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Discorso della vittoria, Obama, elezioni presidenziali americane 2008.

“Hello Chicago!”
 Strumenti comunicativi: c’è uno scambio simmetrico tra il Presidente e i suoi auditori
poiché si pone sul loro stesso piano e non in posizione di superiorità in modo da generare
empatia negli ascoltatori. I tempi utilizzati sono volutamente lenti e con pause studiate per
lasciar tempo agli ascoltatori di recepire quanto detto; i toni diventano a volte incalzanti
quando vuol porre l’accento su richiami storici importanti.
 Strumenti retorici: l’argomentazione retorica è basata sull’ottenere consenso fra coloro che
ascoltano; fa leva sui sentimenti per suscitare commozione nel pubblico e al contempo
utilizza argomenti razionali per convincerlo; nella retorica esistono tre modi di persuasione,
fissati da Aristotele nella Retorica: ethos, pathos e logos.
 Scelta di registro: alterna quello medio-comune, che utilizza un lessico non ricercato e meno
formale rispetto al registro elevato, a quello informale che utilizza invece termini di uso più
comune, informale e di tono confidenziale.
 Scelte di lessico: nella sintassi prevale la coordinazione sulla subordinazione, in aderenza
all’importanza paritetica di ogni affermazione; la scelta delle parole è basata sulla loro
semplicità ed immediatezza, non tralasciando termini di uso popolare, forme sintattiche
anomale e formule di cortesia (vedi i numerosi ringraziamenti).
 Comunicazione paraverbale e non verbale: la prima è il modo in cui qualcosa viene detto,
riferendosi quindi a tono, velocità, timbro e volume; la seconda è quella che si trasmette
attraverso postura, movimenti ed aspetti estetici. Obama utilizza un comportamento
assertivo che è alla base della retorica, indispensabile a far valere le proprie idee ed a
persuadere l’uditorio. Utilizza inoltre il contatto visivo diretto, postura del corpo aperta ed
espressione del viso sorridente in un atteggiamento aperto e positivo. Da notare infine
l’entrata sul palco tenendo per mano la figlia più piccola, seguito dalla moglie Michelle che
tiene l’altra figlia, immagine che esprime il valore fondamentale che la famiglia riveste per
gli americani, più potente di mille parole.

- Il discorso di Obama, durante la cerimonia a seguito dalla sua vittoria nelle elezioni presidenziali
del 2009, rivela fin da subito le sue doti naturali di leader.
Ascoltandolo notiamo l’utilizzo di uno stile e di un linguaggio carico di significato, denso di parole
forti, seguite da pause “studiate” alla fine di ogni argomento, aventi lo scopo di accrescere la
portata di quanto detto e di farlo interiorizzare nell’ascoltatore. L’obiettivo del neo Presidente non
è quello di andar contro all’operato del precedente o tentare di mostrarsi come il capo di un partito
vittorioso a discapito dell’altro bensì quello di essere una guida per ambedue gli schieramenti e
pronta a superare le logiche di partito nell’interesse comune del paese che sta affrontando un
periodo difficile della sua storia (tema “stranamente” ricorrente per molti discorsi presidenziali):
“If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible, who still
wonders if the dreams of our founders is alive in our time, who still questions the power of our democracy,
tonight is your answer” (climax)
inciso che richiamando per tre volte il condizionale “se c’è..che ancora..che ancora..” in modo da
enfatizzare la portata di quanto sta per asserire, creando un pathos crescente che culmina nella
frase che sintetizza il tutto: “tonight is your answer”, che abbraccia sia chi lo ha sostenuto che gli
elettori dell’altro schieramento che possono riconoscersi negli ideali tipici del patriottismo Usa cari
a tutti gli statunitensi.
Richiama quindi i primi dati numerici nel discorso:
“It’s the answer told by lines stretched around schools and churches and in numbers that this nation has
never seen by people who waited 3 h and 4h many for the first time in their lives because they believe that
this time must be different that their voices could be that difference”(metonimia)
per accentuare l’importanza della votazione e la sua portata a livello nazionale; l’intento è quello di
dar continuità al focus della narrazione attribuendo un valore civico a tutti i suoi cittadini e
ponendosi come il Presidente dell’intera Nazione. L’utilizzo di un elenco articolato di contrapposti
sociali enfatizza ancor di più tale concetto:
“It’s the answer spoken by young and old, rich and poor, democrat and republican, black and white,
Hispanic, asian, Native American, gay, straight, disabled and not disabled Americans”
non scordando poi di lodare ancor di più quelli che lo hanno votato e che vogliono un
cambiamento:
“because they believe that this time must be different that their voices could be that difference”.
Riprende quindi dicendo:
“who sent a message to the world that we have never been just a collection of individuals nor a collection of
red states and blue states we are and always be the United States of America”
ribadendo che non è di un singolo ordinamento del quale si parla bensì di un insieme più ampio di
persone che formano lo Stato più importante del mondo e che trovano in Lui il loro nuovo
rappresentante di cui possono fidarsi poiché sarà guidato ed ispirato da principi di unicità e
compattezza.
Rafforza quindi l’argomentazione:
“It’s the answer that led those who have been told for so long by so many to be cynical and fearful and
doubtful about what we can achieve to put their hands on the arc of history and bend it once more toward
the hope of a better day” (allitterazione)
con parole volte a instillare nel popolo una nuova speranza, prospettando un cambiamento
all’orizzonte: tutti assieme, tutti uniti potremo superare i momenti bui passati sui quali ritornerà
poi successivamente.
Fa quindi un breve passo indietro per ringraziare tutte le persone che l’hanno aiutato nella sua
campagna e senza le quali non sarebbe lì oggi:
“Senator McCain fought long and hard in this campaign and he’s fight even longer and harder for the
country that he loves. He has endured sacrifices for America that most of us cannot begin to imagine we
better off for the service rendered by this brave and selfless leader I congratulate him, I congratulate governor
palin for all that they’ve achieved and I look forward to working with them to renew this nation’s promise in
the months ahead. I want to thank my partner in this journey, a man who campaigns from his heart and
spoke for the men and women he grew up with on the streets of Scranton and rode with on the train home to
Delaware the Vice President elect of the United States joe Biden and I would not be standing here tonight
without the unyielding support of my best friend for the last 16 years the rock of our family, the love of my
life, the nation’s next First Lady Michelle Obama (climax). Sasha and Malia, I love you both more than you
can imagine and you have earned the new puppy that’s coming with us to White House. And while she’s no
longer with us I know my grandmother’s watching along with the family that made me who I am I miss
them tonight I know that my debts to them is beyond measure to my sister Maya, my sister Alma, all my
other brothers and sisters thank you so much for all the support that you’ve given me, I’m grateful to
them. To my campaign menagerie David Plouffe, the unsung (metafora) hero of this campaign who built
the best, the best political campaign I think in the history of the USA. My chief strategist David Axelrod
who’s been a partner with me every step of the way to the best campaign team ever assembled in the history
of politics you made this happen and I am forever grateful for what you have sacrificed to get it done
dove emerge potentemente il ringraziamento, fatto in primis, al rivale elettorale McCain, degno
sigillo di tutti i concetti di unitarietà e comunanza prima esposti, a ribadire che da questo
momento in poi non è più il candidato dei democratici ma il Presidente di tutti gli statunitensi.
Seguono quindi i ringraziamenti al suo vice Biden e quelli immancabili alla famiglia, pilastro
necessario di ogni “buon” cittadino americano e più che mai del loro Presidente, finendo poi con
quelli “doverosi” rivolti ai componenti del suo staff elettorale. Il discorso però non termina qui,
culmina anzi in una sorta di grande climax ascendente di portata sempre maggiore quando arriva
a ringraziare i suoi elettori ed idealmente tutto il popolo americano:
“But above all I will never forget who this victory truly belongs to, it belongs to you, it belong to you”
con lo scopo di suscitare in ognuno l’importanza del proprio io e della decisione che ha preso; con
poche semplici parole riesce a sottolineare non solo la relatività del suo incarico, che sarebbe nulla
senza il consenso di ogni cittadino, ponendosi quindi umile agli occhi del popolo cui attribuisce il
ruolo di assoluto protagonista:
“I was never the likeliest candidate for this office”.
Prosegue quindi ad enfatizzare l’immagine di modestia che vuol trasmettere ai cittadini per far
sentire la sua vicinanza, partendo dalla constatazione di una campagna elettorale iniziata proprio
tra il popolo, nel quotidiano:
“We did not start with much money or many endorsements, our campaign was not fetched in the halls of
Washington, it began in the beck yards at the morning in the living rooms of concord and the front porches
of Charleston’(iperbole) ed ancora ”it was built by working men and women who dug into what little
savings they had to give 5, 10 and 20 dollars to the cost”
ribadendo quale sia stato e qual è l’asse portante degli Usas, quei cittadini che sono disposti a
donare qualche dollaro pur sopportando sacrifici, con l’obiettivo e la speranza di veder finalmente
cambiare le cose. Continua quindi rafforzando il valore storico del cambiamento:
“It grew strength from the young people who rejected the myth of their generation apathy (metafora) who
left their homes and their families for jobs that offered little pay and less sleep”
ponendo sempre più il focus del discorso sulle persone del popolo di cui si sente parte, messaggio
che vuol comunicare in modo evidente; il clou di tale “rappresentazione” quasi visiva, viva,
palpabile arriva con la parte finale del discorso:
“They drew strength from the not so young people who braved the bitter cold and scorching heat to knock on
doors of perfect strangers (iperbole) and from the millions of Americans who volunteered, organized and
proved that more than two centuries later a governmental of the people, by the people and for the people had
not perished from the heart, this is your victory”(allitterazione)
affermando ancora una volta l’importanza del singolo in quanto facente parte di una comunità,
operoso ed attivo nel promuovere il cambiamento e pronto a sopportare disagi per realizzarlo,
lontano dagli stereotipi di ozio e inerzia con cui si vogliono dipingere tutti i giovani, e non solo,
americani. È un momento straordinario per la storia degli Usa, come lo fu due secoli prima al
momento della fondazione, un nuovo Stato per un nuovo popolo.
Col passaggio successivo riporta l’attenzione sulle difficoltà che tutti assieme dovranno affrontare
e che sono molte e complicate. Toccando quindi temi generali come la crisi finanziaria e quella
climatica, si avvicina e rafforza poi quei valori cari agli americani come il senso di appartenenza e
la famiglia, non tralasciando infine di ricordare chi soffre:
“I know you didn’t do this just to win election, I know you didn’t do it for me, you did it because you
understand the enormity of the task the lies ahead for, even as we celebrate tonight; we know the challenges
that tomorrow will bring are the greatest of our lifetime: two wars, a planet in peril, the quest financial crisis
in a century. Even as we stand here tonight, we know that there are brave Americans walking up in the
deserts of Iraq and the mountains of Afghanistan to risk their lives for us. There are mothers and fathers who
will lie awake after their children fall asleep and wonder how they will make the mortgage or pay their
doctors Bill or save enough for their child’s college education”.
Subito dopo però lancia un messaggio di speranza utilizzando una metafora nella quale paragona
il ripido cammino che deve essere percorso per salire su una montagna a quanto dovranno
affrontare, arrivando a promettere che ce la faranno:
“There’s new energy to harness, new jobs to be created, new schools to built and threats to meet, alliances to
repair. The road ahead will be long, our climb will be steep (metafora), we may not get there in one year or
even in one term but America i have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there, I
promise you we and people will get there. Yes, we can”
pronunciando quindi per la prima volta le tre parole che diverranno non solo il simbolo della sua
presidenza ma quello di un’intera Nazione agli occhi di tutto il mondo. Yes, we can”, motto che
infonderà nuova speranza non solo nel popolo americano ma in tutta la popolazione del mondo
che guarda all’America come fonte di cambiamento e rinnovamento.
Abbiamo quindi una sorta di pausa narrative che collega due tra gli argomenti principali sui quali
si articola il suo discorso ovvero la storia del popolo americano e la sua forza nel superare ogni
difficoltà, sollecitandone il tipico orgoglio e senso di appartenenza:
“There will be setbacks and false starts (metafora) there are many who won’t agree with every decision or
policy I make as President and know the government can’t solve every problem but I will always be honest
with you about the challenges we face I listen to you especially when we disagree” ed ancora “above all, I
will ask you to join in the work of remaking this nation, the only way it’s been done in America for 221
years, block by block, brick by brick calloused hands by calloused hands, what began 21 months ago in the
depths of winter cannot end on this autumn night”.
Utilizzando quindi una metafora legata all’edilizia fa una richiesta precisa al paese, quella di non
lasciarlo da solo ma anzi di accompagnarlo a ricostruire ancora una volta il paese, metafora che
richiamando il lavoro duro centra perfettamente il cuore pulsante dell’America operaia e
lavoratrice, fiera ed orgogliosa di essere americana. Continua con “This victory alone is not the
change we seek, it is only the chance for us to make that change and that cannot happen if we go back to the
way things were”, elencando poi una serie di valori ritenuti necessari per lo sviluppo di un paese
democratico e libero quale è l’America:
“It can’t happen without a new spirit of service, a new spirit of sacrifice, so let us summon a new spirit of
patriotism, of responsibility where each of us resides to pitch in and work harder and look after, not only
ourselves but each other, let us remember that if this financial crisis taught us anything it’s that we cannot
have a thriving Wall Street while Main Street suffers (iperbole), in this country we rise or fall one nation,
as one people, let’s resist the temptation to fall back the same partnership and pettiness and immaturity that
has poisoned our politics for so long, let’s remember that there was a man from state who first carried the
banner of Republican Party to the White House a party founded on the values of self-reliance, individual
Liberty and national unity, those are values that we all share and while the Democratic Party had won a
great victory tonight we, with measure of humility weld determination that heal the divides that have held
back our progress”
richiamando i temi fondamentali cui è ispirato il discorso, lo spirito di servizio, di sacrificio, di
patriottismo e di responsabilità cui ogni americano deve idealmente tendere. Pone poi l’accento sui
cardini del suo futuro governo ribadendo che, fin tanto che il governo democratico persisterà, i
passi verso il progresso e la determinazione di restare uniti non svaniranno, in uno dei pochi elogi
diretti al proprio partito politico.
Arriva qui la seconda importante argomentazione del suo discorso in cui cita l’auctoritas:
“As Lincoln said to a nation far more divided than ours, we are not enemies but friends, through passion
may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection and to those Americans who support i have yet to
earn, I may have not won your vote tonight but I hear your voices, I need your help and I will be your
president too”
dove il richiamo all’origine è utile per infondere speranza nella popolazione, col chiaro intento di
voler unire il paese ancora una volta, in un parallelismo con il passato, rivolgendosi a coloro che
non lo hanno votato. Prosegue con:
“And all whose are watching tonight from beyond our shores and parliament’s and palaces, to those who are
huddled around radio in the forgotten corners of the world our stories are similar, but your destiny is shared
(ossimoro) and a new Dawn of American leadership is at hand.  To those, to those who would tear the world
down we will defeat you, to those who seek peace and security we support you and to all those who have
wondered if America’s beacon still Burns as bright, tonight we proved once more that the true strength of
our nation comes not from the night of our arms or scale of our wealth but from the enduring power of our
ideas: democracy, liberty opportunity and unyielding hope, that’s the true genius of America, that America
can change, our Union can be perfect, what we have already achieved gives us hope for what we can and
must achieved tomorrow”
ampliando la platea a tutto il mondo e riaffermando che la forza dell’America non è nelle armi o
nella ricchezza bensì negli ideali che la contraddistinguono ovvero democrazia, libertà e speranza.
La successiva scelta narrativa è quanto meno singolare poiché cita una donna fra tutti gli elettori,
Ann Nixon Cooper di anni 106, esempio concreto e perfetta sintesi dei valori morali e civici
americani finora espressi:
“This election had many firsts and many stories will be told for generations but one that’s my mind
tonight’s about a women who cast her ballot in Atlanta, she is a lot like the millions of others who stood in
line to make their voice heard in this election, except for one thing and Nixon Cooper is 106 years old”
portando a riflettere su quanto tutto ciò che oggi diamo per acquisito non debba essere dato per
scontato ma sia in realtà frutto di anni di azioni e lotte di donne e uomini come lei:
“She was bien just a generation past slavery, a time when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky
when someone like her could’t view for two reasons because she was a women and because of the colour of
her skin. And tonight, I think about that she has seen throughout her century in America, the heartache and
the hope, the struggle and the progress the time we have told that we can’t and the people who with that
American creed, yes we can”; e prosegue com
“At the time when women’s voices were silenced and their hopes dismissed, she lived to see them stand up
and speak out and reach for the ballot yes we can. When there was despair in  dust  bowl and depression
across the land she saw a nation conquer fear itself with a new deal, need jobs, new sense of common
purpose, yes we can” e “When the bombs feel on our harbour and tyranny threatened the world she was
there to witness a generations rise to greatness and a democracy was saved, yes we can. She was there for the
buses in Montgomery, houses in Birmingham, a Bridge in Selma and a preacher from  Atlanta, who told the
people that we shall overcome yes we can.  A man touch down on the moon, a wall came down in Berlin, a
world was connected by our own science and imagination and this year in this election she touched her
Finger to a screen and cast her vote because after a hundred and six years in America through the best times
and the darkest of hours she knows how America can change, yes we can”
excursus storico di forte impatto emotivo che rimanda alle fondamenta istituzionali del paese che,
pur attraversando momenti terribili come la depressione, le guerre e le lotte contro la segregazione
razziale, ha saputo rialzarsi sempre e fare quel che andava fatto.
Arriva quindi la parte finale del discorso, la conclusione in cui il Presidente ripercorre i temi e le
argomentazioni affrontate per dare speranza di un mondo migliore, un mondo in cui i loro figli
possano godere degli ideali tanto agognati, citando espressamente per la prima volta il sogno
americano:
“America we have come so far, we have seen so much but there‘s so much more to do so tonight let us ask
ourselves if our children should live to see next century, if my daughters should be so lucky to live as long as
an Nixon Cooper, what change will they see, what progress will have made. This is our chances to answer
that call, this is our moment, this is our time to put our people back to work and open doors opportunities for
our kids to restore prosperities and promote the cause of   peace, to reclaim the American dream and reaffirm
that fundamental truth that out of many we are one that while we breathe we hope and we are met with
cynicism and doubts and those who tell us that we can’t we will respond with that timeless creed that sums
up the spirit of a people, yes we can (allitterazione).
Thank you, god bless you and may god bless the United States of America”
terminando con la formula finale tipica del discorso di investitura dei Presidenti americani, il
richiamo a Dio e alla Nazione.

Discorso completo

“If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible who still
wonders if the dreams of our founder is alive in our time who still questions the power of our democracy,
tonight is your answer.  It’s the answer told by lines stretched around schools and churches and in numbers
that this nation has never seen by people who waited 3 h and 4h many for the first time in their lives because
they believe that this time must be different that their voices could be that difference. It’s the answer spoken
by young and old, rich and poor, democrat and republican, black and white, Hispanic, asian, Native
American, gay, straight, disabled and not disabled Americans who sent a message to the world that we have
never been just a collection of individuals nor a collection of red states and blue states we are and always be
the United States of America. 
It’s the answer that led those who have been told for so long by so many to be cynical and fearful and
doubtful about what we can achieve to put their hands on the arc of history and bend it once more toward
the hope of a better day. It’s been a long time coming but tonight because of what we did on this day in this
election at this defining moment, change has come to America. 
A little bit earlier this evening I received an extraordinary gracious call from senator mccain 
Senator fought long and hard in this campaign and he’s fight even longer and harder for the country that he
loves. () He has endured sacrifices for America that most of us cannot begin to imagine we better off for the
service rendered by this brave and selfless leader I congratulate him, I congratulate governor palin for all
that they’ve achieved and I look forward to working with them to renew this nation’s promise in the months
ahead. 
I want to thank my partner in this journey, a man who campaigns from his heart and spoke for the men and
women he grew up with on the streets of Scranton and rode with on the train home to Delaware the Vice
President elect of the United States joe Biden () and I would not be standing here tonight without the
unyielding support of my best friend for the last 16 years the rock of our family, the love of my life, the
nation’s next First Lady Michelle Obama. 
Sasha and malia I live you both more than you can imagine and you have earned the new puppy that’s
coming with us to White House. () and while she’s no longer with us I know my grandmother’s watching
along with the family that made me who I am I miss them tonight I know that my debts to them is beyond
measure to my sister maya my sister alma all my other brothers and sisters thank you so much é for all the
support that you’ve given me I’m grateful to them. 
To my campaign menagerie David plouffe the unsung hero of this campaign who built the best, the best
political campaign i think in the history of the USA. My chief strategist David axelrod who’s been a partner
with me every step of the way to the best campaign team ever assembled in the history of politics you made
this happen and I am forever grateful for what you have sacrificed to get it done. 
But above all I will never forget who this victory truly belongs to, it belongs to you, it belong to you. I was
never the likeliest candidate for this office () we did not start with much money or many endorsements, our
campaign was not fetched in the halls of Washington, it began in the beck yards at the morning in the living
rooms of concord and the front porches of Charleston it was built by working men and women who dug into
what little savings they had to give 5, 10 and 20 dollars to the cost. It grew strength from the young people
who rejected the myth of their generation apathy who left their homes and their families for jobs that offered
little pay and less sleep. They drew strength from the not so young people who braved the bitter cold and
scorching heat to knock on doors of perfect strangers and from the millions of Americans who volunteered
and organised and proved that more than two centuries later a governmental ten people, by the people and
for the people had not perished from the heart this is your victory. 
I know you didn’t do this just to win election, I know you didn’t do it for me, you did it because you
understand the enormity of the task the lies ahead for, even as we celebrate tonight; we know the challenges
that tomorrow will bring are the greatest of our lifetime: two wars, a planet in peril, the quest financial crisis
in a century. Even as we stand here tonight we know that there are brave Americans walking up in the
deserts of Iraq and the mountains of Afghanistan to risk their lives for us (). There are mothers and fathers
who will lie awake after their children fall asleep and wonder how they will make the mortgage or pay their
doctors Bill or save enough for their child’s college education.
There’s new energy to harness, new jobs to be created, new schools to built and threats to meet, alliances to
repair. The road ahead will be long, our climb will be steep, we may not get there in one year or even in one
term but America i have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there, I promise you we
ad people will get there. 
(Yes we can voices)
There will be setbacks and false starts there are many who won’t agree with every decision or policy I make
as President and know the government can’t solve every problem () but I will always be honest with you
about the challenges we face I listen to you especially when we disagree and above all I will ask you to join in
the work of remaking this nation the only way it’s been done in America for 221 years, block by block, brick
by brick calloused hands by calloused hands what began 21 months ago in the depths of winter cannot end
on this autumn night. this victory alone is not the change we seek it is only the chance for us to make that
change and that cannot happen if we go back to the way things were. It can’t happen without without a new
spirit of service a new spirit of sacrifice so let us summon a new spirit of patriotism of responsibility where
each of us resides to pitch in and work harder and look after not only ourselves but each other, let us
remember that if this financial crisis taught us anything it’s that we cannot have a thriving Wall Street
while Main Street suffers, in this country we rise or fall one nation, as one people, let’s resist the temptation
to fall back the same partnership and pettiness and immaturity that has poisoned our politics for so long,
let’s remember that there was a man from state who first carried the banner of Republican Party to the White
House a party founded on the values of self reliance and individual Liberty and national unity, those are
values that we all share and while the Democratic Party had won a great victory tonight we si sì with
measure of humility weld determination that heal the divides that have held back our progress. 
As Lincoln said to a nation far more divided than ours, we are not enemies but friends, through passion may
have strained it must not break our bonds of affection and to those Americans who support i have yet to
earn, I may have not won your vote tonight but I hear your voices, I need your help and I will be your
president too. 
And all those watching tonight from beyond our shores and parliament’s and palaces to those who are
huddled around radio in the forgotten corners of the world our stories are similar but your destiny is shared
and a new Dawn of American leadership is at hand. 
To those, to those who would tear the world down we will defeat you, to those who seek peace and security
we support you and to all those who have wondered if America’s beacon still Burns as bright, tonight we
proved once more that the true strength of our nation comes not from the night of our arms or scale of our
wealth but from the enduring power of our ideas: democracy, liberty opportunity and unyielding hope.
That’s the true genius of America, that America can change, our Union can be perfect, what we have already
achieved gives us hope for what we can and must achieved tomorrow. This election had many firsts and
many stories will be told for generations but one that’s my mind tonight’s about a women who cast her
ballot in Atlanta, she is a lot like the millions of others who stood in line to make their voice heard in this
election, except for one thing and Nixon Cooper is 106 years old. She was biennn just a generation past
slavery, a time when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky when someone like her could’t view
for two reasons because she was a women and because of the colour of her skin. And tonight I think about
that she has seen throughout her century in America, the heartache and the hope, the struggle and the
progress the time we have told that we can’t and the people who with that American creed, yes we can at a t
in é when women’s voices were silenced and their hopes dismissed she lived to see them stand up and speak
out and reach for the ballot yes we can. When there was despair in   dust   bowl and depression across the
land she saw a nation conquer fear itself with a new deal, need jobs, new sense of common purpose yes we
can. 
When the bombs feel on our harbour and tyranny threatened the world she was there to witness a
generations rise to greatness and a democracy was saved, yes we can. 
She was there for the buses in Montgomery, houses in Birmingham, a Bridge in Selma and a preacher
from   Atlanta who told the people that we shall overcome yes we can. 
A man touch down on the moon, a wall came down in Berlin, a world was connected by our own science and
imagination and this year in this election she touched her Finger to a screen and cast her vote because
after   hundred and six years in America through the best times and the darkest of hours she knows how
America can change yes we can.
America we have come so far, we have seen so much but there ‘s si much more to do so tonight let us ask
ourselves if our children should live to see next century, if my daughters should be so lucky to live as long as
an Nixon Cooper, what change will they see, what progress will have made. This is our chances to answer
that call, this is our moment, this is our time to put our people back to work and open doors opportunities fo
our kids to restore prosperities and promote the cause of   peace, to reclaim the American dream and reaffirm
that fundamental truth that out of many we are one that while we breathe we hope and we are met with
cynicism and doubts and those who tell us that we can’t we will respond with that timeless creed that sums
up the spirit of a people, yes we can. 
Thank you, god bless you and may god bless the United States of America”.
Discorso di John McCain a seguito delle elezioni presidenziali americane 2008.
 Strumenti comunicativi: anche nel discorso di McCain c’è uno scambio simmetrico tra il senatore e
la platea degli auditori, ribadito dai continui richiami all’amore verso la patria di cui si considera a
pieno titolo cittadino orgoglioso. I tempi utilizzati sono pacati, i toni confortanti e volti ad assicurare
la massima collaborazione al neoeletto Presidente.
 Strumenti retorici: sono sostanzialmente quelli utilizzati da Obama; l’argomentazione si svolge su
principi di correttezza e rispetto verso il neo Presidente tale da rendere consapevole ogni suo votante
della necessità di essere coesi come un unico popolo, un’unica Nazione e non più elettori
repubblicani o democratici. Richiamando la vittoria netta del suo avversario, invita a cogliere l’entità
del momento storico e la portata del cambiamento che potrà avvenire, utilizzando anche lui il
termine “speranza” per cercare di far leva sui sentimenti di ognuno. Nel suo discorso, al pari di
quello di Obama, è rinvenibile ethos poiché mostra consapevolezza ed autorevolezza nella
dissertazione anche andando probabilmente contro a quella parte del suo partito che avrebbe voluto
toni meno concilianti verso Obama; pathos specie nella parte finale dove dichiara il proprio amore
per la patria e soprattutto quando esclama “Gli americani non rinunciano mai. Noi non ci
arrendiamo mai. Noi non ci nascondiamo mai dalla storia, noi facciamo la storia”, suscitando
emozione palpabile fra gli ascoltatori.
 Scelta di registro: anche in questo discorso si ravvisa sia il registro medio-comune, con un lessico
non particolarmente ricercato, sia quello informale con termini di uso più comune ed informale.
 Scelte di lessico: anche qui prevale la coordinazione sulla subordinazione, dando uguale importanza
ad ogni affermazione; vengono scelte parole semplici ed espressioni volutamente marcate (come
quelle finali sopra citate) e non manca la formula di cortesia (sotto forma di ringraziamenti).
 Comunicazione paraverbale e non verbale: Anche McCain utilizza un comportamento assertivo,
volto in questo caso a far accettare la sconfitta ai suoi delusi uditori. Come Obama utilizza il contatto
visivo diretto e postura del corpo aperta ma la sua espressione è più seria (in virtù della sconfitta)
anche se comunque rassicurante, in un atteggiamento volto a pacificare gli animi repubblicani accesi
dalla sconfitta. Entra sul palco accompagnato in modo discreto dalla moglie e, a differenza di
Obama, utilizza molto la gestualità manuale come appare evidente fin da subito quando le alza per
tacitare i fischi ricevuti dopo aver annunciato la telefonata di congratulazioni fatta al neo Presidente.
Curioso anche il volgere della testa che fa spesso che, abbinato alle pause nel discorso, contribuisce
a renderlo più efficace ed incisivo.

Nel discorso di McCain, durante la notte elettorale delle elezioni presidenziali del 2008, emerge la figura di
un candidato pronto a riconoscere con onore la sconfitta elettorale, senza mascherare il valore del rivale ed
anzi ponendone in luce la perseveranza ed abilità.
Il tema principale è l’amore verso la patria che lo porta ad accettare – ed a far accettare - la vittoria del suo
avversario, in quanto espressione di una volontà di cambiamento manifestata in maniera decisa dal popolo
americano. I temi correlati sono quelli del valore della democrazia che ha portato ad un cambiamento
epocale, con particolare riferimento alla popolazione afroamericana, in cui si evidenzia quindi anche il tema
del valore storico sia del momento che più in generale della storia americana. Emerge poi il tema della
speranza, invitando tutti a partecipare al cambiamento riuscire a cambiare lo stato delle cose nonché il tema
delle virtù di umiltà e asservimento ad un bene superiore nell’interesse del Paese.
Giungono infine le parole finali in cui l’iperbole su detta domina la scena fino all’immancabile frase finale
“Dio vi benedica e benedica gli Stati Uniti”.

“My friends, we have come to the end of a long journey (metafora). The American people have spoken, and
they have spoken clearly. A little while ago, I had the honor of calling Sen. Barack Obama — to congratulate
him on being elected the next president of the country that we both love. In a contest as long and difficult as
this campaign has been, his success alone commands my respect for his ability and perseverance. But that he
managed to do so by inspiring the hopes of so many millions of Americans, who had once wrongly believed
(enjambements) that they had little at stake or little influence in the election of an American president, is
something I deeply admire and commend him for achieving”.
È la parte introduttiva del discorso dove si riconosce subito il tema portante “il popolo americano
ha parlato” nonché il valore civico delle sue affermazioni, con cui ammette la sconfitta e riconosce
il valore e la capacità dell’avversario.
“This is an historic election, and I recognize the special significance it has for African-Americans and for the
special pride that must be theirs tonight”.
I've always believed that America offers opportunities to all who have the industry and will to seize it. Sen.
Obama believes that, too. But we both recognize that though we have come a long way from the old injustices
that once stained our nation's reputation and denied some Americans the full blessings of American
citizenship, the memory of them still had the power to wound. (metafora)
A century ago, President Theodore Roosevelt's invitation of Booker T. Washington to visit — to dine at the
White House — was taken as an outrage in many quarters. America today is a world away from the cruel
and prideful bigotry of that time. There is no better evidence of this than the election of an African,American
to the presidency of the United States. Let there be no reason now for any American to fail to cherish their
citizenship in this, the greatest nation on Earth”. 
dove evidenzia la portata storica del momento ed il cambiamento che sta avvenendo, quasi come
se fosse così epocale da non poter essere contrastato; richiama quindi il concetto degli Stati Uniti
come terra di opportunità, in cui la democrazia e la libertà hanno portato alla Casa Bianca un
afroamericano, con tutte le conseguenze del caso.
“Sen. Obama has achieved a great thing for himself and for his country. I applaud him for it, and offer my
sincere sympathy that his beloved grandmother did not live to see this day — though our faith assures us she
is at rest in the presence of her Creator and so very proud of the good man she helped raise.
Sen. Obama and I have had and argued our differences, and he has prevailed. No doubt many of those
differences remain. These are difficult times for our country, and I pledge to him tonight to do all in my
power to help him lead us through the many challenges we face. I urge all Americans who supported me to
join me in not just congratulating him, but offering our next president our goodwill and earnest effort to
find ways to come together, to find the necessary compromises, to bridge our differences and help restore our
prosperity, defend our security in a dangerous world, and leave our children and grandchildren a stronger,
better country than we inherited.  Whatever our differences, we are fellow Americans. And please believe me
when I say no association has ever meant more to me than that”. 
continua quindi ad elogiare l’avversario, richiamando il tema della famiglia (vedi citazione della
nonna) e ribadendo il suo pieno appoggio per gli anni a venire.
“It is natural tonight to feel some disappointment, but tomorrow we must move beyond it and work together
to get our country moving again. We fought — we fought as hard as we could.
And though we fell short, the failure is mine, not yours. 
I am so deeply grateful to all of you for the great honor of your support and for all you have done for me. I
wish the outcome had been different, my friends. The road was a difficult one from the outset. But your
support and friendship never wavered. I cannot adequately express how deeply indebted I am to you”.
affermando che si è trattato di un duro cammino, arriva ad assumersi interamente il peso della
sconfitta, rimarcando ulteriormente la sua umiltà.
I am especially grateful to my wife, Cindy, my children, my dear mother and all my family and to the many
old and dear friends who have stood by my side through the many ups and downs of this long campaign. I
have always been a fortunate man, and never more so for the love and encouragement you have given me.
You know, campaigns are often harder on a candidate's family than on the candidate, and that's been true in
this campaign. All I can offer in compensation is my love and gratitude, and the promise of more peaceful
years ahead. I am also, of course, very thankful to Gov. Sarah Palin, one of the best campaigners I have ever
seen and an impressive new voice in our party for reform and the principles that have always been our
greatest strength. Her husband, Todd, and their five beautiful children, with their tireless dedication to our
cause, and the courage and grace they showed in the rough-and-tumble of a presidential campaign. We can
all look forward with great interest to her future service to Alaska, the Republican Party and our country. 
To all my campaign comrades, from Rick Davis and Steve Schmidt and Mark Salter, to every last volunteer
who fought so hard and valiantly month after month in what at times seemed to be the most challenged
campaign in modern times — thank you so much. A lost election will never mean more to me than the
privilege of your faith and friendship”.
questa è la parte, abbastanza lunga e significativa, dei ringraziamenti verso coloro con cui ha
condiviso la campagna elettorale nonché verso la famiglia, altro tema basilare e ricorrente nel
discorso cui dichiara amore.
“I don't know what more we could have done to try to win this election. I'll leave that to others to determine.
Every candidate makes mistakes, and I'm sure I made my share of them. But I won't spend a moment of the
future regretting what might have been. This campaign was and will remain the great honor of my life. And
my heart is filled with nothing but gratitude for the experience and to the American people for giving me a
fair hearing before deciding that Sen. Obama and my old friend, Sen. Joe Biden, should have the honor of
leading us for the next four years. I would not be an American worthy of the name, should I regret a fate that
has allowed me the extraordinary privilege of serving this country for a half a century. Today, I was a
candidate for the highest office in the country I love so much. And tonight, I remain her servant. That is
blessing enough for anyone and I thank the people of Arizona for it”.
proseguendo sulla linea di umiltà intrapresa e ribadendo l’amore verso la Patria, valore assoluto
che lo ha ispirato concedendogli l’onore di poter concorrere alla carica più alta cui ogni americano
possa sperare di arrivare. 
“Tonight — tonight, more than any night, I hold in my heart nothing but love for this country and for all its
citizens, whether they supported me or Sen. Obama, I wish Godspeed to the man who was my former
opponent and will be my president.
And I call on all Americans, as I have often in this campaign, to not despair of our present difficulties but to
believe always in the promise and greatness of America, because nothing is inevitable here.
Americans never quit. We never surrender. We never hide from history (allitterazione). We make history
(iperbole).
Thank you, and God bless you, and God bless America”.
è la parte conclusive con cui riafferma in poche parole tutti i concetti prima espressi: amore/onore verso la
patria e tutti i suoi concittadini, esortazione all’unità di intenti per poter superare le difficoltà, speranza nel
cambiamento. L’iperbole finale sintetizza benissimo ciò in cui credono gli americani e ciò di cui vanno fieri
e contribuisce ad un finale degno e denso di carica emotiva, cui segue la consueta chiosa “Dio vi benedica e
benedica l’America”.