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Water Data
U.S. water usage by state on Google Earth
Using United States Geological Survey data from the most recent U.S. water
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Click here to download the module.

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Graphic: Water shortages - GAO report proves


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could face water shortages by 2013. Five years sooner than forecast, the report has
proved disturbingly prophetic. Read the story »

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Graphic: Bottled water imports and exports

A new UN map highlights bottled water’s patterns of international trade. With France
being the major exporter of bottled water, trade routes in Europe (between France,
Germany, and Belgium) often involve intracontinental trade. The United States also
imports a large quantity of water from France and Fiji. Read the story »

Popularity: 57%

Focus: Africa
The secret lives of forests: An interview with Nobel
Laureate, Wangari Maathai
In an interview with Circle of Blue, 2004 Nobel Peace Prize winner Wangari Maathai
discusses the crucial role forests play as rainwater harvesters. Read the story »

Popularity: 6%

Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water


Social theorists believe that meaning exists in relation, in the exchange of words and
images between people. David Elliot Cohen’s new anthology, What Matters, takes this
theory to heart Read the story »

Popularity: unranked

Dry spells and large-scale agriculture: Climate change

threatens Uganda’s food security

Sustainable agriculture helps Ugandan farmers cope with water shortages Read the story

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Focus: North America

Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing
largest in history

BIRMINGHAM, Alabama - Jefferson, the state’s most populous county, is considering

filing for bankruptcy to alleviate its $3.2 billion sewer debt. Governor Bob Riley is
currently talking with creditors, AP reports. Read the story »

Popularity: 1%

Bronx water-filtration plant a fiscal sinkhole?

NEW YORK - The completion date has been extended by six years for a project to
construct a ten-story deep water-filtration plant in the Bronx. Read the story »

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World Water News

Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing largest in history
Bronx water-filtration plant a fiscal sinkhole?
Alaskan mine pollution poses potential threat to Salmon industry
Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee
Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit
London mayor echoes Maathai: City needs to harvest rainwater, plant trees
Nestlé granted permission to drink from Michigan wells
The secret lives of forests: An interview with Nobel Laureate, Wangari Maathai
Dirty waters: Corruption infects global water services
Op-ed: Not a ‘natural’ disaster
Indonesia launches clean water, sanitation campaign
Information flow: Australian Senate deliberates how to save Murray-Darling
Signifying thirst: New anthology explores why water matters
New energy, old dams: Maine to restore Penobscot River ecosystem
College cafeterias drop trays to save water
See all World Water Stories

Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing largest in history

BIRMINGHAM, Alabama - Jefferson, the state’s most populous...

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NEW YORK - The completion date has been extended by six years...

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ANCHORAGE - Alaskan voters turned down an initiative to control...

Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee

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MONTREAL - According to a recent study, Quebec is rich with...

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Dirty waters: Corruption infects global water services

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Science + Tech
Sewer Insolvency: Possible Alabama bankruptcy filing largest in history

BIRMINGHAM, Alabama - Jefferson, the state’s most populous county, is considering

filing for bankruptcy to alleviate its $3.2...

September 2, 2008 |

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September 2, 2008 | Read the story »

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o Fishes and loaves: Miracle needed to restore Sea of Galilee
o Montreal think tank: Quebec should exploit water for profit
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water pollution
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and
groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and plants
which live in these water bodies.

Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes
also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water, water is
typically referred to as polluted when it impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and
either does not support a human use (like serving as drinking water) or undergoes a
marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities. Water pollution
has many causes and characteristics. The primary sources of water pollution are generally
grouped into two categories based on their point of origin. Point-source pollution refers to
contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete "point source". Examples of this
category include discharges from a wastewater treatment plant, outfalls from a factory,
leaking underground tanks, etc. The second primary category, non-point source pollution,
refers to contamination that, as its name suggests, does not originate from a single
discrete source. Non-point source pollution is often a cumulative effect of small amounts
of contaminants gathered from a large area. Nutrient runoff in storm water from sheet
flow over an agricultural field, or metals and hydrocarbons from an area with high
impervious surfaces and vehicular traffic are examples of non-point source pollution. The
primary focus of legislation and efforts to curb water pollution for the past several
decades was first aimed at point sources. As point sources have been effectively
regulated, greater attention has come to be placed on non-point source contributions,
especially in rapidly urbanizing/suburbanizing or developing areas.
The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of
chemicals, pathogens, and physical or sensory changes. While many of the chemicals and
substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (iron, manganese, etc) the
concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water, and
what is a contaminant. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce
waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water's physical
chemistry include acidity, electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication.
Eutrophication is the fertilisation of surface water by nutrients that were previously
scarce. Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested
that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases,[1][2] and that it accounts for
the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.[2]

Water pollution
When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get
dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This results in the pollution of
water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants
can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits.

Water pollution has many sources. The most polluting of them are the city sewage and
industrial waste discharged into the rivers. The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate
in any city in India. Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated; the rest
is discharged as it is into our water bodies. Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers,
and other water bodies. Such water, which ultimately ends up in our households, is often
highly contaminated and carries disease-causing microbes. Agricultural run-off, or the water
from the fields that drains into rivers, is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers
and pesticides.

Domestic sewage refers to waste water that is discarded from households. Also referred to as
sanitary sewage, such water contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended impurities.
Biochemical oxygen demand, or BOD
It amounts to a very small fraction of the
sewage by weight. But it is large by volume The amount of organic material that can rot in
and contains impurities such as organic the sewage is measured by the biochemical
materials and plant nutrients that tend to oxygen demand. BOD is the amount of oxygen
rot. The main organic materials are food required by micro-organisms to decompose the
and vegetable waste, plant nutrient come organic substances in sewage. Therefore, the
from chemical soaps, washing powders, more organic material there is in the sewage,
etc. Domestic sewage is also very likely to the higher the BOD. It is among the most
contain disease-causing microbes. Thus, important parameters for the design and
disposal of domestic waste water is a operation of sewage treatment plants. BOD
significant technical problem. Sewage levels of industrial sewage may be many times
generated from the urban areas in India that of domestic sewage. Dissolved oxygen is an
has multiplied manifold since 1947. important factor that determines the quality of
water in lakes and rivers. The higher the
Today, many people dump their garbage concentration of dissolved oxygen, the better the
into streams, lakes, rivers, and seas, thus water quality. When sewage enters a lake or
making water bodies the final resting place stream, micro-organisms begin to decompose
of cans, bottles, plastics, and other the organic materials. Oxygen is consumed as
micro-organisms use it in their metabolism. This
Eutrophication can quickly deplete the available oxygen in the
water. When the dissolved oxygen levels drop
When fresh water is artificially supplemented too low, many aquatic species perish. In fact, if
with nutrients, it results in an abnormal increase the oxygen level drops to zero, the water will
in the growth of water plants. This is known as become septic. When organic compounds
eutrophication. The discharge of waste from decompose without oxygen, it gives rise to the
industries, agriculture, and urban communities undesirable odours usually associated with
into water bodies generally stretches the septic or putrid conditions.
biological capacities of aquatic systems.
Chemical run-off from fields also adds nutrients household products. The various substances that
to water. Excess nutrients cause the water body we use for keeping our houses clean add to water
to become choked with organic substances and pollution as they contain harmful chemicals. In the
organisms. When organic matter exceeds the past, people mostly used soaps made from animal
capacity of the micro-organisms in water that and vegetable fat for all types of washing. But most
break down and recycle the organic matter, it of today’s cleaning products are synthetic
encourages rapid growth, or blooms, of algae. detergents and come from the petrochemical
When they die, the remains of the algae add to industry. Most detergents and washing powders
the organic wastes already in the water; contain phosphates, which are used to soften the
eventually, the water becomes deficient in water among other things. These and other
oxygen. Anaerobic organisms (those that do not chemicals contained in washing powders affect the
require oxygen to live) then attack the organic health of all forms of life in the water.
wastes, releasing gases such as methane and
hydrogen sulphide, which are harmful to the Agricultural Run off
oxygen-requiring (aerobic) forms of life. The
result is a foul-smelling, waste-filled body of
The use of land for agriculture and the practices
water. This has already occurred in such places
followed in cultivation greatly affect the quality of
as Lake Erie and the Baltic Sea, and is a
groundwater. Intensive cultivation of crops causes
growing problem in freshwater lakes all over
chemicals from fertilizers (e.g. nitrate) and
India. Eutrophication can produce problems
pesticides to seep into the groundwater, a process
such as bad tastes and odours as well as green
commonly known as leaching. Routine applications
scum algae. Also the growth of rooted plants
of fertilizers and pesticides for agriculture and
increases, which decreases the amount of
indiscriminate disposal of industrial and domestic
oxygen in the deepest waters of the lake. It also
wastes are increasingly being recognized as
leads to the death of all forms of life in the water
significant sources of water pollution.
The high nitrate content in groundwater is mainly from irrigation run-off from agricultural fields
where chemical fertilizers have been used indiscriminately.

Industrial effluents

Waste water from manufacturing or chemical processes in industries contributes to water

pollution. Industrial waste water usually contains specific and readily identifiable chemical
compounds. During the last fifty years, the number of industries in India has grown rapidly. But
water pollution is concentrated within a few subsectors, mainly in the form of toxic wastes and
organic pollutants. Out of this a large portion can be traced to the processing of industrial
chemicals and to the food products industry. In fact, a number of large- and medium-sized
industries in the region covered by the Ganga Action Plan do not have adequate effluent
treatment facilities. Most of these defaulting industries are sugar mills, distilleries, leather
processing industries, and thermal power stations. Most major industries have treatment
facilities for industrial effluents. But this is not the case with small-scale industries, which
cannot afford enormous investments in pollution control equipment as their profit margin is
very slender.

Effects of water pollution

The effects of water pollution are not only devastating to people but also to animals, fish, and
birds. Polluted water is unsuitable for drinking, recreation, agriculture, and industry. It
diminishes the aesthetic quality of lakes and rivers. More seriously, contaminated water
destroys aquatic life and reduces its reproductive ability. Eventually, it is a hazard to human
health. Nobody can escape the effects of water pollution.

The individual and the community can help minimize water pollution. By simple housekeeping
and management practices the amount of waste generated can be minimized.


Air pollution
Acid rain • Air Quality Index •
Atmospheric dispersion modeling •
Chlorofluorocarbon • Global dimming •
Global distillation• Global warming •
Indoor air quality • Ozone depletion •
Particulate • Smog

Water pollution

Eutrophication • Hypoxia • Marine

pollution • Marine debris • Ocean
acidification • Oil spill • Ship pollution •
Surface runoff • Thermal pollution •
Wastewater • Waterborne diseases • Water
quality • Water stagnation

Soil contamination

Bioremediation • Herbicide • Pesticide •

Soil Guideline Values (SGVs)

Radioactive contamination

Actinides in the environment •

Environmental radioactivity • Fission
product • Nuclear fallout • Plutonium in
the environment • Radiation poisoning •
Radium in the environment • Uranium in
the environment

Other types of pollution

Invasive species • Light pollution • Noise

pollution • Radio spectrum pollution •
Visual pollution

Inter-government treaties

Montreal Protocol • Kyoto Protocol •


Major organizations

DEFRA • EPA • Global Atmosphere

Watch • EEA • Greenpeace • American
Lung Association

Related topics

Environmental Science • Natural



• 1 Contaminants
• 2 Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants
• 3 Sampling & monitoring
• 4 Regulatory framework
• 5 References
• 6 See also

• 7 External links

[edit] Contaminants
Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances.

Some organic water pollutants are:

• Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemicals

• Bacteria, often is from sewage or livestock operations
• Food processing waste, including pathogens
• Tree and brush debris from logging operations
• VOCs (volatile organic compounds), such as industrial solvents, from improper
• DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids), such as chlorinated solvents, which
may fall at the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are
more dense
• Petroleum Hydrocarbons including fuels (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, and fuel oils)
and lubricants (motor oil) from oil field operations, refineries, pipelines, retail
service station's underground storage tanks, and transfer operations. Note: VOCs
include gasoline-range hydrocarbons.
• Detergents
• Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products
• Disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in chemically disinfected drinking water

Some inorganic water pollutants include:

• Spill of oil over the seas is the biggest danger.

• Heavy metals including acid mine drainage
• Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power
• Pre-production industrial raw resin pellets, an industrial pollutant
• Chemical waste as industrial by products
• Fertilizers, in runoff from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates
• Silt in surface runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or
land clearing sites

Macroscopic, that is, large visible items polluting the water are termed marine debris, and
can include such items as:

• Nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets

• Shipwrecks, large derelict ships

[edit] Transport and chemical reactions of water

Most water pollutants are eventually carried by the rivers into the oceans. In some areas
of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using
hydrology transport models. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM
Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in
aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to
study pollutant fates in the New York Bight, for example. The highest toxin loads are not
directly at the mouth of the Hudson River, but 100 kilometers south, since several days
are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south
along the coast due to coriolis force. Further south then are areas of oxygen depletion,
caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms, caused by excess nutrients
from algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been reported,
because toxins climb the foodchain after small fish consume copepods, then large fish eat
smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration
of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such
as DDT. This is known as biomagnification which is occasionally used interchangeably
with bioaccumulation.

The big gyres in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. The North Pacific Gyre for
example has collected the so-called "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" that is now estimated
at 100 times the size of Texas. Many of these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs
of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways which
leads to reduced appetite or even starvation.

Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or chemically change especially over long
periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class of such chemicals are the
chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing
and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry
(note latest advances in liquid carbon dioxide in dry cleaning that avoids all use of
chemicals). Both of these chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial
decomposition reactions, leading to new hazardous chemicals (including
dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride).
Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because
groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers. Non-porous aquifers
such as clays partially purify water of bacteria by simple filtration (adsorption and
absorption), dilution, and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity:
however, in some cases, the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants.
Groundwater that moves through cracks and caverns is not filtered and can be transported
as easily as surface water. In fact, this can be aggravated by the human tendency to use
natural sinkholes as dumps in areas of Karst topography.

There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a
derivative condition. Some of these secondary impacts are:

• Silt bearing surface runoff from can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the
water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.
• Thermal pollution can induce fish kills and invasion by new thermophilic species.
This can cause further problems to existing wildlife.

[edit] Sampling & monitoring

This article or section is missing citations or needs footnotes.
Using inline citations helps guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (August 2008)

Environmental Scientists preparing water autosamplers.

Sampling water can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and
the characteristics of the contaminant. Many contamination events are sharply restricted
in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason 'grab' samples are
often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of
data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or
discharge intervals.

[edit] Regulatory framework

In the UK there are common law rights (civil rights) to protect the passage of water
across land unfettered in either quality of quantity. Criminal laws dating back to the 16th
century exercised some control over water pollution but it was not until the River
(Prevention of pollution )Acts 1951 - 1961 were enacted that any systematic control over
water pollution was established. These laws were strengthened and extended in the
Control of Pollution Act 1984 which has since been updated and modified by a series of
further acts. It is a criminal offense to either pollute a lake, river, groundwater or the sea
or to discharge any liquid into such water bodies without proper authority. In England
and Wales such permission can only be issued by the Environment Agency and in
Scotland by SEPA.

In the USA, concern over water pollution resulted in the enactment of state anti-pollution
laws in the latter half of the 19th century, and federal legislation enacted in 1899. The
Refuse Act of the federal Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 prohibits the disposal of any
refuse matter from into either the nation's navigable rivers, lakes, streams, and other
navigable bodies of water, or any tributary to such waters, unless one has first obtained a
permit. The Water Pollution Control Act, passed in 1948, gave authority to the Surgeon
General to reduce water pollution.

Growing public awareness and concern for controlling water pollution led to enactment
of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. As amended in 1977,
this law became commonly known as the Clean Water Act. The Act established the basic
mechanisms for regulating contaminant discharge. It established the authority for the
United States Environmental Protection Agency to implement wastewater standards for
industry. The Clean Water Act also continued requirements to set water quality standards
for all contaminants in surface waters. Further amplification of the Act continued
including the enactment of the Great Lakes Legacy Act of 2002.[3]


David Krantz and Brad Kifferstein
Comprising over 70% of the Earth?s surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious
natural resource that exists on our planet. Without the seemingly invaluable compound
comprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent: it is essential for
everything on our planet to grow and prosper. Although we as humans recognize this
fact, we disregard it by polluting our rivers, lakes, and oceans. Subsequently, we are
slowly but surely harming our planet to the point where organisms
are dying at a very alarming rate. In addition to innocent organisms dying off, our
drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water for recreational
purposes. In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems and
become part of the solution.


According to the American College Dictionary, pollution is defined as: ?to make foul
or unclean; dirty.? Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected
due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. When it is unfit for its
intended use, water is considered polluted. Two types of water pollutants exist; point
source and nonpoint source. Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances
are emitted directly into a body of water. The Exxon Valdez oil spill best illustrates a
point source water pollution. A nonpoint source delivers pollutants indirectly through
environmental changes. An example of this type of water pollution is when fertilizer
from a field is carried into a stream by rain, in the form of run-off
which in turn effects aquatic life. The technology exists for point sources of pollution to
be monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. Nonpoint
sources are much more difficult to control. Pollution arising from nonpoint
sources accounts for a majority of the contaminants in streams and lakes.


Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as
nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic
plants and algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our
waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters.

This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability
or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water.
Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, washoff
plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it
rains. Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other water bodies undergo
Eutrophication, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with sediment and
organic matter. When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish
respirationbecomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and
aquatic organisms and their environments become suffocated. Pollution in the form of
material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass
clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures. When natural bacteria and
protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen
dissolved in the water. Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive
when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million. When this
occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which leads to disruptions in the food
River in the United Kingdom
The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the
most crutial environmental problems within the 20th century. Waterborne chemical
pollution entering rivers and streams cause tramendous amounts of destruction.

are another
type of
that prove
They can
cause many
that range
typhoid and
dysentery to
and skin
such organisms as bacteria, viruses, and protozoan. These pollutants enter waterways
through untreated sewage, storm drains, septic tanks, runoff from farms, and particularly
boats that dump sewage. Though microscopic, these pollutants have a tremendous effect
evidenced by their ability to cause sickness.


Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive
substances, and heat. Petroleum often pollutes waterbodies in the form of oil, resulting
from oil spills. The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of
water pollution. These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important
cause of pollution along shore lines. Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling
operations contribute a large share of pollution. One estimate is that one ton of oil is
spilled for every million tons of oil transported. This is equal to about 0.0001 percent.
Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and
from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials. Specific forms of
waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining. The last form of water pollution is
heat. Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many
aquatic organisms. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of
cooling water by factories and power plants occurs.

Protest Drilling
Oil pollution is a growing problem, particularly devestating to coastal wildlife. Small
quantities of oil spread rapidly across long distances to form deadly oil slicks. In this
picture, demonstrators with "oil-covered" plastic animals protest a potential drilling
project in Key Largo, Florida. Whether or not accidental spills occur during the project,
its impact on the delicate marine ecosystem of the coral reefs could be devastating.
Oil Spill Clean-up
Workers use special nets to clean up a California beach after an oil tanker spill. Tanker
spills are an increasing environmental problem because once oil has spilled, it is virtually
impossible to completely remove or contain it. Even small amounts spread rapidly across
large areas of water. Because oil and water do not mix, the oil floats on the water and
then washes up on broad expanses of shoreline. Attempts to chemically treat or sink the
oil may further disrupt marine and beach ecosystems.


The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and
agricultural. Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and
commercial establishments. For many years, the main goal of treating municipal
wastewater was simply to reduce its content of suspended solids, oxygen-demanding
materials, dissolved inorganic compounds, and harmful bacteria. In recent years,
however, more stress has been placed on improving means of disposal of the solid
residues from the municipal treatment processes. The basic methods of treating
municipal wastewater fall into three stages: primary treatment, including grit removal,
screening, grinding, and sedimentation; secondary treatment, which entails oxidation of
dissolved organic matter by means of using biologically active sludge, which is then
filtered off; and tertiary treatment, in which advanced biological methods of nitrogen
removal and chemical and physical methods such as granular filtration and activated
carbon absorption are employed. The handling and disposal of solid residues can
account for 25 to 50 percent of the capital and operational costs of a treatment plant. The
characteristics of industrial waste waters can differ considerably both within and among
industries. The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their
collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of
suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances.
Three options are available in controlling industrial wastewater. Control can take place at
the point of generation in the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to
municipal treatment sources; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and
either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters.

Wastewater Treatment
Raw sewage includes waste from sinks, toilets, and industrial processes. Treatment of the
sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or released back into local water
systems. In a treatment plant, the waste is passed through a series of screens, chambers,
and chemical processes to reduce its bulk and toxicity. The three general phases of
treatment are primary, secondary, and tertiary. During primary treatment, a large
percentage of the suspended solids and inorganic material is removed from the sewage.
The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic material by accelerating natural
biological processes. Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be reused; 99
percent of solids are removed and various chemical processes are used to ensure the
water is as free from impurity as possible.

Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many
organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater. These contaminants
include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of
phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial
fertilizers. Animal wastes are high in oxygen demanding material, nitrogen and
phosphorus, and they often harbor pathogenic organisms. Wastes from commercial
feeders are contained and disposed of on land; their main threat to natural waters,
therefore, is from runoff and leaching. Control may involve settling basins for liquids,
limited biological treatment in aerobic or anaerobic lagoons, and a variety of other

Ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is
ground water. Ground water is found in natural
rock formations. These formations, called
aquifers, are a vital natural resource with many
uses. Nationally, 53% of the population relies on
ground water as a source of drinking water. In
rural areas this figure is even higher. Eighty one
percent of community water is dependent on
ground water. Although the 1992 Section 305(b)
State Water Quality Reports indicate that, overall,
the Nation?s ground water quality is good to
excellent, many local areas have experienced
significant ground water contamination.
Some examples are leaking underground storage
tanks and municipal landfills.

Several forms of legislation have been passed in recent decades to try to control water
pollution. In 1970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to
build wastewater facilities. This has helped control surface water pollution from
industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States. When congress passed the
Clean Water Act in 1972, states were given primary authority to set their own standards
for their water. In addition to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial
uses and their criteria must comply with the ?fishable and swimmable? goals of the act.
This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to support aquatic life and
recreational use. Because it is impossible to test water for every type of disease-causing
organism, states usually look to identify indicator bacteria. One for a example is a
bacteria known as fecal coliforms.(Figure 1 shows the quality of water for each every
state in the United States, click on the US link). These indicator bacteria suggest that a
certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that other,
more dangerous, organisms are present. These legislations are an important part in the
fight against water pollution. They are useful in preventing Envioronmental
catastrophes. The graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994. If stronger
legislations existed, perhaps these events would never have occurred.
Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at
least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases. With over 70
percent of the planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if these very bodies of
water could serve as a limitless dumping ground for wastes. Raw sewage, garbage, and
oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most
coastal waters are now polluted. Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often
because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is
beginning to suffer.
Perhaps the biggest reason for developing a worldwide effort to monitor and restrict
global pollution is the fact that most forms of pollution do not respect national
boundaries. The first major international conference on environmental issues was held
in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1972 and was sponsored by the United Nations (UN). This
meeting, at which the United States took a leading role, was controversial because many
developing countries were fearful that a focus on environmental protection was a means
for the developed world to keep the undeveloped world in an economically subservient
position. The most important outcome of the conference was the creation of the United
Nations Environmental Program (UNEP).

UNEP was designed

to be ?the
conscience of the
United Nations,?
and, in an attempt to
allay fears of the
developing world, it
became the first UN
agency to be
headquartered in a
developing country,
with offices in
Nairobi, Kenya. In
addition to
attempting to
achieve scientific
consensus about
major environmental
issues, a major focus
for UNEP has been the study of ways to encourage sustainable development increasing
standards of living without destroying the environment. At the time of UNEP's creation
in 1972, only 11 countries had environmental agencies. Ten years later that number had
grown to 106, of which 70 were in developing countries.

Water quality is closely
linked to water use and to the
state of economic
development. In
industrialized countries,
bacterial contamination of
surface water caused serious
health problems in major
cities throughout the mid
1800?s. By the turn of the
century, cities in Europe and
North America began
building sewer networks to
route domestic wastes
downstream of water
intakes. Development of
these sewage networks and
waste treatment facilities in
urban areas has expanded
tremendously in the past two
decades. However, the rapid
growth of the urban
population (especially in
Latin America and Asia) has
outpaced the ability of
governments to expand
sewage and water infrastructure. While waterborne diseases have been eliminated in the
developed world, outbreaks of cholera and other similar diseases still occur with alarming
frequency in the developing countries. Since World War II and the birth of the ?chemical
age?, water quality has been heavily impacted worldwide by industrial and agricultural
chemicals. Eutrophication of surface waters from human and agricultural wastes and
nitrification of groundwater from agricultural practices has greatly affected large parts of
the world. Acidification of surface waters by air pollution is a recent phenomenon and
threatens aquatic life in many area of the world. In developed countries, these general
types of pollution have occurred sequentially with the result that most developed
countries have successfully dealt with major surface water pollution. In contrast,
however, newly industrialized countries such as China, India, Thailand, Brazil, and
Mexico are now facing all these issues simultaneously.

Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt
life on our planet to a great extent. Congress has passed laws to try to combat water
pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a seriousissue. But
the government alone cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be
informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our
water. We must become familiar with our local water resources and learn about ways for
disposing harmful household wastes so they don?t end up in sewage treatment plants that
can?t handle them or landfills not designed to receive hazardous materials. In our yards,
we must determine whether additional nutrients are needed before fertilizers are applied,
and look for alternatives where fertilizers might run off into surface waters. We have to
preserve existing trees and plant new trees and shrubs to help prevent soil erosion and
promote infiltration of water into the soil. Around our houses, we must keep litter, pet
waste, leaves, and grass clippings out of gutters and storm drains. These are
just a few of the many ways in which we, as humans, have the ability to combat water
pollution. As we head into the 21st century, awareness and education will most assuredly
continue to be the two most important ways to prevent water pollution. If these measures
are not taken and water pollution continues, life on earth will suffer severely.
Global environmental collapse is not inevitable. But the developed world must work
with the developing world to ensure that new industrialized economies do not add to the
world's environmental problems. Politicians must think of sustainable development rather
than economic expansion. Conservation strategies have to become more widely accepted,
and people must learn that energy use can be dramatically diminished without sacrificing
comfort. In short, with the technology that currently
exists, the years of global environmental mistreatment can begin to be reversed.
0601–040. Aftab Begum SY, Noorjahan CM, Dawood Sharif S (PG Res
Dept Zoo,
Justice Basheer Ahmad Sayeed Coll Women, Chennai 600018).
Physico-chemical and
fungal analysis of a fertilizer factory effluent. Nature Env Polln
Techno, 4(4) (2005),
529-531 [12 Ref].
Physico-chemical parameters and analysis of untreated fertilizer
effluent were studied
and the results revealed that the parameters like EC, TDS, TSS, BOD,
COD and
ammonia are high compared to permissible limits of CPCB (1995), and
fungal analysis
showed the presence of 15 species isolated on Malt Extract Agar (MEA)
medium thereby
indicating the pollutional load of the effluent.
0601–041. Anand Chetna, Akolkar Pratima, Chakrabarti Rina (B- U&V
25A, Shalimar
Bagh, Delhi-110088). Bacteriological water quality status of river
Yamuna in Delhi. J
Environ Bio, 27(1) (2006), 97-101 [8 Ref].
Study reveals the impact of diverse anthropogenic activities as well as
the monsoon effect
on the bacterial population of river Yamuna in Delhi stretch. Microbial
contributed mainly through human activities prevailed in the entire
stretch of Yamuna
river with reduction in bacterial counts during monsoon period due to
flushing effect.
Bacteriological assessment does not provide an integrated effect of
pollution but only
indicate that water quality at the time of sampling. Hence, this
parameter is time and
space specific.
0601–042. Arthur James R, Emmanuel KV, Scaria Rose, Thanasekaran
K (Dept Marine
Sci, Bhartiadasan Univ, Tiruchi 620018). Evaluation of domestic
treatment using various natural filter media. Asian J Water Env
Polln, 3(1) (2000),
103-110 [24 Ref].
The performance of combined anaerobic and aerobic treatment system
with different
medias and their efficiencies were examined for domestic wastewater.
In anaerobic filter,
gravel media show higher efficiency than slag media and PO4 removal
is proven to fail in
the slag media. Gravel (2-4 mm) and pebble (8-10 mm) gives better
performance than
sand media (0.5 mm) in aerobic filter. Combination of these three-
system gives excellent
alternative (89 to 94.5% efficiency) to conventional treatment system,
which proves and
reduced the operational cost.
0601–043. Athikesavan S, Vincent S, Velmurugan B, Vasuki R (Unit
Environ Hlth
Biotechno, PG Res Dept Zoo, Loyola Coll, Chennai 600034).
Accumulation of nickel in
the different tissues of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys
molitrix). Env Eco, 24(5) (1)
(2006), 143-146 [25 Ref].
Nickel chloride widely used in industries was investigated in the
present study. Silver
carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were selected for the bioassay
experiments. The
bioaccumulation of nickel was studied in the gill, liver, intestine and
kidney of the fish.
Fish were exposed to 10, 20 and 30 days in sublethal concentration of
nickel (5.7 mg /
liter). This heavy metal is predominantly accumulated in liver followed
by kidney,
intestine and gill.
0601–044. Barik RN, Pradhan B, Patel RK (Dept Chem, Natl Inst
Techno, Rourkela
769008). Trace elements in ground water of Paradip area. J Indl
Polln Contl, 21(2)
(2005), 355-362 [13 Ref].
The degree of trace element pollution and the suitability of
groundwater for drinking
purpose was assessed. The concentration of Pb was found to be
present above maximum
permissible limit. More than permissible limit of Fe was found around
the industrial area.
The concentrations of Zn, Cu and Mn are well below the maximum
permissible limit as
recommended by ISI (1983) for drinking purpose.
0601–045. Bhat Subhas Chandra, Goswami Saswati, Ghosh Uday
Chand* (* Govt
Teachers Trng Coll, Malda, West Bengal). Removal of trace
chromium (VI) from
contaminated water: biosorption by Ipomea aquatica. J Environ
Sci Engng, 47(4)
(2005), 316-321 [25 Ref].
Ipomea aquatica a wetland plant, has ability to remove Cr(VI) from the
water by transforming Cr (VI) to Cr(III). This adsorption of Cr(VI)
basically takes places
in roots of this plant. The lower level of contamination requires greater
contact time than
the higher one to bring down Cr(VI) below the permissible level. The
study revealed that
the plant Ipomea aquatica adsorbs Cr(VI) from the contaminated water
very slowly
compared to the other reported plants.
0601–046. Chavan RP, Lokhande RS, Rajput SI (Dept Chem,
Dnyanasadan Coll, Thane,
Maharashtra). Monitoring of organic pollutants in Thane creek
water. Nature Env
Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 633-636 [4 Ref].
Investigation was carried out to study the different organic pollutants
present in the
Thane creek water. The creek water shows high values of BOD and
COD along with
phenolic compounds, detergents, alcohols, ether and acetone, which
are harmful to
aquatic life. The origin of this pollutants is mainly from the entry of
effluents from
surrounding industries.
0601–047. Das Rajib, Samal Nihar Ranjan, Roy Pankaj Kumar, Mitra
Debojyoti* (*Dept
Mechanical Engng, Jadavpur Univ, Kolkata 700032). Role of electrical
conductivity as
an indicator of pollution in shallow lakes. Asian J Water Env Polln,
3(1) (2006), 143-
146 [4 Ref].
Experiments carried out at Subhas Sarovar (lake) and Rabindra
Sarovar (lake), Kolkata,
indicates that EC has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solids
(TDS), which is
validated by the findings at various other lakes throughout the world. It
is also observed
that EC increases with increase in TDS, which in turn indicates
increased concentration
of sulphates and other ions.
0601–048. D’Cruz FG, Miranda MTP (PG Res Dept Zoo, Fatima Mata
Natl Coll Kollam
691001). Effect of KMML (Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited)
titanium dioxide
industrial effluents on the plankton biomass of Vattakayal - an
estuarine system in
Kerala. Uttar Pradesh J Zoo, 25(2) (2005), 151-156 [21 Ref].
There was drastic reduction of plankton biomass at station I which
directly receives the
effluents. Station II which was near to Station I also recorded
decreased values. Station
III closer to the river discharge site and Station IV closer to the
estuarine mouth to the
sea, exhibited almost normal values. The interrelationship of plankton
biomass with year,
station and season are discussed.
0601–049. Dey Kallol, Mohapatra SC, Misra Bidyabati (Dept Chem,
Govt (Auto) Coll,
Rourkela 769004). Assessment of water quality parameters of
the river Brahmani at
Rourkela. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 265-270 [5 Ref].
Various physio-chemical parameters were assessed on the samples
drawn from the river,
“Koel”, “Shankha” and “Brahmani” selecting strategic points. It was
observed that
dilution during rainy season decreases the metal concentration level to
a considerable
extent. However the enrichment of these metals by bio-magnification
and bioaccumulation
in edible components produced in water is accepted to produce a
remarkable effect on the water of the river “Brahamani” which is of
deep public concern.
0601–050. Doke Jayant, Kudlu Priyadarshini, Vijapurkar Suman,
Adhyapak Upendra,
Kalyan Raman V (Dept Environ Sci, Univ Pune, Pune 411007).
Application of root
zone process for remediation of 2-chlorophenol. Nature Env Polln
Techno, 4(3)
(2005), 327-331 [11 Ref].
The root-zone technology is effective for removal of 2-chlorophenol
from wastewater. It
is simple, robust process able to withstand wide variation of operating
conditions. The
plant like Phragmites australis was used in root-zone technology, which
gives an average
of 0.5g O2/m2/day (max 3g/m2/day). It removes 2-chlorophenol up to
65%, 60%, 57%
and 42% from 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ppm concentrations respectively.
0601–051. Dutta RK, Saikia G, Das B, Bezbaruah, Das HB, Dube SN
(Dept Cheml Sci,
Tezpur, Univ, Tezpur 784028). Fluoride contamination in
groundwater of Central
Assam, India. Asian J Water Env Polln, 3(2) (2006), 93-100 [24 Ref].
High fluoride contamination has been observed in the groundwater of
areas having
ancient alluvial red soil and Precambrian metamorphic rock complex
basement in the
Kapili-Jamuna sub-basin. Moderate fluoride has been found in ground
water of some
places in Morigaon and Golaghat district also. Besides fluoride,
presence of high
concentrations of SO42-, much above the guideline values, have also
bee recorded in
some samples.
0601–052. Gnana Rani DF, Arunkumar K, Sivakumar SR (Govt Arts
Coll, Ariyalur
621713). Physio-chemical analysis of waste water from cement
units. J Indl Polln
Contl, 21(2) (2005), 337-340 [9 Ref].
Two major cement industries of the Ariyalur and Reddipalayam were
selected and the
waste water discharged from these units were collected and subjected
to analysis. The
values of different parameters were compared with the standard
values given by Tamil
Nadu Pollution Control Board. The reasons for variations are analysed
and remedial
measures suggested.
0601–053. Guru Prasad B (Environ Engng Lab, Civil Engng Dept, KL
Coll Engng,
Vaddeswaram 522502). Assessment of water quality in canals of
Krishna Delta area
of Andhra Pradesh, Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 521-523 [2
Water samples from different locations are collected regularly to check
the suitability of
water for human use. The parameters like temperature, suspended
solids, total solids,
electrical conductivity, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorides are
analyzed. For the
experimental data mean, standard deviation, variance, and standard
error are calculated
and the results are discussed. This investigation revealed that the
canal serves the purpose
of human use.
0601–054. Harish Babu K, Puttaiah ET, Kumara Vijaya, Thirumala S
(Dept Environ Sci,
Kuvempu Univ, Shankaraghatla 577451). Status of drinking water
quality in Tarikere
taluk with special reference to fluoride concentration. Nature
Env Polln Techno, 5(1)
(2006), 71-78 [29 Ref].
Thirty water samples were collected from public hand pumps of
Tarikere taluk, which are
used for drinking purpose only. The fluoride concentration ranges from
0.45 mg/L to 1.98
mg/L. The results of the study indicate that ground water quality in the
study area is
much suitable with respect to fluoride as more than 65% of the sample
have fluoride
above the permissible limit.
0601–055. Indra V, Meiyalagan V (Dept Zoo, Thiruvalluvar Univ, Fort
Vellore). Diversity and distribution of microfungi in polluted and
non polluted water
bodies from an industrial areas of river Palar, Vellore-India.
Asian J Microbio
Biotechno Environ Sci, 7(4) (2005), 723-725 [14 Ref].
Attempt is made to enumerate the diversity and distribution of micro
fungi in water
polluted and non polluted aquatic ecosystems in an industrial area of
river Palar. The
results show that the fungal diversity was higher with 22 species in
polluted waters
compared to 12 species from non-polluted sources. The ecological
significance of these
observations is discussed.
0601–056. Jadeja BA, Odedra NK, Thaker MR (Dept Bot, MD Sci Coll,
360575). Studies on ground water quality of industrial area of
Porbandar city, Saurashtra, Gujrat, India. Plant Archives, 6(1)
(2006), 341-344 [5
The ground water quality was assessed by examining various physico-
chemical and
bacteriological characteristics. TDS was above the desirable limit
prescribed by BIS :
14543, 2004. All the samples collected from Dharampur industrial area
Porbandar city
were rated as unacceptable for their taste on the basis of total
hardness. Results show that
the ground water of Dharampur Industrial area, Porbandar city is
suitable for drinking
purpose, subject to proper disinfection to ensure health of population.
0601–057. Jena PK, Mohanty M (Inst Adv Techno Environ Stud,
Bhubaneshwar, Orrisa).
Processing of liquid effluents of mineral processing industries.
Intl Symposium
Environ Manag Mining Metallurgical Industries, 11-14 Dec, 2005,
Bhubaneshwar, 193-
212 [20 Ref].
In mineral based industry among various environmental issues the
water pollution has
posed most disastrous effect and complex challenges for undertaking
necessary remedial
measures. The sources of water pollution in different mineral based
industries including
mining, mineral processing, integrated iron and steel plant and
nonferrous metal
industries are described. Various liquid effluent treatments techniques
both physiochemical
and biological have been described and discussed. The process in each
being used commercially, have been outlined.
0601–058. Kamath Devidas, Kumara Vijaya, Tirumala BR, Puttaiah ET
(Dept Environ
Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Shankeraghatta 577451, Dist Shimoga).
Phytoplankton for
biomonitoring of organic pollution in two tanks of Shimoga
district, Karnataka. J
Aquatic Bio, 21(1) (2006),. 7-9 [13 Ref].
Two tanks situated in Shimoga district were selected for their
phytoplankton diversity
and the possibility of using it as bio monitors of organic pollution.
These algae occurred
as regular blooms in all the seasons. Hosalli tank supports a wide
diversity of
phytoplankton and less polluted. The use of algae for bio monitoring of
organic pollution
indicates that Purle tank, which regularly receives sewage is heavily
polluted and Hosalli
tank is mesotrophic in nature of mild anthropogenic activities.
0601–059. Kavitha Kirubavathy A, Binukumari S, Mariamma Ninan,
Thirumalnesan (Dept Zoo, Chikanna Govt Arts Coll, Tirupur 641602).
Assessment of
water quality of Orathupalayam reservoir, Erode district, Tamil
Nadu. J Ecophysio
Occupl Hlth, 5(1&2) (2005), 53-54 [5 Ref].
The water quality of Orathupalayam reservoir has been studied to
ascertain the level of
municipal waste contamination in it and further it’s suitability for the
irrigation. The
physio-chemical end points studies have shown a heavy contamination
of several
undesired compounds and make it unsuitable for irrigation purpose.
0601–060. Kelkar PS, Nanoti MV (Natl Environ Engng Res Inst, Nagpur
Impact assessment of Ganga Action Plan on river quality at
Varanasi, J Indian
Water Work Assoc, 37(3) (2005), 225-234.
Extensive water quality assessment was undertaken in pre- and post-
period at 14.5 km stretch of the river at Varanasi. Water quality was
assessed near the
bathing ghats and in the midstream. Water quality indicator showed
improvement in the river. The organic loading was reduced as
represented by BOD and
COD values.
0601–061. Kiran BR, Shastri Shekhar TR, Puttaiah ET, Shivaraj Y (Dept
Std Res
Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Shankaraghatta 577451). Trace metal
levels in the organs
of finfish Oreochromis mossambicus (Peter) and relevant water
of Jannapura Lake,
India. J Environ Sci Engng, 48(1) (2006), 15-20 [31 Ref].
Trace metal levels in the body organs of finfish, Oreochromis
mossambicus (Peter) and
relevant water was studied in Jannapura lake, located five kilometers
from Bhadravathi
town, Karnataka, India. Lead, copper and cadmium accumulation was
higher in muscles
than in gills while, zinc, nickel and cobalt accumulation was maximum
in gills followed
by muscles. The metals presents in the highest concentration were in
the order of
Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd>Ni>Co in the water samples.
0601–062. Kulshrestha H, Sharma S* (*Dept Microbio, Division of Life
Sci, SBS (PG)
Inst Biomedical Sci Res, Balawala, Dehradun 248161). Impact of
mass bathing during
Ardh Kumbh on water quality status of river Ganga. J Environ
Bio, 27 (2
supplement) (2006), 437-440 [20 Ref].
Study highlighted that mass bathing during Ardhkumbh caused the
changes in the river
water quality and indicated that water is not fit for either drinking or
bathing purposes.
The presence of faecal coliforms in water also hints at the potential
presence of
pathogenic microorganisms, which might cause water born diseases.
Although the water
was found to be safe with respect to dissolved oxygen content, the
values of BOD and
COD exceeded the maximum permissible limit during bathing.
0601–063. Lingeswara Rao SV, Sambasiva Rao T, Sreenivasulu S
(Dept Zoo, Sri
Venkateshwara Univ, Tirupati 517502). Analysis of groundwater of
Nellore coast by
correlation technique. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 545-
549 [12 Ref].
Groundwater samples, covering all geological formations, were
collected from 100
drinking water sources all along the Nellore coast and analysed for
major physical and
chemical parameters. Correlation coefficients among different
chemical constituents were
determined. The analysis of correlation coefficients indicates that the
quality of ground
water in the study area is saline and consist of high sodium chloride,
bicarbonate and sodium sulphate.
0601–064. Mala R, Sarvana Babu S (PG Dept Biochem, VV
Vanniaperumal Coll
Women, Virudhnagar 626001). Production and partial purification
of peroxidase
from water hyacinth plants induced by textile dyeing effluent. J
Indl Polln Contl,
21(2) (2005), 321-326 [21 Ref].
Initially, the water hyacinth plants were gradually acclimatized to
textile dyeing effluent
from 5% to 50%. The production of enzyme was greatly induced by the
strength of the
effluent. The results indicated that, acclimatized water hyacinth roots
could be a simple
and easily available source for cost effective industrial production of
0601-065. Manjappa S, Puttaioh ET (Dept Chem, Univ BDT Coll Engng,
577004). Evaluation of trace metals in the sediments of river
Bhadra near
Bhadravathi town, Karnataka, India. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2)
(2005), 271-276 [15
Attempt has been made to evaluate trace metals in the Bhadra river
bed sediments from
four identified stations. The results of the analysis showed that trace
metals in the river
bed sediments are well within the Shale standards. Trace metals in the
order of their
relative dominal were in the sequence Fe>
0601-066. Meenakshi, Maheswari RC (Cent Rural Dev Techno, Indian
Inst Techno,
Delhi). Arsenic removal from water: a review. Asian J Water Env
Polln, 3(1) (2006),
133-139 [49 Ref].
Article overviews the possible arsenic removal options for safe drinking
water supply in
the arsenic affected areas. All these options were tested in the
laboratory and effect of
various parameters was studied. Adsorption of arsenic on iron salts
such as Granular
Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) and silica ferric complex adsorbent (Sfca) was
found to be most
effective option for arsenic removal.
0601-067. Misra PC, Behera PC, Patel RK (PG Dept Chem, Natl Inst
Techno, Rourkela
08). Contamination of water due to major industries and open
refuse dumping in
the steel city of Orissa – a case study. J Environ Sci Techno, 47(2)
(2005) 141-154 [18
Attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on
the ground and
surface water due to Integrated Rourkela Steel Plant and other major
industries. From the
analytical data of physico-chemical parameters, it is indicated that the
river water is
contaminated mainly due to the industrial and municipal effluents and
the ground water
of some of the analyzed areas is contaminated due to municipal and
industrial solid waste
0601-068. Mitra Abhijit, Das Anumita, Chakarborty Rajiv, Banerjee
Kakoli, Banerjee
Subash, Bhattacharya DP (Dept Marine Sci, Univ Calcutta, 35, BC Rd,
Kolkata 700019).
Enteromorpha intestinalis – an indicator of heavy metal
pollution in coastal
environment. Ultra Sci, 17(2) (2005), 177-184 [14 Ref].
Seqasonal concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in three
important estuarine
macroalgae inhabiting three different station of the Sagar land. Metals
in the algal tissue
accumulated in the order Zn>Cu>Pb. Highest concentrations of these
heavy metals were
found in the surface water in the month of monsoon, the period
characterized by lowest
salinity and pH of the ambient aquatic phase. A unique
compartmentation was observed
between sediment and surface water with respect to selected heavy
0601-069. Mohan S, Ramesh ST (Dept Civil Engng, Environ Water
Resources Engng
Div, Indian Inst Techno Madras, Chennai 600036). Treatability
studies and evaluation
of biokinetic parameters for Chennai Municipal wastewater
using activated sludge
process. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(4) (2005), 627-632 [6 Ref].
Batch study for activated sludge process was carried out with the
wastewater collected
from municipal sewage pumping station, Velachery, Chennai.
Experiments were
conducted with ‘bio-logical solids retention time’ (BSRT) of 2 days, 2.5
days, 5 days and
10 days using nutrient broth and dextrose spiked water as feed. It was
observed that COD
of effluents and SVI were decreased as BSRT increased, and the MLSS
increased as
BSRT increased. The influence of BSRT on activated sludge operation
and performance
has also been discussed.
0601-070. Namasivayam C, Suresh Kumar MV (Environ Chem Dev,
Dept Environ Sci,
Bharathiar Univ, Coimbatore 641046). Surfactant modified coir
pith, an agricultural
solid waste as adsorbent for phosphate removal and fertilizer
carrier to control
phosphate release. J Env Sci Engng, 47(4) (2005), 256-265 [31 Ref].
The surface of coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was modified using
a cationic
surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and the
modified coir pith
was investigated to assess the capacity for the removal of phosphate
from aqueous
solution. Optimum pH for maximum phosphate adsorption was found
to be 4.0.
Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the overall adsorption
process was
spontaneous and endothermic.
0601-071. Nikhil Kumar (Environ Manag Gr, Centl Mining Res Inst,
Barwa Rd,
Dhanbad 826001). Biotreatment of polluted water-vis-a-vis-
socio- Economic
development in coal mining area. J Indl Polln Contl, 2(2) (2005),
195-199 [5 Ref].
Irrespective of the mining methods employed, mining is bound to
cause various
environmental problems and one of them is water pollution. Besides
this, sewage and
industrial effluents water are also present in coal mining areas.
Mechanical, chemical and
other treatment methods for the sewage, mine and industrial effluents
waters are found
costlier. A bio-treatment option to recycle this polluted water for some
useful purposes is
0601-072. Panda Unmesh Chandra, Rath Prasanta, Sahu Kali Charan,
Sabyasachi, Sundaray Sanjay K (Wetland Res Cent, Chilika Dev
Bhubaneswar 751001). Environmental quantification of heavy
metals in the
Subrarnarekha, estuary and near-shore environment, east
coast of India. Asian J
Water Env Polln, 3(2) (2006), 85-92 [30 Ref].
Concentration of heavy metals in the sediments was measured from
the river, estuarine
and coastal environment off Subrarnarekha River, Bay of Bengal. The
degree of
contamination of the sediments was evaluated through enrichment
factor (ER), geoaccumulation
index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI). The high ER’s and Igeo
for Cu and Cr were due to the chromite and copper mines, and Cu ore
processing plants
situated on the upstream catchments of the river.
0601-073. Parikh Punita, Rao KS (Dept Biosci, Sardar Patel Univ,
Vallabh Vidyanagar –
388120). The response of Chara and Oscillatoria to remove Ni
(II) ions from
industrial waste water. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 293-297 [10
A blue green algae Oscillatoria sp. and green algae Chara sp. have
been used to remove
Ni (II) ions from effluent having high concentration of Ni and the effect
of this metal on
dry matter content of the algae. Oscillatoria, being blue green algae
can efficiently
remove/uptake Ni (II) ions than Chara from the industrial waste water.
The metal
concentration in the effluent and the dry matter content of both the
algae are negatively
0601-074. Patel DK, Kanungo VK (Dept Bot, Govt Coll Sci, Raipur
Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters by using a free
floating aquatic plant
Pistia stratiotes L. Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(1) (2006). 101-106[8
A culture of aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes was grown in the domestic
wastewater for a
stipulated interval of seven days for phytoremediation. The results of
analysis for pH and
dissolved oxygen have shown an increase in values while other
parameters exhibited
significant decrease throughout the year. The increase in biomass of
Pistia stratiotes and
finding of physico-chemical analysis have proved that Pistia stratiotes
is a suitable
aquatic plant for Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater.
0601-075. Patil Dilip B, Kshirsagar A, Ganorkar Ajay P (Dept Chem,
Inst Sci, Nagpur
440001). Estimation of surfactants at ppm level from
synthetically polluted water. J
Indl Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 259-264 [10 Ref].
The level of surfactant in synthetically polluted water followed the
order arial>Surf
excel>Rin Shakti> Nirma. Study revealed that minimum amount of
surfactant that could
be estimated in synthetically polluted water of commercially available
detergent like
Arial, Surf excel, Rin Shakti and Nirma were 39.0, 50.6, 58.1 and 72.2
ppm respectively.
0601-076. Pawar Anusha C, Nair Jithender Kumar, Jadhav Naresh,
Vasundhara Devi V,
Pawar Smita C (Dept Zoo, Univ Coll Women, Osmania Univ, Koti,
Hyderabad 500195).
Physico-chemical study of ground work samples from
Nacharam Industrial area,
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Aquatic Bio, 21(1) (2006),
118-120 [11 Ref].
The bore well and dug well water samples from a highly polluted
industrial area –
Nacharam were collected and analysed for physico-chemical
parameters by adopting the
standard methods for examination for water and waste water. The
analyzed samples
obtained a high values, compared with drinking water standards.
0601-077. Poonkothai M, Parvatham R (Dept Biochem Biotechno,
Deemed Univ, Coimbatore 641043). Bio-physico and chemical
assessment of
automobile wastewater. J Indl Polln Contl, 21(2)(2005), 377-380 [11
Physico-chemical and microbiological studies of automobile
wastewater in Nammakkal,
Tamil Nadu, India indicated that the values for physico-chemical
parameters were on the
higher side of permissible limits of BIS. Microbiological studies revealed
the presence of
bacteria at high concentration and these organisms serves as
indicators for pollutants.
0601-078. Prabhakara Rao K, Radha Krishnaiah K (Dept Zoo, Sri
Krishnadevaraya Univ,
Anantapur 515003). Pesticidal impact on protein metabolism of
the freshwater fish
Cyprinus carpio (Lin.). Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3) (2006), 367-
374 [35 Ref].
The total protein content increased in the gills and decreased in the
muscle of the
freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio at days 1 and 2 on exposure to lethal
concentration and at
days 1 and 10 on exposure to the sublethal concentrations of furadan,
chlorpyrifos and mixture of these three in a 100:10:1 ratio. The results
indicate that the
changes in protein levels of the fish are organ-dependant, and also
dependant on the
concentration of pesticides.
0601-079. Raje GB, Muley DV, Mankar DD (Dept Zoo, Shivaji Univ,
Kolhapur 416004).
Analysis of heavy metals in ground water from Lote industrial
area in Ratnagir,
district (Maharastra). J Indls Polln Contl, 21(2) (2005), 381-386 [11
Heavy metals in natural spring water and dugwell water from Lote
Industrial Area and
nearby villages have been monthly analysed. The results on trace
metals indicated
varying degrees of contamination in ground water which may cause a
serious health
problems to domestic animals and human beings.
0601-080. Ramanaiah S, Sambasivarao T, Niranjan Kumar K ( Dept
Geo, SV Univ,
Tirupati 517502). A rapid method to assess source of
groundwater pollution through
statistical approach. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(3) (2005), 409-412
[2 Ref].
A method has been suggested to assess the source of groundwater
pollution through the
study of coefficient of variation of the parameteric ratios among the
parameters of groundwater samples. The usefulness of this approach
has been
demonstrated by applying this technique to about 25 samples
collected in the vicinity of
Kadapa town in Andhra Pradesh.
0601-081. Rokade PB, Ganeshwade RM (Dept Zoo, RB Attal Coll,
Georai 431127).
Impact of pollution on water quality of Salim Ali Lake at
Aurangabad. Uttar
Pradesh J Zoo, 25(2) (2005), 219-220 [12 Ref].
Results showed high fluctuations in the physico-chemical parameters
indicating the
intensity of pollution. The pH ranged from minimum of 6.6 to maximum
of 8.4, chlorides
from 132.5 to 820.4mg/l, hardness ranged from 74 to 281 mg/l, CO2
from 2.1 to 5.09,
BOD from 4.437 to 112.432 mg/l, sulphates 0.192 to 5.12 mg/l, nitrates
0.5 to 1.012.
0601-082. Sahu Anita, Vaishnav MM* (*Dept Chem, GBVPG Coll,
Hardibazar, Korba
(C.G.). Study of fluoride in groundwater around the BALCO
Korba area (India). J
Environ Sci Engng , 48(1) (2006), 65-68 [13 Ref].
Study was undertaken for the determination of fluoride ions in drinking
water at the
BALCO, Kobra region by the ion selective electrode method. The
fluoride concentration
values varied from 1.07 ppm to 3.10 ppm. It was found that fluoride
was present within
the permissible limit (1.5 ppm) in most of the villages studied but the
fluoride level was
unacceptable in drinking water samples taken from some villages of
BALCO, Kobra
0601-083. Samanta S, Mitra K, Chandra K, Saha K, Bandopadhyay S,
Ghosh A (Centl
Inland Fisheries Res Inst, Barrackpore, Kolkata 700120) Heavy metals
in water of the
rivers Hooghly and Haldi at Haldia and their impact on fish. J
Environ Bio, 26(3)
(2005), 517-523 [17 Ref].
Paper deals with the measurement of five heavy metals viz., Cd, Cu,
Mn, Pb and Zn in
water of the rivers Hooghly and Haldi at Haldia. Most of the metals
exhibited their least
concentration at the sampling site above the Haldia industrial area of
river Hoogly.
Comparison of the data with the Criterion Continuous Concentration
(CCC) of USA
revealed that Cd, Cu and Pb were the pollutants present at alarming
level to disturb the
aquatic life process in the zone. The other two metals viz., Mn and Zn
were probably less
harmful to the aquatic ecosystem.
0601-084. Sawane AP, Puranik PG, Bhate AM (Dept Zoo, Anand
Niketan Coll, Warora
442907, Dist Chandrapur). Impact of industrial pollution on river
Irai, district
Chandrapur, with reference to fluctuation in CO2 and pH. J
Aquatic Bio, 21(1)
(2006), 105-110 [10 Ref].
The minimum pH value of 6.3 mg/l was found during winter season and
maximum of
8.93 mg/l in summer. The pH shows general decline from upstream to
downstream. CO2
was found to maximum in summer reaching up to 55.44 mg/l and
reduced to a minimum
of 2.28 mg/l during rainy season. From the data collected it can be
concluded that the
inverse relationship, which is known to exist between pH and CO2 , is
not existing in the
present investigation.
0601-085. Saxena Pratibha, Sharma Subhashini, Sharma Shweta,
Suryavathi V, Grover
Ruby, Soni Pratima, Kumar Suresh, Sharma KP (Dept Zoo, Univ
Rajasthan, Jaipur 302
004). Effect of acute and chromic toxicity of four commercial
detergents on the
freshwater fish Gambusia affinis Bairds Gerard. J Environ Sci
Engng, 47(2) (2005),
119-124 [25 Ref].
The toxic effect of four commercial detergents (two washing powders
and two cakes) on
behavior, mortality and RBC counts of a freshwater fish Gambusia
affinis are reported.
During acute toxicity studies (96h), surface movements of fish
increased markedly for
24h, only at higher concentrations(>10ppm) of all the four detergents.
During acute
toxicity studies, cakes (LC50 = 6.69-19.98ppm) were found more toxic
than powders
(LC50 = 18.34-20.72 ppm).
0601-086. Shailaja K, Johnson Mary Esther C (Limno Lab, Dept Bot,
Osmania Univ Coll
Women, Koti, Hyderabad 500195). Heavy metals in the ground
waters of same areas
of Hyderabad. Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3) (2006), 447-449 [12
The ground water quality of Hyderabad has been examined with
reference to heavy
metals contamination. Twentyfour samples were collected during pre
and post monsoon
seasons and analysed for various heavy metals. The heavy metals in
ground waters were
mostly below the prescribed maximum permissible limits in all the
samples. The
concentration of zinc, lead and chromium were found well within the
permissible limits
in all the samples of Hyderabad district.
0601-087. Sharma Madhvi, Ranga MM, Goswami NK (Dept Zoo, Govt
Coll, Ajmer
Rajasthan). Study of groundwater quality of the marble
industrial area of
Kishangarh (Ajmer), Rajshthan. Nature Env Polln Techno, 4(3)
(2005), 419-420 [5
Ground water quality of industrial area of Kishangarh was studied for
various physicochemical
parameters seasonally without and after addition of marble slurry in
proportions. From the study it is clear that these parameters increase
with the addition of
marble slurry leading to deterioration of the overall quality of the
0601-088. Shivram Hari Singh, Kumar Dinesh, Singh RV (Dept Chem,
Univ Rajasthan,
Jaipur 300204). Improvement of water quality through biological
denitrification. J
Environ Sci Engng, 48(1) (2006), 57-60 [10 Ref].
Results show that the value of pH and alkalinity was increased due to
generation of
alkalinity during biological denitrificaion process. The obtained value of
the DO in the
treated water was found lower than the supplied water, and the COD of
the treated water
was nil. The biological reduction of nitrate-nitrogen (from 50.79 mg/L
to 0.57 mg/L) was
found to be lower than the tolerance limit prescribed by WHO without
changing the
water quality.
0601-089. Singh Rajesh, Yadav Archan (Dept Zoo, Univ Allahabad,
Allahabad 211002).
Impact of carpet dyeing units wastewater on total chlorophyl
contents and biomass
of certain aquatic macrophytes. Indian J Environ Sci, 9(2) (2005),
137-139 [9 Ref].
In comparison to controls, total chlorophyll contents (30-50%) and
biomass (1-10%) of
Typha latifolia, Hydrilla verticillata and Lemna minor decreased when
grown in cent
percent carpet dyeing industry wastewater for 7,14 and 21 days.
Percentage reduction in
both biomass and chlorophyll content was minimum in Hydrilla and
maximum in Typha.
0601-090. Singh V, Chandel CPS (Dept Chem, Univ Rajashtan, Jaipur
302004). The
potability of groundwater in terms of Water Quality Index
(WQ1) of Jaipur city.
Cheml Environ Res, 13(3&4) (2004), 307-314 [20 Ref].
Ground water samples from various hand pumps of eight adjacent
localities of various
industrial areas in Jaipur city were analyzed with the help of standard
methods of APHA.
The values obtained were compared with standards of ISI, ICMR and
WHO. It was
observed that the pH, EC, Ca2+, Na+
, K+, Mg2+, SO4

2, CO3

2, HCO3-,Cl-, DO and BOD values

are within permissible limits of ISI, ICMR and WHO but NO3
values show poor water quality in most of the studied groundwater
samples taken.
0601-091. Singhal V, Kumar A, Rai JPN (Ecotechno Lab, Dept Environ
Sci, GB Pant
Univ Agricl Techno, Pantnagar 263145). Bioremediation of pulp and
paper mill
effluent with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J Environ Res, 26(3)
(2005), 525-529 [16
Study reports on the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent by
chrysosporium and the same has been compared at two different pH
5.5 and 8.5. At both
the pH, colour, COD, lignin content and total phenols of the effluent
declined after bioremediation. However, greater decolourisation and
reduction in COD,
lignin content and total phenols were observed at pH 5.5.
0601-092. Sonaware DS, Shrivastava VS (Cent PG Res Chem, GTP
Coll, Nandurbar
425412). Hazardous metals in marine sediments and water.
Cheml Environ Res,
13(3&4) (2004), 221-226 [17 Ref].
The marine sediments and water samples were collected from Girgaon
Chaupati, Juhu
Chaupati, Mumbai and Dumas, Surat respectively. The concentration of
hazardous metals
like Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, As, Hg, Fe, Cr, Mn and Co were determined by ICP-
AES. The
concentration of these metals in marine sediments and water samples
were found to be
higher as compared to respective ISI and WHO standards.
0601-093. Sudha PN, Backyavthy D, Manley (Dept Chem, DKM Coll,
Vellore 632001).
Levels of trace metals in industrially polluted soils of Ranipet
industrial town,
Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3) (2006),
421 – 424 [13
Villages located near this industrial area whose main occupation is
agriculture are
adversely affected due to these industries. Investigation has been
conducted at four
different sites to estimate the levels of trace metals in the soil. The
levels of some metals
were found to be exorbitantly high which need immediate attention.
0601-094. Sunil Kumar S, Lokesh SV, Puttaiah ET, Sherigara BS,
Harish Babu K (Dept
Stud Res Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Jhane, Sahyadri, Shankaraghatta
Analysis of trace metals in river Tung of Karnataka by
differential pulse anodic
stripping voltametry (DPASV). Nature Env Polln Techno, 5(3)
(2006), 425-428 [12
Water samples from river Tunga were collected and analyzed for the
presence of trace
metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametric (DPASV)
method. The study
reveals that all the trace metals are well within the maximum
permissible limits, however,
check should be kept on the anthropogenic inputs to restore the
quality of this valuable
natural resource.
0601-095. Sunil Kumar S, Puttaiah ET*, Manjappa S, Prakash Naik S,
Kumar Vijay
(Dept Environ Sci, Kuvempu Univ, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka 577451).
Water quality
assessment of river Tunga, Karnataka. Env Eco, 24(5) (1) (2006),
23-26 [7 Ref].
Study revealed that DO levels were observed to be 100% of saturation
concentration. The
concentrations of nitrite, nitrate phosphate, sodium and potassium
were considerably low
when compared with that of groundwater in the region. However,
values of all the
parameters are observed within the range of GIS specification. Quality
assessment of
Tunga river water shows that surface water is suitable for domestic use
although check
should be kept on anthropogenic and diffuse inputs.
0601-096. Sunita S, Bakre VP, Bakre PP (Environ Bio Lab, Dept Zoo,
Rajasthan Univ,
Jaipur 302004). Effects of textile industry sludge on key organ,
hepato-pancreas of
Gambusia Offinis. J Ecophysio Occupl Hlth, 5(3&4) (2005), 223-227
[12 Ref].
The toxic effluent generated at different textile and printing units after
treatment, the
sludge generated is allowed to dry in drying beds and dumped far from
the plant would
leach and make their way to local Bandi river through sub-soil
movement. The ill effects
on fish Gambusia affinis was studied by exposing it to 1/1000, 1/500
and 1/100 leachate
concentrations. Hepato-pancreas was studied for histopathological
damage. The organ
showed pathological disintegration that was dose and time dependent.
0601-097. Tiwari Pushpendra, Saxena Prabha N ( Toxico Lab, Dept
Zoo, Sch Life Sci,
Dr. BR Ambedkar Univ, Agra). Response of biotransformating
organs in Labeo rohita
to chromium and nickel in Yamuna water at Agra. J Ecophysio
Occpl Hlth, 5(1&2)
(2005), 37-40 [28 Ref].
The carp, Labeo rohita was sampled and analyzed for their qualitative
and quantitative
presence of heavy metals at the biotransformation site, the liver and
kidney. The fishes
were sacrificed on 1st, 15th and 30th of the month and the heavy metals
revealed their
presence in the liver and kidney. Chromium was found to be more than
nickel. Both the
heavy metals revealed their higher concentration in liver than in
kidneys. The studies
advocate the use of treated Yamuna water for drinking and domestic
0601-098. Tiwari RK, Rajak GP, Mondal MR (Env Manag Gr, Centl
Mining Res Inst,
Barwa Rd, Dhanbad 826001). Water quality assessment of Ganga
river in Bihar
region, India. J Environ Sci Engng, 47(4) (2005), 326-355 [16 Ref].
The physicochemical analysis of Ganga river shows that the water has
high TDS, TSS,
BOD, and COD. The coliform bacteria were found to be alarmingly high
in the river.
Most of the parameters analyzed were found high near the bank in
comparison to the
water in the middle stream of that station. The study revealed that due
to discharge of
untreated sewage into the Ganga, the water quality of Ganga has been
deteriorated and the potable nature of water is being lost.
0601-099. Zargar S, Ghosh TK (Environ Bio techno Div, Natl Environ
Engng Res Inst,
Nagpur 440020). Influence of cooling water discharges from
Kaiga nuclear power
plant on select indices applied to plankton population of Kadra
reservoir. J Environ
Bio, 27(2) (2006), 191-198 [40 Ref].
During the study period 49 and 22 genera of phytoplankton and
zooplankton respectively
were recorded at surface waters, Diversity indices indicated
oligotrophic nature of the
lake. Dissimilarity was more amongst the planktons in between intake
and discharge
point. Studies revealed that there was negative impact of evaluated
temperature on
plankton up to 500 m from discharge point.

Pollution Prevention
Water pollution is a complex issue - from the source of poluution to its impacts, both
short-term and long-term on human and other species that depend on water. Point and
non-point sources of pollution have a profound impact on the degree of pollution, and
many times the actual causes are hidden behind more 'visible' causes. Understanding
these causes-behind-causes is critical in developing appropriate responses to reduce
pollution. Broad-based awareness of the sources and impacts of pollution - involving a
number of stakeholders on the water continuum - is also important to effect lasting

Resources specific to river pollution are aslo included - River pollution is a result of a
complex combination of processes that reduce overall river water quality. Acid rain,
industrial pollution, agricultural pollution contribute to river pollution, but so do
everyday activities that drain untreated pollutants and leachate into rivers and streams.
Transportation has a role to play too - where carbon and one-drop-at-a-time 'oil spills' can
also cause pollution through storm run-off. A holistic and integrative understanding of
the cause-effect cycles of river pollution is an effective starting point to improve river
water quality.

UNEP-GPA: ClearingHouse - Pollutant Nodes (Web links)

This page provides an up-to-date list of links to the various nodes participating in the
GPA Clearing-House Mechanism.

UNEP-GPA: Pollution from the land: the threat to our seas (Brochure)
The major threats to the health, productivity and biodiversity of the world’s oceans result
from human activities on land in coastal areas and further inland. Some 80 per cent of the
pollution in the oceans originates from land-based activities.

UNESCO-WAAP: Glossary on Pollution (Online resource)

This glossary is a contribution to the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO
by the French National Hydrology Committee. Available in 11 languages.

UNEP-IETC: Database of Water Pollution Control Technology in JAPAN (Database)

The source of this database is "Water Pollution Control Technology in JAPAN", which
was published by the Committee for Studying Transter of Environmental Technology in
February 1997. This volume describes the various technological measures to prevent and
control water pollution which are available in Japan.

SANICON: An Overview of Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution (Publication)

The major sources of coastal and marine pollution originating from the land vary from
country to country. The nature and intensity of development activities, the size of the
human population, the state and type of industry and agriculture are but a few of the
factorscontributing to each country's unique pollution problems. Pollution is discharged
either directly into to the sea, or enters the coastal waters through rivers and by
atmospheric deposition.
UEMRI: Kita-Kyushu - International Cooperation to solve Environmental Problems
In the high economic growth period of 1960s, the city of Kita-Kyushu attained notoriety
as a "dead" city due to the very high degree of air and sea pollution caused by its
petrochemical and other heavy industries. Its effect on human and other natural species
was predictable - for example, many fish species that were found in the adjacent
Dokaiwan Bay disappeared.

IWA: Diffuse Pollution (Specialist group)

This group covers atmospheric deposition of pollutants including acid rainfall; qualitative
impact of atmospheric deposition on land (soil and groundwater) and surface water
resources; pollutant loads and impact of non-urban land use and land use conversion
activities (deforestation, land drainage, large scale construction); and related issues and

UNEP-IETC: Water Quality - The Impact of Eutrophication (Publication)

The booklet provides an overview of the problem of the enrichment of surface freshwater
bodies due to organic compounds originating from urban and agricultural activities as
well as from industrial effluents. Eutrophication is a process in water bodies that once
started is difficult to control unless immediate action is taken and it will ultimately reduce
oxygen in water killing fish and other organisms, reduce biodiverstisity and cause
enormous economic