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Experimental Research Designs

Proposed New Course # for 02 Spring: EDLD 656

from Winter 2000

Instructor:

Russell Gersten, Ph.D.

Phone: 342-4268 E-mail: rgersten@OREGON.UOREGON.EDU Office: 132 E. Broadway (off-campus main office)

A. Course Objectives

The major objective of the course is to develop skill and facility in:

• designing experimental and quasi-experimental designs that can be implemented in schools and classrooms and other educational settings;

• interpreting data from experimental and quasi-experimental studies.

A major focus throughout the course is:

• translation of research questions into research design, and how each aspect of the research design subtly shapes and re-shapes the questions asked, and the "answers" obtained.

By the end of the course, students should be capable of designing a study -- or a series

of experimental/quasi-experimental studies -- to examine a research issue or question

of interest to them or those they work with. This includes an evaluation of the pros and cons of various designs, determining a reasonable sample, selecting or designing a set

of valid measures and other related issues.

This ability is essential for developing a dissertation proposal if your interest is in applied classroom research, and should be extremely useful for comprehensive examinations.

The course will stress concepts and applications rather than computations. Thus, for example, in utilizing a text such as Keppel and Zedeck, the main thrust will be on the theoretical rather than the computational formulae. Virtually all the computations required (for example on planned comparisons, Tukey post-hoc tests) should be basic enough that they can be done with a hand calculator.

Because no textbook stresses the approach I will use, the major source will be handouts. The text will serve primarily as a source book. A wide range of examples will

be used in class.

-- mixed designs and analysis of covariance -- will be covered.

Two new statistical topics (not covered in the winter statistics course)

The following pages outline a list of topics. A rigid scheduling of topics to days does not seem appropriate. The course will be set up so that you can feel free to ask questions, expand on ideas, raise questions about applications to your own work or interests, etc. We will stress applications and discussions of application exercises.

Note that some of the topics have been covered in previous statistics courses you have taken. This is totally intentional. The goal now is to revisit these concepts in terms of experimental designs, to begin to understand the utility of these concepts.

In many ways, learning statistics is like learning another language and repeated exposure to the same concepts from different vantage points is likely to increase comprehension. As part of the course, you will be asked to read a series of studies, in part, to immerse yourself in the language of experimental design.

There will also be occasions when you will be asked to critique a research study in terms of the concepts and issues covered in class.

B. Assignments to be collected

The following will be collected and serve as a basis for grading:

1. Two quizzes

2. Two article critiques

3. One draft research proposal and presentation

4. Group project on research design standards

If appropriate, may overlap with research topic that was developed for Grant Writing Seminar. More information regarding assignments will be provided in class.

C. Student Support

A student with a documented disability and in need of accommodations in this course

should meet with the professor as soon as possible. Please request that Hilary Gerdes, Counselor for Students with Disabilities (346-3211), send a letter to the professor verifying the disability.

D. Prerequisite

Prerequisites include two terms of statistics. If you have any concerns about the

prerequisites, please talk to the instructor.

E. Presentations

Two students working on their doctoral dissertations will present to the class, Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans and Lana Edwards.

There will also be an opportunity for several students in this class to present their designs to the class during the final two weeks. Often this is most useful for those who are getting ready for a dissertation proposal meeting.

D. Topics [Dates subject to change because my goal is comprehension of the material]

For each topic, sections of two texts will be suggested for review:

1. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.)

and

2. Keppel and Zedeck (1989) Data analysis for research designs . Emphasis on conceptual understanding

 

Topic

Gall, Borg and Gall (1996)

 

Article

Keppel and

   

Zedeck (1989)

1.

True experiments vs. Quasi-

p.

463-501

 

Dimino et al. 1990. Read the article for

p.

379-389

experiments

(Ch.12)

 

Random assignment

p.

505-508

second class. Read it as a story, and a study to understand, not (yet) as a study to critique.

Matching with random assignment Review of threats to internal validity for quasi-experiments and experiments Date: January 7

 

2.

The language of Analysis of

p.

392-394

 

Woodward, Carnine

p.

69-80 (Ch.

Variance

p.

508-519

and Gersten (1988) (Skip the Secondary Analyses p.81)

6)

 

Between and within subjects variables

 

For basic

statistical

Types of factors (personological, treatment, other (e.g. time/setting)) Review of 4 major types of experimental designs Date: January 7 - 10

 

concepts

3.

Critiquing articles-- basic issues

p.

142 (Fig. 4.9)

   

and guidelines Date: January 10

p.

741-744

(Appendix F)

 

p.

745-748

(Appendix G)

 

Topic

Gall, Borg and Gall (1996)

 

Article

Keppel and

   

Zedeck (1989)

 

p.

508

Darch and Gersten

p.

213-236

4.

Linking main effects and

(definitions)

(1986)

(Ch. 14)

interactions to research questions

p.

510-511 (an

p.

239-259

 

Post hoc tests: review and application

example)

 

(Ch. 15)

 

p.

232 (Fig.

All Four Cases of Designs

14-1!)

Relating interactions to research questions Date: January 21

5.

Data Analysis and Interpretation Date: January 28

 

Reread Woodward et al.

 
     

et al.

 

Reread Dimino et al. (skip ATI)

6. Effect size calculation Date: January 28

p.

194-196

   

7. Core Concepts in Experimental

p.

463-501

   

Design

(Ch.12)

Power and error

P.

505-537

Date: February 7

(Ch.13)

Topic

Gall, Borg and Gall (1996)

 

Article

 

Keppel and

 

Zedeck (1989)

 

p.

215-242

Review Gersten,

p.

15-20

Core Concepts in Experimental Design (con)

.

sampling

Baker, and Lloyd

p.

32-37

p.

245-367

(in press)

 

Power

data

Review the handout

Brief discussion of Darch-Gersten study

collection

p.

485-490

“Designing A Field

 

random

Study”

Designing an Experimental Field Study

.

assignment

p.

537-538

Sampling, blocking

common

Specification of measures (transfer, maintenance etc.) Experiments vs. quasi- experiments Issue of random assignment (with and without matching) Guest Lecture: Lana Edwards Date: February 14

mistakes

.

Designing an Experimental Field

p.

394-395

Baker, Gersten and Keating (in press)

p.

453-482

Study (con) Example of a current research study at the middle school level

 

(Ch. 22)

 

Emphasiz

e

 

conceptua

l rather

Analysis of Covariance

than

The link between regression and ANOVA

numerical

understan

Residual scores

ding

Realistic issues Date: February 18

 

Qualitative Interlude

 

Gersten (1999)

 

Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans

Date: February 25

Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans Date: February 25
Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans Date: February 25
Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans Date: February 25
Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans Date: February 25
Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans Date: February 25
Guest Lecture: Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans Date: February 25

Topic

Gall, Borg and Gall (1996)

Article

 

Keppel and

Zedeck (1989)

   

Read Greenwood

 

12. Quasi-Experiments

p.

505-508

(1991)

p.

379 - 389

Problems/issues in using covariance with quasi- experimental studies Date: February 28

   

13.

Mixed Designs: Their Basic

p.

514-515

 

p.

294-299

Statistics and Their Unresolved, Hidden Secrets Why they are used so much in special

 

p.

312

education research?

 

Aptitude treatment interactions -- a modern view Date: March 3

   

Lyon and Moats

 

14.

Introduction to Growth Curve

(1997)

Analysis

Baker et al. (in press)

Concept of linear vs. quadratic growth Date: March 10

 

p.

58-59

   

15.

Planned Comparisons Date: TBA

 

p.

2-6

p.

179 (Fig.

 

12-1)

E. Schedule and Assignment Due Dates

Monday

Friday

January 7

January 10

January 14

January 17

M.L.K., Jr. Day

January 21

CRITIQUE 1 DUE Focus on Design and Questions (not Analysis)

January 24

January 28

January 31

February 4

February 7

February 11

EXAM #1

February 14

February 18

February 21

February 25

MINI-PROPOSAL DUE

February 28

CRITIQUE 2 DUE Focus on Design and Analysis

March 3

March 6

MINI-EXAM #2

March 10

F. Readings

Sections of the following beginning research and data analysis textbooks will be suggested to the student to review:

Gall, M.D., Borg, W.R. & Gall, J.P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.). New York: Longman Publishers.

Keppel, G. & Zedeck, S. (1989). Data analysis for research designs. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

The following journal articles will be used by the instructor to illustrate various research themes.

1. *Dimino, J., Gersten, R., Carnine, D., & Blake, G. (1990). Story grammar: An approach for promoting at-risk secondary students' comprehension of literature. Elementary School Journal, 91(1), 19-32.

2. *Woodward, J., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1988). Teaching problem solving through computer simulations. American Educational Research Journal, 25(1), 7-28.

3. Darch, C., & Gersten, R. (1986). Direction setting activities in reading comprehension: A comparison of two approaches. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 9(3), 235-243.

4. Greenwood, C. R. (1991). Engagement, and achievement in at-risk versus non-risk students. Exceptional Children 57(6): 521-535.

5. Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J.W. (in press). Designing high quality research in special education: Group experimental design. Journal of Special Education.

6. Gersten, R. (1999). Lost opportunities: Challenges confronting four teachers of English- language learners. Elementary School Journal, 100 (1), 37-56.

7. Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Keating, T. (in press). When less may be more: A two-year longitudinal evaluation of a volunteer tutoring program with minimal training. Reading Research Quarterly. (note: utilizes analysis of covariance).

8. Lyon, G. R. and L. C. Moats (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal of Learning Disabilities 30(6), 578-588.

For article critique #1

Johnson, L. and M. Pugach (1991). Peer collaboration: Accommodating students with mild learning and behavior problems. Exceptional Children 57: 454-461.

For article critique #2

Johnson, R.T., Johnson, D.W., & Stanne, M.B. (1986). Comparison of computer-assisted cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. American Educational Research Journal, 23(3),

382-392.

*Based on dissertations completed at the University of Oregon.

General Issues to Address in Article Critique

1. Importance of research question/clarity of research question.

2. Sampling.

3. Nature of comparison group/Assignment of subjects to treatment

4. Quality of the intervention/monitoring of fidelity of treatment – is the intervention feasible in a classroom setting?

5. Measurement – quality and adequacy of instruments used.

6. Were data analyzed appropriately?

7. Were results interpreted properly?

8. Generalizability of findings.

9. Clarity of writing style and any other salient issues.

This critique should be between 6 and 10 pages. Not every issue raised above will be particularly germane to the article.

Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action / Americans with Disabilities Act Statement

The University of Oregon is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution committed to cultural diversity and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act. If you have a documented disability and anticipate needing accommodations in this course, please make an appointment with the primary instructor during the first week of the term. Please request that the Counselor for Students with Disabilities send a letter verifying your disability. The current counselor is Molly Sirois 346-1155. Disabilities may include (but are not limited to) neurological impairment, orthopedic impairment, traumatic brain injury, visual impairment, chronic medical conditions, emotional/psychological disabilities, hearing impairment, and learning disabilities.

EDLD 607: Experimental Design

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