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319

Index

a Choquet
additive functional 18 – capacity 28
adjacency system 49 – theorem 28
– complementary 59 Choquet capacity 168
– local 49 chord length distribution 171, 192
– self-complementary 59 closed
Alexander’s horned sphere 133 – morphologically 13
aliasing 68 – topologically 13
arc 132 closed foam 270
auto-correlation function 35, 197 closure
– algebraic 90
b – morphological 87, 103
background 46 – topological 13
ball, n-dimensional 13 compact set 13
Bartlett spectrum 198, 217 complementary adjacency systems 59
basis of a lattice 44 component
binarization 120 – connected 131
bisector discrete 120 – path-connected 130
Bochner theorem 41, 216 conductivity
body 13 – effective 282
body force 289 – tensor 286
Boolean cylinder model 251 connected
Boolean model 215, 243 – set 129
– structure model index 250 connected component 131
boundary condition 290 connectedness 128–129
boundary of a set 13 connectivity 49
bounded constitutive relation of linear elasticity 289
– essentially 34 contact distribution
– set 13 – function 191
breadth, mean 20 – linear 191
– spherical 190–191
c convex
calliper diameter,mean of 20 – hull 14
Campbell theorem 33 – ring 14
capacity functional 28, 82 – extended 14
cardinal number 12 – set 14
cardinality 12 convolution 94
Cauchy formula 161 – of a measure 35
Chamfer distance transform 113 – of functions 35

3D Images of Materials Structures. Joachim Ohser and Katja Schladitz


Copyright ©2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 978-3-527-31203-0
320 Index

cosine transform 180 – discrete 113


counting measure 30 – Euclidean 114
covariance function
– exponential 200 e
– of a random set 197 edge detection filters 98
covariance measure 199, 214 edge of a set 13
– reduced 199 EDT 114
Crofton formula 26 elasticity matrix 289
Crofton formulae 152 element shape function 292
cross-correlation 208 elementary neighbourhood 108
– function 209 emission 70
– measure 208 empty set 11
– of functions 35 energy 295
– spatial 208 equilibrium equation of linear elasticity 289
cross-covariance function 209 equivalence relation 130
curvature 15 erosion 85, 103
– Gaussian 15 – geodesic 108
– Germain’s 15 – reconstruction by 108
– mean 15 Euclidean distance transform 114, 169
– total 15 Euclidean norm 11
curve plane 132 Euclidean skeleton 117
Euclidean space 11
d Euler number 18, 52
density – density 29
– of a random point field 31 – local 58
– of intrinsic volume 29 – specific 61
– of the Euler number 29 Euler–Poincaré characteristic 18
– of the integral of Gaussian curvature 29 Euler–Poincaré formula 18, 52
– of the integral of Germain’s
curvature 29 f
– of the integral of mean curvature 29 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 80
– of the integral of total curvature 29 FEM 291
density measure 31 Ferret diameter 156
diameter 156 – maximum 14
– maximum 14 – mean 20
difference, of sets 12 fibre system 251
diffusion filter 105 Fick’s second law of diffusion 105
digitization field features 149
– Gauss 45–46, 65 filling 128
– Jordan 45, 65 filter
dilation 84, 103 – diffusion 105
– geodesic 110 – edge detection 98
– reconstruction by 110 – Gauss 97
Dirac delta function 39 – gradient 98
directional distribution 32 – Hermitean 94
Dirichlet boundary condition 290, 295 – isotropic 94
discrete bisector 120 – Laplace 101
discretization of a set 51 – mean value 96
displacement – median 104
– field 289 – norm-preserving 94
– virtual 290, 294 – quantile 104
distance transform 111 – rank value 105
– Chamfer 113 – Sobel 100
Index 321

filter mask 96 granulometry 89


finite element method 291 – distribution 192
fluctuation 199 – spherical 89
flux 286
foam h
– ceramic 276 h-minima transform 111
– closed 270 – adaptive 111
– Kelvin 265 Hadwiger’s recursive formula 20
– open 61, 267, 276 Hadwiger’s theorem 23
– Weaire–Phelan 265 Hankel transform 37, 217
force biased algorithm 239 hard-core point field 235–236
foreground 46 hard-core Voronoï tessellation 261
Fourier–Bessel transform 37, 201, 204, 217 Hausdorff
Fourier co-transform 36 – distance 13
Fourier–Stieltjes transform 41 – measure 17
Fourier transform 36, 216 – metric 13
– continuous 36 height adaptive h-minima transform 111
– inverse 36 Hermitean filter 94
frame 29 hit-or-miss transform 82
function homogeneous
– essentially bounded 34 – lattice 44
– integrable 34 – macroscopically 27
– measurable 34 homotopic thinning 117
functional Horvitz–Thompson procedure 164
– additive 18, 23 hyperplane
– invariant under rigid motions 22 – process 32
– k-homogeneous 23 – tessellation 34
fundamental form
– first 16 i
– second 16 image 43, 64
Funk–Hecke theorem 181 – binary 64
– Boolean 64
g – grey-tone 64
gauge body 82 inclusion-exclusion principle 18, 24
Gauss independent random closed sets 27
– digitization 45–46, 65 index function 24, 169
– distribution 39 indicator function 12
– filters 97 inner product 11
Gauss–Bonnet formula 19 integrable function 34
Gaussian curvature 15 integral of Gaussian curvature 19
– integral of 19 – density 29
geodesic integral of Germain’s curvature 21
– h-minima transform 111 – density 29
– height adaptive h-minima integral of mean curvature 21, 150, 158
transform 111 – density 29
geodesic dilation 110 integral of total curvature 150
geodesic erosion 108 – density 29
Germain’s curvature 15 intensity 31
– integral of 21 – measure 31
global thresholding 121 interior of a set 13
gradient 37 intersection of sets 12
– morphological 103 intrinsic volume 22, 29, 149
gradient filter 98 – density 29
322 Index

inverse lattice 65 marching cube algorithms 73


isotropic mark space 31
– filter 94 marked random point field 31
– random closed set 27 marker image 108
mask image 108
j Matérn hard-core model 235
Jordan maximum diameter 14
– arc 132 maximum filter 103–104
– curve 132 mean breadth 20
– digitization 45, 65 mean chord length 170
– surface 133 mean curvature 15
Jordan–Brouwer – integral of 21, 158
– complementarity 134 mean intercept length 170
– surface theorem 133 mean value filter 96
– theorem 134 mean width 20
Jordan–Veblen curve theorem 132 measurable function 34
measure
k – locally finite 17
k-face – signed 17
– typical, of a tessellation 257 – totally finite 17
k-homogeneous functional 23 medial axis 117
Kelvin’s foam 265 median filter 104
kinematic formulae 25 mesh simplification 77
Metropolis–Hastings algorithm 237
l
MIL 170
label propagation 138
Miles’ formulae 248, 251
labelling 128
Miles–Lantuejoul correction 164
labelling algorithm 135
minimum filter 103–104
Laguerre
Minkowski
– cell 264
– addition 12
– tessellation 261
– additivity 18
Lamé’s modulus 290
– difference 12
Laplace filter 101
– subtraction 12
– operator 37
– sum 12
– smoothed 101
Minkowski functional 24
lattice
modulation 37
– basis 44
Moiré effect 68
– body centred cubic 45
morphological gradient 103
– cell 44
– cubic primitive 43, 45 morphologically
– distance 43 – closed 13
– face centred cubic 45 – open 13
– homogeneous 44 – regular 13
– inverse 65 multi-grid convergence 61
– orthorhombic primitive 43 multiple point of an arc 132
– reciprocal 65
Lebesgue measure 11 n
linear contact distribution 191 nabla operator 37
load tensor, global 292, 294 neighbourhood
locally finite measure 17 – elementary 108
LSE-filter 94 – graph 49
non-woven 63
m norm-preserving filter 94
macroscopically homogeneous 27 normal strain 289
Index 323

normal stress 289 – isotropic 27


Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem 67 – macroscopically homogeneous 27
random packing 239
o – force biased 239
object feature 22, 149 – random sequential addition 239
Ohm’s law 283 – spatial sequential inhibition 239
opacity 70 random point field 31
open – finite 235
– morphologically 13 – hard-core 236
– topologically 13 – marked 31
open ceramic foam 276 – Matérn hard-core 235
open foam 61, 267 – pairwise interaction 236
opening – Poisson 234
– algebraic 90 – simple 31
– morphological 87, 89, 103 – simulation 237–238
Otsu’s threshold 122 – Strauss 236
random sequential addition 239
p random tessellation
pair correlation function 224 – hard-core Voronoï 261
pairwise interaction point field 236 – Laguerre 261
Parseval identity 36, 216 – Poisson–Laguerre 264
path-connected component 130 – Poisson–Voronoï 260
perfect simulation 238 – Voronoï 260
pixel 64 rank value filter 105
– density 44 ray casting 71
pixel spacing 44 reciprocal lattice 65
Plancherel identity 36
reconstruction by dilation 110
plane curve 132
reconstruction by erosion 108
point field
reconstruction, self-dual 110
– process 31
reflection of a set 12
– random 31
region detection 128
Poisson field of planes 215
region growing 127
Poisson–Laguerre tessellation 264
region of interest 29, 64, 149
Poisson line field 251
regular
Poisson point field 234
– morphologically 13
Poisson–Voronoï tessellation 260
– topologically 13
Poisson’s ratio 289
rendering
poly-convex 14
– direct methods 69
polytope 14
– indirect methods 72
pores per inch 268
representative volume element 282, 294
power spectrum 201
rigid motion 12
ppi-value 268
Robin’s boundary condition 283
principal kinematic formula 25, 166
principle of virtual work 290 ROI 29, 149
probability space 17 rose of normal directions 180
proper orthogonal group 12 Rosenfeld–Pfaltz algorithm 135–136
rotation group 12
q
quantile filter 104 s
sampling 46, 65
r – rate 44
radiative transfer 69 – theorem 67
random closed set(s) – window 29
– independent 27 scalar product 11
324 Index

Schwartz space 35 spherical granulometry 89


Schönflies–Brouwer theorem 132 – distribution 192
Schönflies problem 133 Steiner formula 22, 24–25, 29
segment 12 – extended 166
self-dual reconstruction 110 stiffness tensor 295
separability 38, 82, 95, 114 – global 292, 294
separable mask 90 stochastic homogenization 283
set strain
– boundary 13 – effective 295
– bounded 13 – energy 294
– compact 13 – field 289
– connected 129 – normal 289
– convex 14 – rate 291
– difference 12 – shear 289
– discretization 51 – virtual 291
– edge 13 Strauss point field 236
– empty 11 stress
– interior 13 – field 289
– intersection 12 – normal 289
– morphologically closed 13 – shear 289
– morphologically open 13 structure model index 171
– morphologically regular 13 structuring element 82
– poly-convex 14 subspace, linear 17
– random closed 27 support function 20, 153
– reflection 12 support of a function 34
– simply connected 132–133 surface
– surface 13 – area 18, 150
– topologically closed 13 – covariance function 214
– topologically open 13 – density 29, 213
– topologically regular 13 – measure 17, 213
– translation 12 – random 213
– union 12 – of a set 13
shape factor 162 – rendering 72
shear strain 289 surface area 158
shear stress 289
shift-equivariant 83, 94 t
sieving distribution 192 tessellation 33
signed measure 17 – admissible 58
simple – face-to-face 33, 58
– counting measure 30 – normal 34
– random point field 31 – random 34
sinc function 39 texture mapping 72
sinusoid 130 thinning, homotopic 117
skeletonization 116 threshold
– by thinning 117 – isodata 122
– using distance transforms 117 – Otsu’s 122
SMI 171 thresholding 121
Sobel filter 100 – double 125
spatial birth-and-death process 238 – global 121
spatial sequential inhibition 239 – hysteresis 125
special orthogonal group 12 – local 123
specific surface area 29 – Niblack’s 123
spherical contact distribution 190–191 top-hat transform 89
Index 325

topological closure 13 – strain 291


topologically – velocity 290
– closed 13 volume 12, 150
– open 13 – density 29
– regular 13 – fraction 29
total curvature 15 – intrinsic 22
totally finite measure 17 – rendering 69
traction 290 Voronoï cell 260
– boundary condition 290 Voronoï tessellation 260
transfer function 70, 95 voxel 64
transform
– adaptive h-minima 111 w
– distance 111 Weaire–Phelan foam 265
– h-minima 111 Whittaker–Shannon interpolation 66
translation of a set 12 width 156
transmission condition 290 width, mean 20
transparency 70 Wiener–Khintchine theorem 202, 225
typical grain 243 window 64, 149
typical k-face 257 window function 202
work equation of linear elasticity 290
u
wrapper algorithm 75
union of sets 12
unit cell of a lattice 44
y
v Young’s modulus 289
velocity, virtual 290
virtual z
– displacement 290, 294 zonotope 14