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Mllano, 1 f,-20 Marzo 1991

G. Carrieri, P. Grasso, A. Mahtab, S. Pelizza






C. Cnr-r-jeri, Gcnddt.·> D.:r-.1., 'J.Jrinu, Jt,lly

P. Cra<;�;o, :..:;.r .J . , 'l'oJ: l no, Ilaly
A. BahL1b, c;eodata .c:;.r.l., To:r 1no, Italy
S. Pel.izt:,l, Pulitcr:nico di '1'01 IIlO, ItaJy

The umbrella a rch 1s a method of pre-reinfor·cement ot pour grouncl

in advance of a tunnel by placing melctl pipes in the ground and
grouting thro uglt these pipes. Th� umbrella urct1technique has
heen ap p l i ed in a number of in�;tances during the past ten years.
Its methodology has continually bencfjted from the advances 1n
drilling equipment anrt the maturing e x pe r ience in it� systP.muLic
i"lpplicaUon. ThP ver sa t il ity r.;t t.he umbrella-arch technique i.'O'
demonstrated 1n thi� pa pe r through exampJP applications ln
divcrsP ground conditions including: grunular-alluvial dr>posits,
glac ial moraines, dctri_Lal matnrial contai_ning la rg e blocks, and
in heavily jointed an d tecLunic:al1y d istu rhed rock masses. It l�
s ho wn that good results were also obtained by using umbrella arch
and steel ri b s connPcled by a ring of grout-injected sacs.

Nei l avo ri in galle ria il sost1·gno dello scavo m ediante clementl

tubolar i metal l ic i messi 1n opera in avanzamen lo olt rP
J ' e s lr adosso di scavo, conser1CC di eseguire scavi in terrcni
particolarmenle di tfi c il i . Que.sta tecnica, in questi ultimi dieci
anni, ha visto un grande numc'ro di applicazioni con c o s tanli
miglioramenti derivanti sia dai progressi tecnologici sulle
macchine perforatrici che dail'espcr_i_enza maturata, ti no a
raggiungerc 1 'od ierna sistema ti c a a ppl icazione. In ques la
comunj ca;::i one .si vuole sotlulj ne are la sua grande versat i }_ita'
con esompi di applicazione, in condL:ioni molto diverse tra loro,
che comprendono: lo scavo in terreni granulari di natura
alluvionale, in dapositi di (lrigine glaciale, jn detriti di
versante a grandi blocchi, in ammassi rocciosi particolarmRnte
fratturati o scistosi. Ottimi r is ttlta ti sj sono ottenuti anche
nel c ontrollo dei cedimenti nel soprassuolo adottando particolari
tecnicho di intasarnent.o a prcs�;ione deJ vuoto, inesorabi lmente
i rregolare, tra tubj e ccnt.ine.

The umbrclln-�rc:IJ has been ir1 use since nt l east the mid-70's as
a t.f'!chn iquc tor excavat ing t11nnels ln d i fficul L ground
conditions, es pecially in ur-.ban s i tes . 'l'he earliest. modern
reference to u quasi-umb re J _i a t echnique thal the authors have
found 1s from Fasoli and P ustore (1976) who discuss ttte
reinforcement of a coved-in :;one which was reinforced from both
ends Dy u�ing inclined pipt·s (aL scve l-al angles) and cement
qroul. 'l'he rcinforcem(-mt was f ' \-:o rt ormed in 1975.

PicpoU (1976) discusse s the const ruct i on of the S.I3ernordino

ra ilway tunnel along the G�:·nova-Vcnt. imiglia route. 'The next
example of the use of umbre!J�-arch is given by Jurge and Mouxau�
( 1978) in discussing Lhe sh ink ans en rail tunnels w h ich were under
construction in 1978. These authors describe the tP.chnique in the
fo I lowing simple 1 but adequu LL' terms:

"'rube.s chosen to withstand the vertical lo a ds im posed by the

weight of: the earth and build i ngs are dr iven ho ri 2 ontally in one
or more rows. They are driven :w t_o 30 metres inlo t he soi J
(beyon d these values, allowable detlecLions might. be exceeded).
The t.ubes are driven in sh ort Lengths hy rotation and lubricated
by betonitc-cement slurry Lltdt, once set, anchors them in the
ground. In certain cases, valv0s arc placed aL regular intervals
along the tubes tor later grouling of the surrounding grottnd '' ,

R�risone et (1982) disctJSs the use

al. of the umbrella-arch
m<'O thod in seven cases oul of the 15 examples that. existed 1n
I taly upto 1982. Additional_ exdmplcs arP. provided by Barisone et
al. (1989).

Tn the foJ l owing sections of !�he paper we pn=:senl a summary of

the umbrell a-arch method, the '�quipmenl used, and recent exampJE".s
of appJ ication in four different types of materia]. A s ununary of
Lhe most. important lta1 ian examples of excavation, us i ng the
umbrella-urch mct.hod is provicl1•d in TabJe I.


The method consists irt prcplac1ng a ser i es o[ subhorizontal metal

pipes a head of the tunnel face to form an umbrella-arch over the
proj ected exc:uvation boundary. The bo.reholcs for- the pipes may LE­
drilled using the ''ODEX'' syslem which uses a casirtg that tollowf
i1 retractab le hit or down-the-hole hammer.

The pipes arc inserted .i.nt.o Lhe boreholes an d generolly the

annulus bf".t.ween the pipe and the ground is injected wilh cement
grout at low pressur e. Upon h r1 rclening of the
grout "sleeve",
high-pressure cement-g cout is inj f".c t.ed through the pipe ( through
the valves installed in the pipe). The c ement - grout penetrates
and compresses the 9round und refillcs the rock fractures,
i m proving the stability of the ground between two adjacent pipes.
ABLE I • Some italian examples of excavation using the UMBRELLA-ARCH method I

Total length Drilling diam. Pipe total n.pipe in Esecution

Tunnel Rock tipe of
pipe diam length one time for Reference
l�ntion ���ness o�rlap ursrella
inter and th and Um br ella each
1 lh

(limestone) I 640 before 1 95/84/4.5 12/4 12 1


Land slide '
Merone 185 before 1982 150/148/6 !8/4 17 72 1
f--- -

Hylonite I
Delle Tanze .1630 before 1982 95/84/4.5 12/3 !.2-9 16 ' 1

Cernobb io
240 before 1982 150/148/6
I 18/5 18 72 1

Ser:'e la voute
Land slide
160 1982 180/140/10 14/4 18 60 \
- -
Lar:d slide I
32 1982 160/101/10 I' 18/4 13 ' BC 1
- . -�----· -- - - -- ---------------•------ -·

' Weak re:<

' 18 1982
I 140/135/3.2 15/- 22 140 1


Weak rock
s. Bernardino 266 1976 200/140/8 11/8 30 N 2

Il Bricco Land slide 40 1975 120/2'/N 21 19+21
I 3

1660 I 120/114/7
I 12/9 40
I 30

50 1988 120/114/7 12/9 30-44
II 5

Ceresole Detritus 50 I 120/114/7 12/9 40 24 -

WeaK. rock '

Chabodey 70 I 120/114/7 12/9 30 24 -
(schi sts)

La Perosa Moraini c 400 1990 120/101/10 ' 12/9 33-39 N 6

Weak rock 88.9/10

Ram at 500 1989 120/ 12/9 33 N 7
and morainic 1 114/7. 1
N• Not known
}""In p�og� ess
Barisone et al.,
Grasso et al ..
Piepoli, (1976)
Eusebio et al.,
Fasoli & Pastore.
7: Barisone et al.,
(19761 4:
Carrieri et al., (1990)
The length ot Lhe umbrella-arch (or Lhe pipes) depends on the
dimension of the tunnel secti,ll1, the grou nd characteristics, and
the equipment used. The tunn e l face is then advanc ed under Lhe
protection of the umbrella-d.rch. Each excavation advance
followed by insta ll at ion of steel ribs whose size and spacing arc
a function of Lhe typ e of gro und and the umhn:dlu-urch used. The
snperpos.iUon of lwo adjacent umbrella-arches normally varies
from 3 to 5 meters.


The operations outlined ahovc requ ire a certain period of time

for Lheir: execution. Con sequently, the equipment has evolved with
a view lo redu c ing this time �s much as possible.Specific
requirements of the equipment incJurle: suitabil ity and effic i e nc y
in limited head room and capab i lity for rapid drilling along the
envelope of the umbrella-arch.

The recent equipment (the positioner) uses a 19m, subhorizonti1l

"aerial", mounted on extenduble radial pistons, and rotating
around a horizontal axis (Fi g. l ) . In the case of a two-arm
positioner, two aerj_uls are used. '!'he mach i ne is thus capable of
drilling the entire set of holes for an umb re lla-arch from a
single position. This type of nquipment normally operates within
a radius (of the umbrella) of 4.8 and 6. 5m.

In t.he case of t unne ls of smaller sections ( as in some nrhan

areas), the average radjus of the umbrella-arch may range from
1.5 to !.Bm. In such instances it is necessury Lo operate with an
equipment of variable dimensions.

FIG.l. A typical sequence of umbrella arches in an advancing


The vP.rsatilj ty and scope of the umhn�lla-arch IDP.thod is

illustrat_ed �n this scctio1, t_hcouqh Ulustrative examples of
�pplication ir1 four diffe1cnt ty pPs of material: mo,-ainic,
alJuvi,11, and detrital mater; tl dnd jointed n_1ck.

4. 1 Hora i nic: Dcpo:1 it: Lonalo 'l'llnnC'l

The Lonato t u n ne l lS vart <lf a nt•w road l1nk (SS27) between

Rrescld and Verona anrt ls lt·,·atcd N of the u1·bnr1 developmP.nt of
Lonato. 'l'hc 1.6km-long Lunn•·L, with a 90m2 soc:t_ion, has a c:over
of 0-70m; with the P.xception of an al l u via l SP.gment of lOOm
length irt the E (Verona), the tuitrtel traverses the Garde
lake mor·ainic rtepo:::;i ts.

'l'he gP.omorpho l ogy of the -'irea Rvol ved dur inq the maxi mun.
e xpans ion of the Garda gla cj·-·r. ThP. morainic clay deposits shn"·
no grading in size up�o 10m3. These deposits comprise a major
portion of thR fluvio-glacial and morainjr: deposits to he
traversed by the r.onato tun ne I .

The fluvio-gJacial deposits, however, show some st.ratification

and have a size grading fn,m fine to and medium
arc mainly
composed of cl ay and .silt. TtH portals ot the tunnel are locat.Pd
in these deposits.

Th e morainic deposits in the Hite are ir1terser:ted by .subsurface

water beds as evidenced by tht· e x ista n c e of a few springs.

The umbrella arch (Figs.2 and:!-) is constructed ctround the

periphery of t.he hP.ading as a subhorL::ontaJy inclined Seini cone
of steel pipes ins ta l led in boreholes by a specia 1 Lwo-arm
drilling machinR, and gr o uti n g through Lhe pipes, which have
valves or grout holes. This produces a uniformly consolidoted
rock mass between any two adjo•,'ent pi!JeS.

The umbrella pipes

are 12m long. However, the excavated length
per step is only 9m. T us, the r e is a snperposition of 3m
h length
between two consecutive umbrel!i'ls.

Since the cxcavatton begins in the upper half section (the

heuding), the structural support is provided for immediate
stability of the excavation. The next phase of excavation,
benching, opens the lower hall of the section in the rock mass
thal has lower geomechanical properties. This crP.ates the need
for the following lypes of supp,Jrt:

Steel ribs with wide footilliJS; the principal advantages of

this type of support are:

- greater spread of Joad

- possibility of properly locating the lateral micropiles
- possibility of improvemellt of the outer boundary of the

Lateral micropiles which impede sinking of the floor and,

above all, conLrol the c on v erge nc e of the benched sectio n
of the tunnel.
m1n 1 M,J>
FIG.2. Cross-section of
Lonato tunnel showing
umbrella p i pes :
A: Subhorizontal
umbrella pipe s ;
G B: Twin stRel r ib s ;
r C: SholcretP-;

·. .
/' D: Eleclro-wcJded net;
. ' E: Lateral 1oicropile�;
I' >lor_kjt"t Subvcr�icl jet
c o l um n 5 ;
G: nrainage pipes;
I" >lorO 1•"1 H: Concrete lining.

The benching phasR should De based on consider.ation of the fu 1 1

section, including preliminary support ot the headingr water
proofing, and permanent lininq of the entire sPc:tion.

In order to reduce the stab1] it.y problems around the lower

.sPction of the tunnel, lhe ground a_round the periphery of this
section is treated using subvrrtical jet-grouted columns,

Two 8-honr shifts pRr day we n used · for PXC<1valing either end of
Lhe tunnel. 'T'he average progn:·:ss on each of the two faces is thus
about 2m/day. This rate o f plogress i::; highGr thrtn the normally
expected progress in morain 1 c terrain which is, approxima Lely
-- ---- -- --

- '

c.o ,, -- ----
c -

I �

�� -.=

\ fti- ;_
-- ,_

1- \--- 1-\�I �

- 1- F i-
_.--_ �� L , •.-. - . VI ' I 1-
�-- 0

� c� [
re -
I• /o

t> oo B
!-< 11 - E
t i-<

- 1-- :.
- U- - !:�o_r� level
; � Ill
11 11
a -,
1111 1111

11 11
;; J' I �;; 11
11 1111 111"
11 11
:111 : ::u I
11 11
11 11 "11 1
1111 ,1111 '1f1 1111 Roar1 I e vel
-U ll li-- IWI --11-!1- --UU- 1-- uu nu 1111 •I� "" "" --11-11 UU IUUI--lt- - -- -
ll-J,! ,_·- lL IJ.---,- �

--ll IJ__ lLIL

iJ_ Jl-.11 ----IUI ___JI Jlllll- _ U.IL- !I-ll- _JIJI-IUL

}�·L-· !� ,� �, ,· I il�· � � �� -�� -�- �- ��- �� �� �� -�- ��-

- :;!WI --ll !1--
·-, -
· . _ . z:· �o� k level
. ·
"; \\;:, ..�· -.·..; ;'\. -(- :;: ·, '. :.:.·, : .'
; ·

FIG. 3. Longitudi_nal sect l on '-hawing the advancement scheme

(for legend see Fig.2)
TABLE II: Construction timPs t•.•r 9.0m ot r.onaLo tunnel



Subhorizontd] Um!Jn,llrl Pip<':'> .liJ

Twin S teel Arcl1es, SltolcrP!e, P.IG>rtLo-Welded Net ]{)
Drain,lqo Pj pes vur.
Excavation (tirsl work lcv1·l) 15
r,ateral Micropiles 27
Subvert i cal .JP-I- Col umn:s 76
Excavation ( seconrt work le\'o_?l) 8
Complete 'T'win S.Arc:h, Sholr r · et e , t:lectro-Welcled Net u
Concrete Lining 18

'l'OTAL TIME ( HRS) 152


4.?. Morainic DAposit: La Perosa TunnAl

The Highway which wUl link Italy to France is under con.strucLior:

near Turin in t.he North-western part. of Italy.
From a geological point of vi•c'W this area is composed of twc
types of material: mora in i_c accumuJ at.ion belonging to a
geomorphological structure called "Morainic Ainphitheatn:. of
Rivoli Avigl.iuna" and gJa.cio lactJstrine deposi tf,
structured in continues hori2on�o. The "Amphitheatre" consists of
3 concentric hills whose d·"position follows the melting
ot a glacier during the late Qndternary pe1·iod (HolocenA) and
which dammed the Susa valJc�y; subsequently a serie s of
glacio - lacustrine illld fluvia; devosits is present .tn the
western side of this structure. There was no evidence of the
water tab1 e.

'!'he J ayout of t his highway includes a twi_n-bore tunnel (La

Perosa tunnel) which crosses Lhe morainic hills and some
embankment s and bridges OVI't' the above-ment-ioned deposits.
This first problem was solvr>d using specj al tecniques for
preconsolidat i_on during the exc-avation of the ent·.t:re 400m lengh
tunnel. 'l'he design specified bc1ring half Lhe tunnel section and
using valved-pipe umbrellas. The reinforc:ement was made NP180 of
stec] arches slanted at lhe ba:c:t�. 'l'o overcome the loss of soil
cohesion, thus avoiding surface subsidence, Lhe excavation was
immediately supported through the use of a special bag, made of
polypropylene fabric (Bul]fleY.) (Fig.4). The bag was located
beLween the extrados of the st.ecL rib and the profile of the bore
and was inuncdiately expanded by pumping in spritz - heton. The
face of excavation is also conscdidated us in g injections through
PVC tubes.
Because of the impossibility of forecasting the kind of material
that will be encountered, 1 n presence of sand a more drusLic
treatment was adopted.
The tunnel has been finished in 6 months.

FIG.4. Illustration of
the use of "Bullflex"
between the umbrella­
arch and the steel-rib

•>i:'>' :

4.3 Alluvia} Matcriul: Serena Tunnel, La Spezia Portal

'l'hc railway connecting the important La Spezia harbour to Parma

includes four principal tunnels: Termo, Sercna, Ossella and
Scorza. The Serenil tunnel is Lhe longest (6900rn) and (towurd the
La. Spezia side) crosses the a1 luvial deposits of Magra river.

'l'hc Serena tunnel passes through geologically complex formations

and geomechanically poor ruck (typical of the Appennini
mountains) consisting of flysch (an alternating sequence of
limestone with intercalation of m arl and shale), polygenetic
breccias, and recent sediment_ary cover of alluvial-col] uvial
origin. Some of these formations have been subjected Lo tectonic
cycles which have frequenLly transformed the original
stratigraphy and, have on occasion, produced a chaotic structure.
Intense lamination with preferred orientation has developed due
to tectonic folding.

The specific instance of the· advancement from the portal of

S.Stefano, consideration of Lhe nature of the ground1 thP
overburden, and especially the urban development at the surface,
required adaptation of special technology to assure that the
short-term subsidence wouJd produce only symm trica l
redistributions of the load.
'l'he advancement scheme systematicillly used the prc-reinforcement
of the heading by the umbrella-arch technique while reinforcing
the footings of the steel ribs with micropilcs and struts.
The numbPr of pipes usPd in dTl um bre l l a arch v arie d between 30
und 441 dcpt=mding on the gr<Ji11 ni�e of the alluvial ma teria l. '!'hP
excavated sect i on of the tunnel (heading) is supported by a
pattern of 2 IPN 160 steel dJ·ches (spread at 0.7m), shotcrete,
<1nd wire mesh.

'l'he po r t al section (with a lcr_Jth ol-

150m and a luaximum cover of
20m), which lies in the Quurl( Lnary al l u v ium of Jvlagra r ive r , was
excavatert at a rate of lJm p{ t' wr::Pk with pa r t i cu l ar attention
given to Lhe satety of the �.urface sLructun-:>s "'h i ch would not·
tolerate any subsidence.

The subhorizontal trend of tLo alluvium-flush contact (ne a r the

level of the ro o t of the tunne:}) had a very significunt inf lue nce
on the number of p ipe s requirt�d in the irl a gi v e n

4 .4 Oetrj tal Mate:ci al : Ceresol c Tunnel

'I' he Cercsole tunnel, which f()rms part of thP- National Road SS

460, lies below a mountain on the left sid e of Orco river i n the
province of Torino. The tunnel has a cross-section of 90m2 and a
Jength of 1300m.

The tunnel traverses the g1·anitic gneiss, typical of Gr.,an

Paradiso series, except for the north portion (Ceresole side)
which passes through chaotic material (Fig.S), This materia]
consists of detrital material cf varying size, inr.luding boulders
of upto 100m3 which have originate;d from thF! disintegration of
Lhe gneiss-cliffs. The inherent vojds make this material very
permeable and of significance ior the pote ntial water infJow into
the tunnel whjch grades down from the Ceresolc portal .

FIG.S. Tunnel face showing b o u l de rs of various sizes

The umbrc lla arch was used to pre-reinforcP Lhe roof of the
head ing , using large cl i i1llH'ler pipes which woo l cl assist ln
controlling the su r face subsidence. 'l'he voids in the mat cr i n l
and , t h ere f othP pt:rnH"<_Jl,i_lily we re reduced nsing
re , a spec i a l
grout mix.
After each advancement step ( lm), steel ribs were e mp laced and
the space between the urnbrc-Jld and thP steel ribs was filled wilh

The spccitic problem during< nnslructlon oi umDrclla-arch in the

d et rita l material wns rc l at ( d to the unprRrlicLable mix of hard
boul der s (of gnf'!i_Ss) and V(JLds along the axf-'s of the umbrella
pipes. 'l'hc " Od e x " dr i l li ng rn(·thod ( re f erred to P <J rl i er } was able
to over come this problem.

4.5 ,Jointed Rock: Chabodey Tunnel, Access Adit

'l'headj t prov i des ctn ac ce s s to Lhe twin-bore Chabodcy t.unnel

which forms part ot the new M(mte Bianco-Aosta h ighway. 'l'he ad i t_
has a variable cross seclion vvith a minim um of 70m1 and a length
of llOm. The adit was nece:.;;sary for providing access at ar
intP.rmediatc point, existing hyd rau l ic cilnal
awc1y from the whict
is loc:ated almosl at the crown of the Aost a - s id e porta] (Fig.6).
Consequently, it was possjbJI� to consolidate t.he portal area tron·
t.he tunnel advancing, in this exceptional case, toward the


. t-1.

. 0 .
• . '" .
• I z ..
• �
I / '

I >
p •

. . '

._;\····... -'-r


\ I

FIG.6. Plan view showing Lhe juxtaposition of Chabodey tunnel

m=1ar AosLa portal, surf,Jce cani11, and access adit
The adiL Lravcrses Lhro ugh an ,_old slide (prinr-_ipally consisting
of rock boulders), in the fir�t portion, and through jointed
rock, J.Il the second parL, inc t u ding the intersection wi Lh t.he
Chabodey tt1nnel {Fig.?). Tl1e rock mass is a closely jointed
se his L intc rc ala Pd with carborHCcous mat�er·i al.

'T'he umbrella-arch method wa.s us,,d for reinforcing the roof o[ the
adi t. as well as the headinq •Jl" the main tunnel. The curved
portion of the adiL (be tore j 1o1.ned the main tunn�l)
t presented
some ditticulty in Lhe construe:! ion ot the umbrellas. The use of
a smaller l
inst a l a tio n equip1:1Cnt and shorter umbn':!lla pi pe s
solved this prob1enl. An arlditi(Jnal p roblem was to const_ruct the
umbrella-arches under tl1e diff1cult geometric o i i
c nd t ons in the
int.erseclion region which 11eces�.itated overexcuvaliun and slower

FIG.?. Tunnel face in j ointed rock near intersection of o

Chab dey
tunnel and the access adit .

4.6 J inted Rock: RamaL Tunnel

The lOOOm long Ramat tunnel iro located a on g the new Turin­ l
Bardonecchia w y
high a . 'l'he 12m-wj_de and lOm-high tunnel sections
were to be driven for about SOOm into a water-bearing deposit of
glacial moraines composed of sand, gravel, and l a ge boulders of r
rock. The second part of tu
nnel is e c avated in a jojnted rock x
mass, with a thin lateral cover, passing t o det i s with large r tu
bou d er r. .
The �ulution of cxcavatior1 prclblemc in tl1e jclJntpc/ ruck involved
the c ons truct ion of a reintcn�ced and nun qrout0d umbrcJ lu-ar_ch.
The construction of the IImbr�llct-arch is done by installiny J2m­
long perforated r::o-ctxial sl.eel pipes around Lhe boundilry of
cxcavation.Ninc mRteLs of thf' tu nnel sect.1on is excavated b('fore
in::; talling the next timbre] I a-·arch. P.xcavat ion i !'i done by an
Rxr:avator and ct blg h,lmmer ( for cru�-;hi.nq the b ou l d e r :-; ) 'J'h(·
complete sect1on is lined ,�,it h wire mc�:;h, �-oilol_c n:.te, dnd ::-;t.r'ie>l
ribs spaced cJL O.J�m alo r1 g tt1•· tunnel ctXIS.
l\ rute of l d v ctnc e of
i 40m/m 1nth ha;:; been ach 1 Pvcrl u:c, 1 nq t ht--
umbrella-arch tP.chniquc.

5. Conclusion

From its ear ly d c ve l o pwen t _i_,, thR mid-s�ventif's, the urnfnella­

arch m eth od olo gy has been !Jscd with demonstrated succ e ss 1.n
s everal types of difficult g r 'J u nd both in Ttaly and abroad.
The success of this method dejJends from a seri_es cJf reasons:

- it is flexible and it can bP used in d i ffe rent kinds of ground

- t.he treatment can be varied according to the ma terial, e.g.
using moL-e or less Lu bes , increasing or d e c rea s in g the
in j ec t i o ns
- il is safe because the tubi• begin to work as a contrast
immediately, P.ven without i 11j ection
- it is simple and quick and it c;1n be without
particular P.quipment
� it has also st ructural fu nc:t ion� , r educ ing the roe J:

The dPLctils of Lhe umbreJJ,-,·-.-J..rch and the PCjlliplllio:!lt are oftcc

worked out-_ on site by using som e de g ree uf trial and error. A
theon:.tical basis for the desarn o[ umbreJJ,-,-a.rch may be Lln area
whcrP. some rp;:;earch will be • l S e fu l . For the , momen t
publication of case history s1 11di es s ho u ld be encouraqP.d.

6. Acknowledgment

The c nn t.ri but i on ot Dr . E. l�abbi - fur Lct P�rosct turJIJel ,Jnd

Dr. G. Ru.sso - [or cer-csole clnd R,lm<Jt. tunnels - for· tile case
study _i_s yratcfull.y acknowledc;c'd.

7. Reference�:;

BarisonP G. , l'elizza S., PlytJTI!ll B. (1982). UrnbrcJla arch melhud

ior LunnclirvJ 1n difficult t .Jndilionoo - An a ly si s of Italian
Cases. Proc. TV 1nt., 1\:;s . Eng. ;col. New Delhi.

B,lric;onc C., Carnpo F., CoJ:CJII G., Pcli_·.czct S. (1989). Rapid

umhreJla-arch cxc:dvatiun oJ d tiJnllc'l In c:ohes1.onless maleri.<ll
under an arc:hdool_ogl.c:ill �;itc. Proc. lnt. C on y r . Progress and
IrtnovatioJI i n ·runneling, Turunt

Car-rieri G. , rH..' Donctti A., l� asso P., Mcthtab /\. , Pelizza ,c;_
{ 1990). Gro11nd Impr ovement of f,,r Ra pid Advance Lonato Road
'J'unnel near Verona, ltaly. 8Lh A.nn u al Conference of 'J'unnellinq
Association of C a na dn , VancouvP!, Canadu, pp.24:�-?54.

Eusebio A. , Grasso P., Rabl i E. (1990). Geological an d

geo t_ech n ica l characterization <•f thP. morainic "AmphitheaLer of
Rivo]i'' in thP Nw Italy. Internvcional Congress of Geocngi.neering
T .A. E.G. - Am�;terdam - Vol.l.

Fasoli R., Paston--, H. (197(,). La gctllcria del Rricco

sull 'autos Lrada Torino- S avona . I.' i ndustria Oelle Cost ro zioni.

Grasso r., Mahtab A., Pe J iz z a s. I Russo G. (1990). On th� diverse

geolechnical a nd Lunncl constru ·-t ion pro b l ems _in the La Spezia­
Parmo cail link in Italy. Procer·ilrigs Int. Cor1grcss in Lunnel and
underground works, today and fut,Jre, Ch engdu , China, pp.41-46.

Jorge G.R., MnuxdUX J. (1978,. Prevention of accidents :in

difficult tunm'!lling conditjuns by means of specialized
techniques such ns grouting, d!"ai_nage, u mbrell a arch methods.
Proc. Inl. Tunnel Symposium, Tok'/o.

P1cpnli G. (1976). La nuova g ct l l •2-ri <1 S. Bcrnardino dcJ.La linea

Genova-Ventimj �:J l i a. Ingegneria F1 rroviaria, 10.


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