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Caro Sposo
Katherine Watson
Nadine Balbeisi
Emily Van Evera
Steve Dugardin
Juan Sancho
Christian Immler


RELIQUIE DI ROMA II: Caro Sposo Also available from Destino Classics:
Oratorio di Santa Caterina Marco Marazzoli (1602–1662)
1 Prima Introduttione 0:51 16 Dimmi, sè tu non brami 2:09
2 Con torbide procelle 1:08 17 Deh’ non più 4:09 ‘Breathtaking performances
3 Il tuo vago sembiante 3:07 18 O voi ministri eletti 0:51 of delicious music’
4 Di beltà chi vive amante 1:46 19 Io le pene vò cercando 2:56 Gramophone Magazine
5 Per accender nel petto 2:27 20 Mà pria c’à terra esangue 2:07
6 Care pene, che diletto 1:37 21 Hebbe ciò detto appena 1:00 ‘One of the best recordings
7 Co’ tuoi sagaci detti 2:31 22 S’armi il ciel di crudeltà 1:25
I have heard all year’
8 Reciderò questa tua lingua audace 1:10 23 Fra questa gente rea 1:39
Recording of the Year 2011,
9 Non bramar di morte i strali 0:46 24 Piango la tua sventura 2:26
MusicWeb International
10 Nel carcere più oscuro 0:32 25 Alma che saggia prende 3:31
11 Ò soave catena 1:44 26 Poi nel suol genuflessa 0:16
12 Indi volta alla turba 0:31 27 Caro sposo e Redentore 1:42 ‘Music of the highest
13 Alme temete 6:23 28 Qui tacque la Reina 0:56 invention and emotional
14 Ah che troppo è palese 1:36 29 Alme voi che bramate 0:48 sophistication.The rich
15 Da custodi malvaggi 1:00 30 Misere e non vedete 1:45 accompaniment by Atalante,
not least the unique sound
Lamento di Cain from Cain e Abel Bernardo Pasquini (1637–1710) of the lirone, surrounds
the voices like luxurious
31 Sinfonia 0:44
32 Dove, lasso 2:29
Baroque embroidery.’
33 Già cho vuol’ decreto eterno 4:18 Total playing time 62.33 OUTSTANDING Release,
International Record Review

2 27
Lamento di Cain Bernardo Pasquini (1637–1710)
Erin Headley director
32. Dove, lasso, mi celo fratricida Where, alas, can I hide, murderer of my brother,
Infelice abborrito wretched and abhorred Oratorio di Santa Caterina Marco Marazzoli
Dal mondo, odioso al cielo! by the world, hateful to the heavens?
Dove m’ascondo, dove qual remota Where shall I conceal myself, where shall I ever find
Testo Nadine Balbeisi soprano
Pendice trovar unqua a remote slope Santa Caterina Katherine Watson soprano
Potrei per seppellir where I can bury Massimino Christian Immler bass
Con mè gl’errori miei! my errors with myself? Soldato I Juan Sancho tenor
Dovunque il piede io movo Wherever I move my feet, Soldato II/Speranza Steve Dugardin countertenor
Un rimprovere ascolto, I hear a reproach,
Un’ inferno ritrovo. I find an inferno:
Fede Emily Van Evera soprano
Ogni vento, ogni rio Each wind, each river seems to me
Mi par sangue d’Abel’ voce di Dio. to be the blood of Abel, the voice of God.
Lamento di Cain Bernardo Pasquini
Ah’ non havessi io mai Ah, if only I had never Cain Emily Van Evera
Conosciuta la vita, known life,
Non havessi à mio scorno if only, to my shame,
Siobhán Armstrong arpa doppia
Vista la faccia al giorno, I had never seen the face of day,
Al sole i rai m’havesse if only the sun’s rays Jörg Jacobi harpsichord
Porto almeno sua in cambio had brought me black poison Erin Headley lirone, viola da gamba
Di latte atro veleno, instead of mother’s milk, Claire Duff & Hannah Tibell violins
Che del’ ira del cielo I would not be the object
Io non sarei l’oggetto of the heaven’s wrath, Produced, engineered and edited by John Hadden
Ramingo disperato e maledetto. wandering, desperate and cursed:
Recorded 8–12 (sound) and 13–14 (video) July 2010, St Cuthbert’s Church, Earls Court
Ogni vento, ogni rio each wind, each river seems to me
Mi par sangue d’Abel’ voce di Dio. to be the blood of Abel, the voice of God. Executive producer: John Hadden, Destino Classics
Cover and back inlay images: Katherine Watson as Santa Caterina
33. Già che vuol’ decreto eterno As the eternal decree has dictated
Back cover: Christian Immler as Massimino
Per la mia malvagità, for my evil deed,
Ch’à mè stesso io sia l’inferno I am my own hell Inside inlay image: Erin Headley (lirone) and Juan Sancho in the lament ‘Piango la sua sventura’
Senza mai sperar pietà, without hope of mercy; Photos: Fernanda Fernandez
Mirate nel mio scempio see in my carnage Costumes: Alessio Rosati
Dell’eterna giustitia il primo esempio. the first example of eternal justice. Designed by Doubletake Design Ltd.
Già che fii nel ciel’ prefisso As it has been set down in heaven,
Per gastigo al mio peccar as punishment for my sins
Performing editions: Jörg Jacobi, Edition Baroque, Bremen
Ch’io discenda al nero abisso I shall descend to the black abyss Italian texts and translations: Candace Smith
In eterno à sospirar; to sigh for all eternity; Atalante is funded by the AHRC and the University of Southampton
Mirate nel mio scempio see in my carnage
Dell’eterna vendetta il primo esempio. the first example of eternal vendetta.

26 3
27. S Caterina St Catherine
Oratorio di Santa Caterina Caro sposo e Redentore
Deh, perdona al fallir mio
Dear Spouse and Redeemer,
ah, forgive my failings;
E da te pietoso Dio, and from you, merciful God,
Le Livre de la Cité des Dames by Christine de Christine de Pizan required the highest of Tal valor mi sia concesso, may such valour be granted to me,
Pizan1 (c1364–1430) chronicled the lives of qualifications for membership to her exclusive Onde il core that my heart,
famous heroines whose strength and courage establishment: Mentre more as it dies,
Ti sacrifichi si stesso, etc. sacrifices itself for you, etc.
throughout history were the building blocks for
The ladies whom we shall invite to form the company 28. Testo Narrator
the magnificent houses, walls and defences of her
of the Blessed Queen of Heaven, who is the Empress Qui tacque la Reina The Queen then fell silent,
virtual ‘City of Ladies’. In Christine’s heirarchy, Che da mortal ferita lifeless
and Princess of the City of Ladies, are blessed virgins
St Catherine ranked highest alongside the Virgin Fù privata di vita, from the mortal wound,
and holy women.We shall thus prove that God loves Mostrando nel morire demonstrating by dying
Mary’s sisters and Mary Magdalene:
the female sex by showing that He endowed women, Con sereno sembiante with her serene countenance
The most eminent of these exemplary women is St just as He did men, with the strength and fortitude Che moria di Giesù fedele amante; that a faithful lover had died for Jesus;
Ond’eterna la fama whereby the eternal fame
Catherine, who was the daughter of King Costus of needed to suffer terrible martydoms in defence of Della sua viva fede of her living faith
Alexandria.Though this worthy maiden was only His holy faith, despite the fact that these women Con gloriosa tromba will forever resound with glorious trumpets
eighteen years old when she inherited her father’s lands, were only tender, young creatures.The whole of Nella terra e nel Ciel, sempre rimbomba. on heaven and on earth.
she conducted both her private life and her public affairs womankind can benefit from hearing about the lives 29. Soldato I Soldier I
with great discernment. She was a Christian and had Alme voi che bramate Souls, you who yearn
of ladies such as these, whose heads are crowned with Far acquisto de’ Regni, e degl’Imperi, to acquire kingdoms and empires,
refused to marry, preferring to devote herself entirely glory, for the lessons which they impart are more Deh perche non frenate oh, why do you not stop
to God. One day, the Emperor Maxentius came to edifying than any others. Così folli pensieri? such foolish thoughts?
Alexandria in order to perform an important sacrifice Misere e non vedete Wretched souls, do you not see
Some 300 years later, the same heroines reappear Che mendiche sarete, that you will be paupers
of a great ceremony in honour of his Roman gods. No
Se ben v’adorna il crine even if your locks are adorned
sooner had she heard this than she went up to the in musical narratives within the safeguards of Il più nobil diadema by the noblest crown
emperor and began to speak to him most eloquently the Vatican, in the manuscript collections of the Che la sorte concede? that fate allows?
about the error of his pagan ways. Being well versed in Barberinis, the Chigis and other great papal Chi non possiede il Ciel nulla possiede, etc. He who does not possess heaven possesses nothing, etc.
both theology and the sciences, she used philosophical families. In Lamentarium, the first recording 30. Madrigale à 5 Madrigal à 5
of our Reliquie di Roma series, we laid the four Misere e non vedete Wretched souls, do you not see
arguments to prove that there was only one God, the
Che mendiche sarete that you will be paupers
Creator of all things, and that He alone should be cornerstones for a 17th-century ‘Roman’ city Se ben vi cinge il crine even if your locks are encircled
worshipped.When the emperor heard this beautiful and of ladies with the tragic laments of Helen of Il più nobil diadema by the noblest crown
noble maiden speak with such extraordinary authority, Troy, Queen Artemisia, Mary Magdalene and the Che la sorte concede that fate allows?
Chi non possiede il Ciel, nulla possiede. He who does not possess heaven possesses nothing.
he didn’t know what to say but could only gaze deeply Virgin Mary. In this second recording we raise an
at her in amazement. edifice to St Catherine. - Lelio Orsini

4 25
S Caterina St Catherine
Odia sè stesso chi la vita apprezza. Whoever prizes life hates himself. Our ‘martyr drama’ in the form of an oratorio the forms and styles were akin to those of opera,
Soldato I Soldier I continues from here in rich and elaborate but the work was performed unstaged. Santa
Odia sè stesso chi la vita sprezza; Whoever disdains life hates himself. baroque style, with prolonged and agonising Caterina was set in Italian rather than Latin to
S’abbandoni lo scettro, If you abandon the sceptre,
Sè la vita non curi, if you do not care about life, suffering and torture ultimately leading to reach a wider Roman public. Like the Italian
Con la tua morte qual mercè procuri? what good will you gain with your death? Catherine’s sublime and victorious death. Lelio works of Carissimi and Rossi, Marazzoli’s are
S Caterina St Catherine Orsini, one of Rome’s most eminent librettists, highly advanced achievements in artistic and
Una gloria immortale Immortal glory
Ond’hora impenno l’ali for which I spread my wings vividly conveyed the narrative in elegant poetry, dramatic quality.
À più nobil desire towards a nobler desire which Marco Marazzoli dramatically and
Che spiegherà sovra le stelle il volo. which will unfurl in flight above the stars. Most oratorios are constructed in two sections,
extravagantly enhanced in the full-scale Oratorio
Chi non l’erge dal suolo He who does not rise above the ground each concluding with a chorus (sometimes
Degl’affetti del senso, of the affects of the senses,
di Santa Caterina.
called a ‘madrigale’) to enhance and emphasise
Misero, non intende, miserable wretch, does not understand
Ch’à fabricar, la sua ruina attende; that he is waiting to build his own ruin. Marazzoli (b Parma c1602; d Rome 1662) the spiritual or moral message. In the absence of
Se del gran’ Rè de’ Regi If the true throne of the great King of Kings moved to Rome in 1626, shortly after entering scenery and action, a testo (or narrator) establishes
Fu real trono un vilipeso legno, was a cursed piece of wood, the service of Cardinal Antonio Barberini. the atmosphere of each scene and moves the
Se fu scettro una canna, if His sceptre was a reed,
He had opera commissions in Rome, and action along. A sermon was customarily preached
E Regio manto una lacera veste, and His regal cloak a torn vestment,
E se per lo sentiero, di tormentosi affanni and if, in directing His steps down the road official travels took him to Urbino, Ferrara, between the two sections.
Volgendo il passo, vuole à noi mostrare of tortuous sorrows, He wants to show us Venice and Paris. Other employment in Rome
Qual via conduca alla celeste mole, which path leads to the celestial palace, Like opera and cantata of the period, the
included his appointment as virtuoso da camera
Io che di lui men vivo I, who live in Him oratorio draws on recitative, arioso and aria.
Serva e sposa costante, and am his constant handmaid and spouse, for Queen Christina of Sweden, and cantata
Ensembles and choruses use both imitative
Potrò volger i piedi will be able to direct my own feet commissions from Alexander VII Chigi, in
Per la via de’ contenti. towards the path of contentment. and chordal styles in the manner of the late
whose collection (now in the Vatican Library)
E’l cor sarà così di fede privo And should the heart be so without faith polyphonic madrigal. Recitative in this work is
Che per pompa fugace that for the sake of ephemeral pomp over 300 of Marazzoli’s cantatas survive. During
reserved for the testo’s narrations, for dialogues
Voglia sprezzare un Dio, it should desire to scorn a God – the Barberinis’ exile in Paris (1645–53) there
Un Dio che tanto amò nostra salute a God who so loved our salvation and for moral and theological arguments as well
were few opportunities for opera in Rome, so
Onde mostrò con la sua dura morte that he revealed with his terrible death as for Catherine’s internal spiritual searching. For
he turned to oratorio. Marazzoli wrote at least
Sovra il calvario monte on Mount Calvary this post-Monteverdi generation of composers,
À chi saggio desìa giungere in cielo, the crown that must adorn the brow of anyone who seven Italian oratorios, six of which date from
wisely desires to reach heaven? recitative assumed a larger architectural form
Di qual diadema deve ornar la fronte? the 1650s; Santa Caterina was the crowning
and painted a broader emotional image, rather
26. Testo Narrator culmination of this output (c1660).
Poi nel suol genuflessa Then kneeling to the earth, than being as detailed and word-specific as in
disse con humil voce. she said with humble voice: From 1650 onwards the term ‘oratorio’ officially the earlier stilo rappresentativo. When appropriate,
designated the musical setting of a sacred text recitative adopted a slightly more melodic
that included dramatic and narrative elements; character. A further feature of Marazzoli’s
24 5
Testo Narrator
recitative writing was to set the last line of poetry Another exceptional aria comes in Part II. ‘Deh’ Tacque ciò detto, e dell’armate genti Having said that, he fell silent,
in aria style – in the manner of a cavata – to non più’ features that distinctive ostinato bass un nobile Guerrier mosso a pietade and among the armed people,
emphasize a particular didactic point, as in ‘Sè per familiar to any Monteverdi aficionado. As in sospirando s’udì a noble warrior, moved to pity,
che favellò così. was heard to sigh and speak to her thus:
l’honor fugace’. ‘Augellin che la voce al canto spieghi’ (Book
24. Soldato I Soldier I
VII), the voice cheekily enters on either the third Piango la tua sventura, I weep for your ill fortune,
Notable arias for Catherine include the bright
or fourth beat of the bass, lending Catherine’s Mal’accorta Reina; most clever Queen.
and breezy ‘Di beltà chi vive amante’ on a vanitas Ove tù dà tè stessa, ti condanni, While you condemn yourself
response to Maxentius a teasing, defiant, even
theme and the brisk ‘Sù venite’ section of ‘Care Piango i tuoi grandi affanni I weep for your great troubles
proud aspect which perfectly sums up the text: ‘go Che soffrir ti conviene; for which you must suffer.
pene’; both demand considerable agility and
ahead, Sir, make me suffer – I am already dying Ahi, quant’è dura Ah, how hard is
virtuosity of the singer. ‘Care pene’, ‘O soave Quella morte che toglie such a death, that takes away
for Jesus’. Our stately tempo, however, affords a
catena’ and ‘Caro sposo’ are the three arias that In così verde etade at such a youthful age
further trancelike and resolved countenance.
best portray the suavity and meltingly poignant Con la vita anco il Regno, e la beltade. life, kingdom and beauty.
style of the Roman bel canto school. Luigi Rossi In ‘Io le pene vo cercando’ a wonderfully S’a’ colpi di miei sospir If by the blows of my sighs
was considered to be its chief exponent, but in phantasmic atmosphere is created for Catherine’s L’alma tua non cederà your soul does not yield,
Languendo ne’ tuoi martiri perhaps then, as you languish
Santa Caterina one could be tempted to say that furtive reply to the emperor’s threat of Forse poi si pentirà; in your sufferings, it will repent;
Marazzoli exceeds him. punishment by the torture wheel. D minor lends Che spesso nel mondo infido for often in the treacherous world
haunting desolation while vascillating sharps and Pentito quel cor si vede one sees that penitent heart
Catherine’s last aria in Part I, ‘Alme temete’, is Che da sè si consiglia, e altrui non crede. which follows its own council and does not believe that of others.
flats within strange melodic figures turning in on
part of a larger complex closing the first half 25. S Caterina St Catherine
themselves – both in the vocal line and the violin Alma che saggia prende The wise soul takes heaven as its guide,
of the oratorio. A lively ciaccona bass supports
accompaniment – depict restlessness and endless Per guida il cielo ne mortal periglio and in mortal peril
her rousing of the crowds, while stretches of Non vuol altri consigli. wants no other council.
searching for pain.
passacaglia in the B sections illustrate valour, Soldato I Soldier I
honour and mercy, qualities highlighted by her There are many examples of pivotal laments in Chi dà se forsennato He who foolishly
Si condanna alla morte, il Ciel’ offende. condemns himself to death offends heaven.
long, sustained high note over yet another, more 17th-century Roman oratorios (in both Italian S Caterina St Catherine
expansive ostinato expressing her constancy and Latin), by Marazzoli and his colleagues Ò quanto al cielo è grato, O how pleased is heaven
and firmness of faith. The allegorical characters Giacomo Carissimi, Luigi Rossi, Domenico Ch’io mora per serbar sua fè costante. that I die to keep my faith in it constant.
Hope and Faith then take over the same musical Mazzocchi, Bernardo Pasquini and Alessandro Soldato I Soldier I
Ò quanto inganna O how deceptive is
material in duet and solo to intensify Catherine’s Stradella. In ‘Piango la tua sventura’ the lirone Una speranza errante. an erroneous hope.
resolve and the crowd’s zeal, and to propel the accompanies a Roman soldier who not only S Caterina St Catherine
whole scene through to the madrigalesque chorus laments Catherine’s impending death, but is also Dal tempo sol la verità si scopre Truth will be discovered only with time.
Soldato I Soldier I
‘Ah’ che troppe palese’, which reasserts the maxim later converted to Christianity. Such laments are Spesso succede il pentimento all’opre. Repentance often follows actions.
that Hope and Faith are the only way forward. the natural habitat of the lirone, that ethereal-
6 23
Fatto cader nel suolo in mille pezzi the prepared wheels,
Le preparate rote which broke into a thousand pieces, sounding bowed continuo instrument with from and a brilliant, heroic quality. In our recording,
Qual feroce leon d’ira fremendo that ferocious lion, trembling with anger, 9 to 14 or more strings invented to accompany we have opted for a young female singer in the
Così giva dicendo. went on to say: with sustained chords. title role, as well as women for the testo and Fede,
Massimino Maxentius
In van, in van procuri In vain, in vain you have managed, in the spirit of giving back to all those 17th-
Over the course of the oratorio, Catherine is
Con magica virtude with magical virtue, century ladies the repertoire the papacy deprived
Ch’io non castighi il tuo furore insano. to escape my punishment for your insane furore. given the lion’s share of recitatives and arias.
them of.
Su, su, cari Guerrieri Arise now, dear warriors, A variety of expressive styles display the many
Ciascun’ di voi a stratiarla intanto, each of you, and tear her to pieces;
Con tormentoso modo in a manner most excruciating,
qualities of her character, and they speak well of The Manuscript
Del suo laccio vital gli tronchi il nodo. sever the knot of her life’s thread. the composer’s ability to achieve such powerful
The Oratorio di Santa Caterina exists in only
22. Massimino e Soldati Maxentius and Soldiers dramatic and expressive effects. In ‘Caro sposo’,
one source, in the Barberini collection of the
S’armi il ciel di crudeltà Let heaven arm itself with cruelty she joins Jesus, her heavenly spouse, in the work’s
Contro l’empia che presume against the wicked woman Vatican Library; unfortunately it has suffered
most sublime aria, a jewel in the crown of a
D’ogni nostro vero nume who presumes to destroy the sacred temples from fairly extensive damage, often obliterating
Atterrar i sacri tempi; of each of our true gods;
whole array of ravishing scenes that are certain
one or two bars per page; ink has also eaten into
Con miseri scempi with wretched slaughter to captivate believer and non-believer alike.
Si stratij e s’uccida let us render her asunder and kill her, the paper rendering many notes unintelligible.
Che non merta pietade un’alma infida. for a faithless soul does not deserve pity. It is ironic that in the time of Christine de Since poetry is at the heart of this repertoire,
23. Testo Narrator Pizan there was already some recognition of we were able to make a reconstruction based
Fra questa gente rea Among these evil people women’s rights, yet in 17th-century Rome on extant libretto material transcribed by the
Si trovò pur un’alma there was one soul who felt pity towards her, women were not permitted to perform in any eminent musicologist Christian Speck2. Mid-
Che pietosa ver lei, così dicea. and he said:
Soldato II Soldier II papal institution. This meant that female opera century Roman recitative is highly dramatic and
Perché tenti infelice Why do you unhappily aspire and oratorio roles were taken by castrati, the expressive, but at the same time less idiosyncratic
Con morte vergognosa to a shameful death most celebrated being Marc’ Antonio Pasqualini than the earlier stile rappresentativo, so with
Fra le genti più vile esser sepolta? to be buried among the vilest of people?
Al fin sarai si stolta In the end, will you be so foolish and Loreto Vittori, who were renowned not the words reinstated we were able to make a
Che mentre puoi felice that, though you can happily hold only for their male and female roles, but also respectable, and hopefully convincing, reading.
Del tuo Regno trattar lo scettro altero the proud sceptre of your kingdom, for their chamber-cantata portrayals of classical The arias presented fewer problems because
Tu brami prigioniera you yearn instead to be a prisoner,
and Christian heroines.Vittori in particular was there was nearly always a melodic fragment
Frà tenaci catene and to feel outrage and pain,
Provar oltraggi e pene? bound in steadfast chains? famous for his renditions of Marazzoli’s Dido repeated somewhere else on the page.
E veder pur degg’io And yet I see and Mazzocchi’s Mary Magdalene laments.
Che l’alma tua mal nata è troppo ardita; that your ill-born soul is too daring, What motivated us to revive the oratorio
Per adorar Giesù, sprezzi la vita. for in order to adore Jesus, you scorn life. The castrato retained the vocal apparatus of was the moving solder’s lament with lirone
a young boy, but benefited from having an accompaniment. What encouraged us to
expanded chest that lent an extended vocal range persevere with the reconstruction of the score
22 7
Che del senso i tormenti that the torments of the senses
were Hope and Faith. What inspired us to make instrumental output has only recently begun to Han’ sembianza di pene, e son contenti. resemble pains, and yet they are pleasures.
the recording was the extraordinary beauty of be assessed. Cain e Abel is one of dozens of other Non si porga à me ristoro Do not offer me comfort
Marazzoli’s music. oratorios by Pasquini. The recitative with lirone Mentre moro, while I die,
Che languendo, che morendo, for only by languishing and dying
is harmonically extreme and dissonant to depict Sol’ può l’anima mia can my soul reach contemplation
Cain e Abel Cain’s troubled and restless state of mind. The Giunger’ à contemplar quel’ che desìa. of that which it desires.
It was in 1975 that I first encountered Pasquini’s indications ‘adagio’ and ‘ardito’ further highlight 20. S Caterina St Catherine
his erratic and unpredictable emotions, and Mà pria ch’à terra esangue But before my human remains
oratorio Cain e Abel in the Vatican Film Library at Cada l’humana spoglia fall bloodless to earth,
St Louis University (USA), when a fellow student particularly haunting is the repeated adagio ‘voce D’abbandonar lo scettro io non isdegno, I shall not decline to abandon the sceptre,
showed me a copy of the manuscript. This chance di Dio’, where we have chosen the lirone as the Alma ch’aspira al ciel’ sprezza ogni Regno. for the soul which aspires to heaven disdains every kingdom.
only accompaniment. Fortuna, ecco ti rendo Fortune, I give to you here
discovery propelled my lifetime career as a lirone Il Regio manto e la real corona, the regal mantle and the royal crown,
player, but more importantly fuelled an enduring The aria with strings is in a solemn triple metre Pompe del mondo allettatrici, e vili; seductive and vile pomp of the world:
interest in the instrument’s extraordinary Ite disperse al suolo, scatter yourselves upon the ground,
which perfectly mirrors the inexorable, doomed Chi felice nel ciel’ esser vorrà for whoever desires happiness in heaven
repertoire and its fascinating cultural ambience. sentiment of the text. The unforgettable vocal Ami la povertà. embraces poverty.
Thirty-five years later I have finally been able opening tracing a great arch – of an E minor Voi, voi, quei pregi sete You, you are those precious gems
to realise the dream of recording, staging and triad up to the octave, descending in A minor Ch’arricchite la salma which adorn the corpse
filming a considerable amount of Rome’s vast and Mà poi togliete, ogni virtud’all’alma; but then remove all virtue from the soul;
returning down to E minor – could be the wheel Chi vi vede, e v’adora whoever sees you and adores you
extraordinary repertoire for our series Reliquie of Fortune making one large turn. The general Miri, deh, miri nel’altrui ruine, should look upon the ruins of others,
di Roma. And in this second recording, it is with melodic and harmonic style is of course very D’ogni caduco impero il mesto fine; the sad end of every short-lived empire;
great satisfaction that we can finally share Cain’s Miri ch’in polve ancora let him see that every king
much of the late 17th century: and one can easily È converso ogni Rege comes to dust,
lament with the musical public. detect from where the young Handel derived E porrà freno al suo pensier mal nato. and he will stop his ill-born thoughts.
inspiration. Solo in Cielo si può viver beato. Only in heaven can one live blessed.
Discovering the manuscript was momentous Ond’io che veggio le nascose frodi Now that I see the hidden deceits
since it included the rubric ‘Con la Lira’, at first © Erin Headley, 2012 Della sorte incostante, of inconstant fate,
thought to be an indication for nothing more D’abbandonar lo scettro hora non sdegno; I shall not decline to abandon the sceptre,
1. Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies, trans. Alma che aspira al Ciel, sprezza ogni Regno. for the soul which aspires to heaven disdains every kingdom.
than a papier-mâché stage prop; but with firm
Rosalind Brown-Grant, Penguin Books, London, 1999 21.Testo Narrator
evidence from Marin Mersenne3 and Howard
2. Christian Speck, Das italienische Oratorium 1625–1665: Hebbe ciò detto appena As soon as the intrepid girl
Smither4, I soon realized that the ‘lira’ of 17th- L’intrepida fanciulla said this,
Musik und Dichtung, Turnhout, Brepols, 2002
century Rome was what we now call the lirone. Che l’ingiusta sentenza the unjust sentence
3. Marin Mersenne, Harmonie universelle, Paris, 1636–7 Fù dagl’empi eseguita. was carried out by the wicked.
Pasquini was a leading Roman composer of 4. Howard Smither, A History of the Oratorio, vol I, University Poscia il Prence mirando Then the prince,
the generation after Marazzoli whose vocal and of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1977 Che la Donzella haveva seeing that the damsel let fall

8 21
17. S Caterina St Catherine
Deh’ non più, Signor non più, Ah, no more, Sir, no more,
La pietà regni in te, may mercy reign within you.
Signor che vuoi da me Sir, what do you wish of me?
Già moro per Giesù. I am already dying for Jesus.
Con tormenti, e con la morte You tempt this heart in vain
Tenti in vano questo core, with torments and death,
Ah non teme un’alma forte a strong soul has no fear
Che contenta già si more. for it is already content to die.
Credi a me, deh, credi homai Believe me, ah, believe
Che s’à gloria aspiri tu, that if you aspire to glory,
Un’altr’alma tentarai. you will entice another soul.
Deh’ non più, Signor non più, etc. Ah, no more, Sir, no more, etc.
Per veder qual sia mia sorte To see what my fate is,
Fa ch’io provi aspro il martire, make me feel bitter sufferings,
Vederai che nel morire you shall see that in dying
L’alma mia pietà non chiede. my soul does not ask for mercy.
Che sia intrepido il cor mio May my heart be resolute,
È, Signor, questa virtù this, Lord, is the virtue
Del mio sposo e del mio Dio. of my spouse and my God.
Deh’ non più, Signor non più, etc. Ah, no more, Lord, no more, etc.
Deh’ non più, pietà non più, Ah, no more, for pity’s sake, no more,
Già moro per Giesù. I am already dying for Jesus.
18. Massimino Maxentius
O voi ministri eletti O you, chosen ministers,
Per punir l’altrui colpe in order to punish the crimes of others,
Sù sù, deh’ preparate come now and prepare Top:
Le tormentose ruote the wheels of torture Nadine Balbeisi
Ove ella provi de suoi falli il merto; so that she will feel the just deserts of her errors;
Così non fia derisa thus the divinity of our true gods Far left:
La deità de’ nostri veri numi; will not be derided; Christian Immler
E poiche audace tenta and since the idolatrous girl
La fanciulla Idolatra so audaciously tries my patience, Left:
Che nel mio seno l’ira may the fiercest anger Christian Immler,
Più fiera si rinovi; be renewed in my breast; Juan Sancho,
Mentre sprezza il perdon, pietà non trovi. as long as she scorns forgiveness, she will find no mercy. Steve Dugardin
19. S Caterina St Catherine
Io le pene vò cercando I go searching for pains,
E penando non le trovo, but though in pain, I feel them not.
Ma sol provo I feel only
20 9
Volle che incatenata requested that the innocent damsel
À se condotta fosse be brought to him
La Donzella innocente; in chains;
Indi à lei colmo d’ira then, brimming with anger against her,
Con queste voci favellar si sente. he was heard to speak these words:
16. Massimino Maxentius
Dimmi, sè tu non brami Tell me, if you do not wish
Di provar nuovi sdegni to feel new torments
Del’ mio Giusto furore, from my righteous fury:
Chi soccorso ti diè ne’ tuoi bisogni? who has brought succour to your needs?
S Caterina St Catherine
Il creator mio, il mio diletto sposo My creator, my beloved spouse,
Al corp’ e all’alma, ogn’hor mi dà conforto, at every hour, brings comfort to my body and my soul,
Che nel’ mar procelloso ove m’aggiro, for in the tempestuous sea where I travel,
Non può restar absorto a wooden boat cannot be sunk
Legno ch’hà per Nocchiero, which has as its helmsman
Chi la nave di Pietro the one who, in the sea of the world,
Nel pelago del mondo, adduce in porto. brought Peter’s ship into port.
Massimino Maxentius
Foll’ancora presumi You are mad if you still presume
Di contradir alla mia giusta voglia. to contradict my rightful wishes.
Nemica di tè stessa; You are your own enemy:
Ancor nel cor impressa the blind folly of your own wickedness
Cieca follia del proprio mal t’invoglia, still impressed in your heart tempts you,
Dà più grave martire this insane ardour shall be overcome
Superato sarà l’insano ardire, by graver suffering,
E saprai dir’ a prova and you shall know the proof
Che non teme il dolor, chi non lo prova. that only one who does not feel pain does not fear it.
S Caterina St Catherine
Un timido guerriero A timid but arrogant warrior
I suoi nemici non abbatte altero; does not attack his enemies;
De’ tormenti à gl’assalti my constancy and valour
Above: Erin Headley
La mia costanza el’ mio valor non cede; will not yield to assaults of torment;
Top left: Katherine Watson Ond’al fin si vedrà, che ne’ martiri thus, one will see at the end that in suffering
Il corpo sanguirà ma non la fede. the body bleeds but faith does not.
Bottom left: Christian Immler Non dimora il timor con la speranza, Fear does not dwell with hope,
E trionfa penando la costanza. and constancy triumphs through pain.

10 19
Fede e Speranza Faith and Hope
Di Rege mortale Scorn the ire
Sprezzate pur l’ire, etc.
Errar non può, chi à nostri detti crede,
of the mortal king, etc.
He who believes our words cannot err. Atalante
Speranza Hope
Io la speranza sono, I am hope, This is the second release in Atalante’s Reliquie di Roma series, Biographies for the
Fede Faith following their highly acclaimed debut CD, Lamentarium; both individual musicians are
Et io la fede. and I am faith.
Sù sù, deh, sbandite Come now, banish discs pay homage to the virtuous heroines of antiquity. available at
La tema dal seno, fear from your breast,
Con volto sereno with a serene countenance Erin Headley formed Atalante in 2007 to promote the lirone,
Penando gioite. rejoice in suffering. the instrument she has brought back from 300 years of obscurity
Non sono tradite Those souls are not betrayed and on which she is the leading authority. The ensemble is
Quell’alme che sanno who know how
Goder nell’affanno; to delight in afflictions; named in honour of Leonardo da Vinci’s friend and pupil
I pregi schernite mock the treasures Atalante Migliorotti, inventor of the lirone. For over 30 years,
Di pompa reale. of regal pomp. this magic and ethereal bowed continuo instrument has been
Di Rege mortale Scorn the ire
Sprezzate pur l’ire, of the mortal king, Headley’s domain, one now inhabited by an astonishing number
Tormenti che fugge the torment which flees of performances and recordings that have been acclaimed
Chi teme soffrire. whoever fears suffering. worldwide.
14. Madrigale à 5 Madrigal à 5
Ah che troppo è palese Ah, it is all too clear In the 17th century the lirone was said to ‘move the soul and
Per mille esempi, e mille, from thousands of examples, transport the spirit’. Its native realm was the lament, a genre I dedicate this recording to my
Ch’errar non può chi à sacri detti crede that he who believes in the sacred dictates
covering the whole spectrum of human emotions. Atalante’s ‘madregna’, Ruth Ball Headley,
D’una vera speranza, è viva fede. of true hope and living faith cannot err.
luxurious continuo band of lirone, double harp, chitarrone, whose lifelong passion for
Seconda Cantata keyboards and viol consort are intrinsic to the soundworld of music was awakened during
the sublimely dark repertoire of 17th-century Rome, much of a Munich childhood in which
15. Testo Narrator
Da custodi malvaggi From the wicked guards which has not been heard for over three centuries. her extraordinary Uncle Hugo,
Fatto al rege palese, it was revealed to the king co-founder of Dada, and Max
Che priva di ristoro that even without nourishment Atalante’s select members are drawn from every corner of Reger were frequent visitors.
Costante la fanciulla the steadfast maiden the world. The group appears regularly in Europe and North
Nella sua fè viveva lived in her faith,
Nè sapersi poteva nor was it possible to know America in lavish costumed re-enactments of narratives from
Chi del cibo l’aita à lei porgesse; who brought her the aid of food. antiquity. These performances have been filmed and will shortly
À tal’ avviso il fero At this news, the fierce ruler, be available on DVD.
Per trovar quell’audace in order to discover who had dared
Che calpestava il suo voler supremo to trample his supreme wishes,
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Oratorio di Santa Caterina Marco Marazzoli (1602–1662) 12. Testo Narrator
Indi volta alla turba Turning then to the throngs
Prima Cantata Del suo popol diletto of her beloved people
Che lei seguia piangendo, who had followed her in tears,
Mostrò del suo bel volto she showed upon her beautiful face
2. Testo Narrator II contento ch’avea nel sen accolto, the contentment that lay in her breast,
Con torbide procelle The sacred wood of Peter E mentre poi volgea and as she began walking
Da nemici di Cristo era agitato was being bandied about in murky storms Ver la prigion i passi towards the prison,
Di Pietro il sacro legno by the enemies of Christ Festeggiando dicea. she said joyfully:
All’hor che in Alessandria when, in Alexandria,
Caterina l’Invitta Catherine the invincible, 13. S Caterina St Catherine
Dell’increato spirto sonorous trumpet of the inchoate spirit, Alme temete Souls, have fear
Sonora tromba, con famoso grido with a famous cry Che il ciel non s’adire, lest the heavens be angry,
La nostra fè altrui facea palese; professed our faith to the others; Di Rege mortale but scorn the ire
Onde à sdegno commosso whereby, moved by scorn, Sprezzate pur l’ire. of the mortal king.
Massimino il feroce Maxentius the Ferocious, Con forte valore With the strong valour
Con tormentose morti with torturous deaths, Guerrieri potenti of powerful warriors,
Ergea funesti monti erected terrible mounds Fuggiendo i contenti flee contentment
Di cadaveri estinti; of dead bodies; Correte al dolore; and run towards pain;
Ma pria che la Reina but before he chose Eterno è l’honore the honour that is granted you
Condannar volesse, to condemn the Queen, Ch’à voi si concede; is eternal;
Con sì cortesi et amorose note with ever so courteous and loving notes Eterna mercede in the end, you shall enjoy
Le fe palese le sue fiamme ignote. he revealed to her his unknown flames. Per breve martire eternal mercy
Alfin goderete. for your brief suffering.
3. Massimino Maxentius Alme temete, etc. Souls, have fear, etc.
Il tuo vago sembiante, Your attractive appearance, Fede e Speranza Faith and Hope
Le tue virtudi e’l tuo valore altero, your virtues and your proud valour, Di Rege mortale Scorn the ire
O Donzella Reale O Royal Damsel, Sprezzate pur l’ire, etc. of the mortal king, etc.
M’ha reso il cor amante; have made a lover of my heart; Speranza Hope
Se la sembianza bella if the lovely semblance Intrepide l’alme May intrepid souls,
Del volto à noi discopre of your face reveals to us Ne gravi flagelli, suffering grave scourges,
Che sia l’Alma pietosa that your soul is merciful, Dei sensi rubelli bring back the palm of victory
Devo sperar conforto I must then hope for comfort Riportin le palme; over rebellious senses.
Alla mia piaga ascosa, for my hidden wounds, Di perder le salme No, no, have no fear
E con placida calma and with placid calm No, no, non temete; of losing your body;
Nel pelago d’amor giunger al porto. reach the port of the sea of love. Sperate, credete hope and believe,
Meco tu goderai sempre contenta, You will forever enjoy contentment with me, Ch’il vero gioire for true rejoicing
S’appagherai cortese if you will courteously satisfy In grembo è del male. lies in the womb of affliction.
I miei giusti pensieri, my rightful thoughts,
Che pietosa beltà degn’e d’Imperi. for merciful beauty is worthy of empires.

12 17
8. Massimino Maxentius
Reciderò questa tua lingua audace. I shall cut out your audacious tongue.
S Caterina St Catherine
Priva ancor della lingua Even deprived of my tongue, S Caterina St Catherine
Per tuo scherno sarò sempre loquace. I shall always be eloquent in ridiculing you. Qual sfrenato destrier che per li campi You are like an unbridled steed
Due soldati Soldiers I and II Corre là dove il suo desio l’invita who runs where his desires beckon,
Su, su, chiedi perdono Come now, seek forgiveness Tù sembri, che seguendo for in pursuit of amorous pleasures
E non voler seguir mendace fede. and no longer follow your false faith. Gl’amorosi piaceri you run where your senses
S Caterina St Catherine Corri là dove il senso and pleasures point you;
Alma che non fallì perdon non chiede. The soul that has not failed seeks no pardon. E i contenti t’addita, and while you race in error
Soldato II Soldier II E all’hor ch’al varco ameno towards the pleasant gates
Frena l’ardire insano. Stop this insane boldness. De fugaci diletti errando scorri, of fleeting delights,
Il tuo cor non intende Your heart does not understand Il tuo cor non s’avvede, your heart does not realise
Che l’ira in petto humano that the anger of the human breast Che per giungere à morte affretta il piede. that your steps are hastening towards death.
Quanto s’agita più tanto s’accende. is enflamed all the more when it is agitated. Frena se saggio sei, i tuoi desiri, Slow your desires, if you are wise,
Ah! ch’il nocchiero accorto Ah! for the wise sailor, Nè sperar che m’alletti, and do not hope that I am charmed
Quando l’aria si turba when the air is troubled La vana pompa de mortali honori; by the vain splendours of mortal honours;
E freme il mare infido and the treacherous sea writhes, Poiché ben l’Alma intende, for the soul well understands
Le sue vele raccoglie e torna al lido. gathers up his sails and returns to shore. Che nulla val, s’à nostri piedi humili, that nothing is worth
Rende tributo il mondo, the world’s tribute at our humble feet
9. Due soldati Soldiers I and II Mentre infelice poi, if we must then unhappily suffer
Non bramar di morte i strali, Do not yearn for the arrows of death, Deve penar nel baratro profondo. in the deep abyss.
Ch’il tuo cor si pentirà; for your heart will repent; Ahi pompe ingannatrici, Ah, deceptive pomp,
Per castigo de mortali the heavens inflict no greater pains Ahi bugiardi diletti, ah, delightful lies,
Maggior pena il ciel non dà. in the punishment of mortals. Ahi mal nati tesori, ah, ill-born treasures,
10. Massimino Maxentius Come frà duri lacci, ogn’hora astretti, like stiff ropes, tightly bound,
Nel carcere più oscuro Imprison the wicked woman Imprigionate i cori; you imprison the heart.
Imprigionate l’empia, in the darkest of jails, E pur loco non v’è, dove non sia And yet no place exists without
Nè cibo à lei si porga, and give her no food, L’infelice memoria, the unhappy memory
Onde languendo poi so that her soul, Che qual lampo sparì l’humana Gloria. of how human glory vanished like lightning.
Ne’ penosi martiri languishing in painful sufferings, 4. S Caterina St Catherine
L’Alma dal petto spiri. will expire in her breast. Di beltà chi vive amante For one who lives as a lover of beauty
S Caterina St Catherine Che fermezza in sè non hà, and lacks resolve within himself,
Ò soave catena O sweet chains, Se ne fugge in un istante youth flees in an instant
Della mia libertade, assai più cara; far dearer than my liberty, Troppo rapida l’età. and all too quickly.
O gradita mia pena, O welcome pain Volano i giorni, The days fly by,
Onde l’Anima impara from which the soul learns Ne fia che torni and he who perishes in the shadows of death
Che le pene son quelle, that these are the pains Chi nell’ombre di morte à perir và. shall not return.
Ch’adducon l’Alma a calpestar le stelle that spur the soul to tread upon the stars. Di beltà chi vive amante, etc. For one who lives as a lover of beauty, etc.

16 13
5. Testo Narrator Al mio giusto desire, in keeping with my rightful wishes,
Per accender nel petto In order to ignite Tu fanciulla hor devi you, O maiden, must now
Della saggia Reina the burning flames of love O credere, o morire. believe, or die.
Fiamme d’amor cocenti in the breast of the wise Queen, E se credi al morire saggio consiglio And if you believe death to be a wise counsel,
Snoda un guerrier la lingua in tali accenti. a warrior loosens his tongue with these words: Già deposto lo scettro del tuo Regno now that the sceptre of your reign has been deposed, you
Soldato I Soldier I Proverai del mio cor, l’ira, e lo sdegno. shall feel the anger and disdain of my breast.
Sè nel tuo petto sdegni If in your breast Segui pur il tuo nume, Go ahead and follow your gods,
Fiamma gentil’d’un amoroso ardore; you scorn the gentle flames of amorous ardour, E voi Ministri intanto, and meanwhile, Ministers,
O non hai core, o non conosci amore; either you have no heart, or you do not know love; Con tenaci catene bind her feet
E se di novi Regni and if you care nothing for new kingdoms, Avvoltategli il piede. with strong chains.
L’acquisto tu non curi but instead procure death S Caterina St Catherine
Ma di morir procuri by mocking our gods, La libertade al piede in vano togli; You vainly take freedom from my feet,
Schernendo i nostri Dei either you do not believe you shall die, Mentre non puoi far prigioniero il core. but you cannot make a prisoner of my heart.
O non credi morir, o folle sei, or you are mad, Massimino Maxentius
Che di morte l’orrore, for the mere thought of T’avvedrai dell’errore, You shall see your error
Solo in pensarlo, a noi reca terrore. the horrors of death fills us with terror. Quando l’alma pentita when your repented soul
S Caterina St Catherine Domanderà conforto al suo dolore. seeks comfort from your pain.
Sè per honor fugace If for fleeting honour the mighty champion S Caterina St Catherine
Corre il forte campion lieto al periglio runs happily towards danger, Chi brama di penar non chied’aita. Whoever yearns to suffer does not ask for help.
Et armato d’ardita, e di consiglio, armed only with courage and counsel, Massimino Maxentius
Poi di nulla già teme, and yet fears nothing, Tue membra coprirò di freddo gelo. I shall cover your limbs with freezing ice.
Perché vuoi tu mentre la vera speme why should you wish, while true hope S Caterina St Catherine
D’un immortal honor l’alma assicura? assures the soul of immortal honour, Il vivo ardor ch’il cielo The living ardour which heaven
Che ne’ brevi tormenti that in brief torments Nel mio seno d’accender si compiacque is happy to ignite in my breast
Io di penar, io di morir paventi? I should fear pain or death? Farà strugger il gel in tepid’acque. will melt the ice into tepid waters.
Vado à i martiri; e pur contento è il core. I go to my martyrdom, and yet my heart is content. Massimino Maxentius
Penar non può chi per Giesù si more. Whoever dies for Jesus cannot suffer. Entro fornace ardente, Your limbs will be consumed
6. S Caterina St Catherine Arderan le tue membra; in the burning furnace.
Care pene, che diletto Dear pains, what delights S Caterina St Catherine
Date all’hor che m’affligete. you give as you afflict me. Se tra fiamma cocente, If, in the midst of burning flames,
Su, venite, deh, correte, Come now, hasten, Di puro amor vive contenta l’alma the soul contentedly draws its life from pure love,
Nel mio seno io vi ricetto. I welcome you into my breast. Devo anco tra le fiamme arder la salma. I too must let my body burn among the flames.
Che mentre il mio pensiero For while my thoughts are intently fixed Massimino Maxentius
Nel tormento severo, upon the severe torments Con dispietata morte It is suiting that the penalty for your sins
Del Redentor del mondo, è fisso intento, of the world’s Redeemer, Delle tue colpe il fio pagar conviene. be paid with ruthless death.
Quanto cresce il dolor, cresce il contento. as pain increases, so does contentment. S Caterina Catherine
Ò per me lieta sorte O happy fate,
7. Massimino Maxentius All’Alma scioglierai l’aspre catene. you shall loosen the bitter chains of my soul.
Co’ tuoi sagaci detti With your clever words
Tent’in van di nasconder le menzogne; you attempt in vain to conceal lies;

14 15
Oratorio Di Santa Caterina
Lamento di Cain from Cain e Abel


Katherine Watson - Nadine Balbeisi
Emily Van Evera - Steve Dugardin
Juan Sancho - Christian Immler

Siobhán Armstrong - double harp
Jörg Jacobi - harpsichord
Erin Headley - lirone, viola da gamba
Claire Duff and Hannah Tibell - violins

Atalante is funded by the AHRC

and the University of Southampton

Made in the UK by Wyastone Estate Limited

NI 6185

NI 6185
P 2012 Wyastone Estate Limited
© 2012 Wyastone Estate Limited