality. They
believe they are someone/something else, their private thoughts are being
broadcast, their thoughts are being controlled, elusions of grandeur, and
thoughts become chaoticinstead of logical.
b. Deterioration of adaptive behavior – schizophrenics have a noticeable
deterioration in their routine functioning at work, personally, and socially.
A dramatic decrease in their ability to get along with others and with
personal hygiene is commonly seen.
c. Hallucinations – schizophrenics may have senory perceptions that happens
in the absence of real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of
perceptual input.
d. Disturbed emotions –schizophrenics may have a blunted or flat affect
(showing little emotional response) or have inappropriate emotional
responses that don’t match with the situation.
21. Discuss the four substypes of schizophrenia.
a. Paranoid—Paranoid schizophrenia is dominated by delusions of
persecution, along with delusions of grandeur. Individuals believe they
have many enemies becoming suspicious of family, friends, and strangers.
They feel they are being wathed, manipulated, and persecuted. Paranoid
schizophrenics often have deluions of grandeur believing they are famous
people, inventors, eligious or political leaders.
b. Catatonic schizophrenia is marked by moter disturbance, ranging from
muscular rigidity to random motor activity. Some individuals even have a
severe form known as cataonic stupor where they remain almost
motionless and seem completely unaware of the enviroment around them.
Other individuals become hyperactive and incoherent.
c. Disorganized –Disorganized schizophrenics have a severe deterioation of
adaptive behaviors.
d. Undifferentiated –indivduals with undifferentiated schizophrenia are
clearly schizophrenic but they can’t be placed into any of the other three
e. Another way to type schizophrenics proposed by theorists is to divide
individuals into two categories bases on the predominance of positive and
negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are behavioral excess or
peculiarities (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flight of
ideas). Negative symptoms include behavioral deficits like flattened
emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of
speech. This way of typing schizophrenia doesn’t seem to work well
because manyindivduals have symptoms in both categories.
22. Discuss the course of schizophrenia and its outcome.
a. Schizophrenia usually manifests during adolescence or early adulthood
(rarely seen after 45)
b. Individuals who develop schizophrenia ften have a long history of odd
behavior and cognitive and social issues during childhood but don’t
develop the disorder until later.
c. Schizophrenia can develop gradually or suddenly and once developed the
course of the disorder can vary greatly. Patients fall into threegroups after
i. Individuals with a mild disorder, who are successfully treated,
often have full recoveries. 15 to 20% of schizophrenics fall into
this group.
ii. Individuals with partial recoveries, but relapsing often, spending
the rest of their lives in and out of treatment facilities.
iii. Individuals with chronic illness tht involve permanent
d. The following are factors that contribute to the likelihood of recovery
from a schizophrenic disorder.
i. Onset is sudden rather than gradual
ii. Onset occurred at a ater age.
iii. Individuals social and work adjustment ere fairly good before
iv. Proportions of negative symptoms are low.
v. Individuals cognitive functioning is intact.
vi. Indivudals exhibits good adhereance to treatment to interventions.
vii. Individuals has a healthy, supportive family situation.
23. Iscuss the etiology of schizophrenia.
a. Genetics –there is a genetic component with schizophrenia. Idenical twins
have a 48% concordance rate, and a child born to schizophrenic parents
has a 46% chance of developing the disorder.
b. Neurochemical –the dopamine hypothesis states that excess amounts of of
dopamine are the chemical basis of schizophrenia, and drug that are
successful in the treatment of the disorder decrease dopamine levels.
c. Recent research has also focused on the interactions between dopamine
and serotonin, and abnormailities in the neural ircuits using glutamate as a
d. Structural abnormalities in the brain –ct and MRI scans suggest an
association between enlarged ventricles (hollow, fluid filled cavities) and
schizophrenia. It is assumed the large ventricles are due to degeneration of
nearby brain tissue. It isn’t known if this is a consequence or the cause of
schizophrenia, brain imaging has also shown smaller prefrontal cortexes
and reduced metabolic activity in this area of the frontal lobes.
e. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis – the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of
schizophrenia states that developmental disruptions or injury to the brain
before birth plays a role in the disorder. Developmental disruptions to the
brain are thought to be caused by viruses or poor or poor maternal
nutirution, and injury during the birth process.
f. Expressed emotion – expressed emotion is based on the behavior of
relatives of schizophrenic individuals. If the relatives are ciritual or
emotionally overprotective the individual ismore likely to relapse.
g. Stress –High levels of stress may affect onset in vulnerable indivudals and
ocntribute to relapses
24. Discuss personality disorders.
a. Individuals with personality disorders generally have extreme. Inflexible
personaliy traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and
occupational functioning.
b. Personality disorders usually emerge during late childhood or adolescence.
i. There are ten different personality disorders found in three clusters,
: anxious/fearful, odd/eccentric, and dramatic/impulsive.
c. The different personality disorders are as follows:
i. Avoidant are personality disorder –indivduals are excessively
sensitive to potential rejection, humiliation, or shame. They are
socially withdrawn in spite of the need for acceptance from others.
ii. Dependent personality disorder –individuals are extremely lacking
in self-reliance and self esteem. They passively let others make all
of their decisions and place their needs below other individuals
iii. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder –indviduals are
preoccupied with organization, rules, schedules, lists, and trivial
details. They are extremely conventional, serious, and formal.
iv. Schizoid personality disorder – Individuals are defective in
capacity for forming social relationships and don’t have warm
feelings for others.
v. Schizotypal personality disorder –individuals have social deficits
and oddities in thinking, perception, and communication that
resemble schizophrenia.
vi. Paranoid personality disorder – Indviduals show pervasive and
unwarranted suspiciousness and mistrust of people. They are
overly sensitive and tend to be jealous.
vii. Histrionic personality disorder – individuals are overly dramatic,
have exaggerated expression of emotion, are egocentric and
attention seeking.
viii. Narrcisststic personality disorder – individuals are grandiose,
preoccupied with success fantasies, expect special treatment, and
lack interpersonal empathy.
ix. Borderline personality disorder –indviduals are unsable in self –
image mood, and interpersonal relationships. They are impulsive
and unpredictable.
x. Antisocial personality disorder – individuals habitually violate the
rights of others, fail to accept social norms, fail to form
attachments to others, faill to sustain consistent work behavior,
exploitive others, and are reckless
25. Further discuss antisocial personality disorder.
a. Individuals with antisocial disorder are not shy and withdrawn, they are
often sociable, friendly, and charming. Antisocial individuals choose to
reject accepted social norms regarding moral principles and behaviors.
b. Antisocial personality disorder causes individuals to be impulsive, callous,
manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible, they violate people and feel
no guilt about their actions. They basically have no conscious or moral
compass, they are often skilled at faking affection for others, rarely have
genuine feelings for others, and are sexually predatory and promiscuous.
i. It is more frequent in males and these individuals often take place
in illegal activies
ii. It is debated whether antisocial behavior is genetic or due to
inappropriate socialization as a child.
26. What is insanity?
a. Insanity is a legal status indictating that a person cannot be held
responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.
b. According to the M’naghten rule, insanity exists when a mental disorder
makes a person unable to distinguish right from wrong.Most people
diagnosed with a mental disorder would not be considered criminally
27. What is involuntary commitment?
a. Involuntary commitment occurs when an indvidual is hospitalized in a
psychiatric facility against their will.
b. Indviduals are usually committed when health professionals and legal
authorities feel that they are dangerous to themselves dangerous to others,
and/or in serious need of treatment. Temporary commitment usually last
for 24 to 72 hours.
28. Do the major types of psychological disorders manifest themselves in the same
way around the world.
a. Yes. The feneal symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the
same across different societies, but the delusions reported are specific to
the culture. In the united states a schizophrenic might believe thoughts are
being sent into their mind by a microwaves, but in sociery where there is
little technology they might believe demons are placing thoughts in their
29. What is anorexia nervosa?
a. Anorexia nervosa is an intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body
image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose
weight. There are two types; restricting type anorexia and binge
eating/purging type anorexia. Both types are generally 25-30% below their
normal weight. It causes the following health problems: amenorrhea,
gastrointestinal issues, low blood pressure, tooth decay, and metabolic
disturbances that can lead to cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse.
30. What is bulimia nervosa?
a. Bulimia nervosa is habitually engaging in out of control overeating
followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts , such as self induced
vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics, and excessive excerise.
31. Discuss the history and prevalence of anorexia and bulimia.
a. Both disorders a product of modern (mid 20th century), affluent, western
culture, where the desire to be thin is high. The disorders are spreading to
others culture due to advances in communication.
b. There is a gender gap in the development of anorexia and bulimia, with 90
to 95% of sufferers being female. The general age of onset of anxoreia is
14 to 18 and for bulimia is 18 to 21.
c. Victims of anorexia tend to be obsessive, rigid, and emotional restrained.
Victims of bulimia tend to be impulsive, overly sensitive, and have low
self esteem.