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Starting the presentation

• Good morning/good afternoon ladies and gentlemen

•The topic of my presentation today is ...
• What I'm going to talk about today is ...

►Why you are giving this presentation •The purpose of this presentation is ...
•This is important because ...
• My objective is to ... ►Stating the main points •The main points I will be talking
about are
firstly ...
next, finally... we're going to look at ... ►Introducing the first point • Let's
start/begin with ... ►Showing graphics, transparencies, slides etc. • I'd like to
illustrate this by showing you... ►Moving on to the next point • Now let's move on to ...
►Giving more details • I'd like to expand on this aspect/problem/point
• Let me elaborate on that
• Would you like me to expand on/elaborate on that? ►Changing to a different topic •
I'd like to turn to something completely different ►Referring to something which is off the
topic • I'd like to digress here for a moment and just mention that ... ►Referring back to
an earlier point • Let me go back to what I said earlier about ... ►Summarizing or
repeating the main points • I'd like to recap the main points of my presentation
- first I covered
- then we talked about
- finally we looked at
• I'd now like to sum up the main points which were: ►Conclusion • I'm going to
conclude by... saying that/inviting you to/ quoting ...
• In conclusion, let me... leave you with this thought/invite you to ►Questions • Finally,
I'll be happy to answer your questions.
• Now I'd like to invite any questions you may have.
• Do you have any questions?
Structure and Content
• Introduction: General information on the topic
Give your listeners an introduction to the topic (some general information) and
explain what exactly you are going to talk about in your presentation.
• Actual Presentation
Subdivide your presentation into several sub-topics.
• Conclusion
Try to find a good conclusion, e.g.:
o an invitation to act
o an acknowledgement
o a motivation

Important Tenses
• Simple Present
• Simple Past
• Present Perfect

Tips on Giving a Presentation

As listeners cannot take up as many information as readers, keep the following rules
in mind when giving a presentation:

• Keep your sentences short and simple.

• Use standard English, avoid slang and techy language.
• Prefer verbs to nouns (not: The meaning of this is that …, but: This means
that …).
• Use participal constructions sparingly. (In written texts they are often used to
increase the density of information in a sentence. In spoken texts, however,
they make it more difficult for the listeners to follow.)
• Speak clearly and slowly.
• Have little breaks in between the sentences to allow your audience to reflect
on what has been said.
• Communicate freely (don't read the whole text from a piece of paper).
• Illustrate certain aspects of your presentation with pictures and graphics.

The following tricks will also help you keep your audience's attention:

• Outline to the audience how your presentation is structured. (e.g. I will first
explain ... / Then I will … / After that … / Finally… ).
• Indicate when you come to another sub-topic (I will now talk about …). This
way your audience can follow your presentation more easily.
• Use a rhetorical question or hypophora from time to time. Your listeners will
think that you've asked them a question and thus listen more attentively.
• Use enumerations starting first / second / third. This also draws your
audience's attention.
• A joke or a quotation might also help keeping your audience listening. Don't
overdo it, however. Using too many jokes or quotations might not have the
effect you want.

Word List
• Introduction
• Actual Presentation
• Conclusion

To start with I'll describe the progress made this year. Then I'll mention some of the
problems we've encountered and how we overcame them. After that I'll consider the
possibilities for further growth next year. Finally, I'll summarize my presentation
(before concluding with some recommendations).

• Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.

• I'll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.
• I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.

Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we've considered.

Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarokatuh,

Your Excellencies the committee,

The honorable of jury,

Dear my friends who participates in this speech contest,

And my loving brothers and sisters

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent and the Merciful.

All praises be to Allah SWT, the lord of the world, the master of the day after, the
creator of everything in this Universe, where he has no partner. He has also given us
such deeply enjoyable, particularly faith and healthy comfort, hence, we could attend
here in a good situation.

Peace and Salutation be upon our prophet Muhammad SAW, who has taught us the
cardinal principles of the unity of God, obliged us to confess it with the tongue and
believe it in the heart. He also has brought us from the darkness to the brightness,
from stupidity to cleverness, in the other word “Minazzhulumaati Ilannuur”

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Indeed, it is very great pleasure for me in this precious chance to deliver my speech to
the most honorable audiences entitled:


Before I am going to deliver the main point of my speech, I thank to the Education
and Culture department of Sukabumi regency, particularly to the committee of this-
program who has invited our school to participate in this contest.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Language plays an important role in human life. One tries to acquire, learn and use
language as a means of communication, and simultaneously as social symbol of
humanity. By using language someone could make statements, convey facts and
knowledge, explain or report something, and keep social relations among the language
users. These indicate that by means of language, people can express their ideas,
feeling, information etc through communication.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

As one of language in the world, English is considered and applied as international

language. Since then, it is very popular and have been spoken and learnt by almost
people in the world. There are some reasons why English is important and many
people attempt to learn it. Some of them are: for finding job, traveling, interacting one
each other, doing business, taking examination, doing research, writing in the foreign
language, etc.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

In such developing country like Indonesia, English has a vital role in all aspects of
life, particularly in science and technology. Furthermore, it can be used for developing
relationships in the international forum, for reading English book (especially for
students from primary school up to colleges/university), to tighten the relationship
among nations in the world, etc. As students, we learn English are intended to obtain
various knowledge, to comprehend and understand the textbooks learned in English,
to gain knowledge and skills, and to be ready enter to the university, as one of the test
requirements for students of senior High School (SMA), etc. Looking at the above
important roles of English, that is why English is very important to understand and to
master by every people throughout the world since before.

My brothers and sisters!

At the end of my speech, I will quote a wise expression: “ENGLISH WILL MAKE
EVERYBODY SURVIVE AND GO ANYWHERE”. This expression reminds us how
importance of English for human life is. As global or universal language, English is
not only enables us to communicate and interact with every people throughout the
world, but also it could alter our life to be better. Furthermore, we also must be aware
that the western countries play extra ordinary role in developing and keeping science
and technology. Thus, if we want to be a skilful scientists, linguists, and be able to
compete with the other countries in the world, we must understand, master and learn
the language they use, namely English.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Before ending this speech, let me conclude the essential points of my speech:
1. English is highly necessary to be learned and mastered by everyone, in order to be
able to compete in the globalization era;

2. English is a key to open and master science and technology, because most of
scientists write their experts and inventions in English.

3. As students of high school (SMA), we have to prepare ourselves by learning hard,

particularly English as well as the other subjects at school;

4. By mastering English enables us to become survive and go anywhere throughout

the world;

Goethe (a Greek philosopher) has ever said:

“Knowing is not enough, we must apply. Willing is not enough, we must do”

Remember: Language indicates Nation. And Don’t Forget “English is a bridge for
the future”

Ladies and Gentlemen,

I think it’s completely enough for me to this point. The wrong utterances are caused
by limitation of my ability and the right one is merely from Allah SWT. So, I beg
your pardon, finally I say.

Wassalamu’alaikum Warohmatullohi Wabarokatuh

Writer: Jasmansyah

We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this
you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech.
Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called
quoted speech)

Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for

For example:

She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."


"Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to
enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word.

When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use
reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the
person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be
in the past too.

For example:

Direct speech Indirect speech

"I'm going to the cinema", he
He said he was going to the cinema.

Tense change

As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense
on the left changes to the tense on the right):

Direct speech Indirect speech

Present simple
› Past simple
She said, "It's cold." She said it was cold.
Present continuous Past continuous
She said, "I'm teaching English › She said she was teaching English
online." online.
Present perfect simple › Past perfect simple
She said, "I've been on the web She said she had been on the web since
since 1999." 1999.
Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous
She said, "I've been teaching › She said she had been teaching English
English for seven years." for seven years.
Past simple Past perfect
She said, "I taught online › She said she had taught online
yesterday." yesterday.
Past continuous
› Past perfect continuous
She said, "I was teaching earlier." She said she had been teaching earlier.
Past perfect Past perfect
She said, "The lesson had already › NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had
started when he arrived." already started when he arrived.
Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous
She said, "I'd already been › NO CHANGE - She said she'd already
teaching for five minutes." been teaching for five minutes.

Modal verb forms also sometimes change:

Direct speech Indirect speech

will would
She said, "I'll teach English online › She said she would teach English
tomorrow." online tomorrow.
can could
She said, "I can teach English › She said she could teach English
online." online.
must had to
She said, "I must have a computer to › She said she had to have a computer
teach English online." to teach English online.
shall should
She said, "What shall we learn › She asked what we should learn
today?" today.
may might
She said, "May I open a new › She asked if she might open a new
browser?" browser.

!Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.

Direct speech Indirect speech

"I might go to the cinema", he
He said he might go to the cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is
still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:-

Direct speech Indirect speech

"My name is Lynne", she said. She said her name was Lynne.

She said her name is Lynne.

You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.

Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact)

"Next week's lesson is on She said next week's lesson is on reported
reported speech ", she said. speech.

Time change

If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in
with the time of reporting.

For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different
meanings at the time and place of reporting.

Today + 24 hours - Indirect speech

She said yesterday's lesson was on
"Today's lesson is on presentations."
Expressions of time if reported on a different day
this (evening) › that (evening)
today › yesterday ...
these (days) › those (days)
now › then
(a week) ago › (a week) before
last weekend › the weekend before last / the previous weekend
here › there
next (week) › the following (week)
tomorrow › the next/following day

In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where
you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).

For example:-

At work At home
"How long have you worked here?" She asked me how long I'd worked there.
Pronoun change

In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.

For example:

Me You
"I teach English online." She said she teaches English online.

Reporting Verbs

Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.

We use asked to report questions:-

For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started.

We use told with an object.

For example: Lynne told me she felt tired.

!Note - Here me is the object.

We usually use said without an object.

For example: Lynne said she was going to teach online.

If said is used with an object we must include to ;

For example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China.

!Note - We usually use told.

For example: Lynne told me that she'd never been to China.

There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked.

These include:-

accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted,

complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised,
replied, suggested and thought.

Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative.
For example:

He asked me to come to the party:-

He invited me to the party.

He begged me to come to the party.
He ordered me to come to the party.
He advised me to come to the party.
He suggested I should come to the party.

Use of 'That' in reported speech

In reported speech, the word that is often used.

For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich.

However, that is optional.

For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich.

!Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if.

For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.

Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.

Firstly, let us praise to the Almighty God for His Blessing that enables us to come
here to join this English speech contest regarding with the sixth anniversary
celebration of Mamasa regency.

I would also like to say many thanks to the MC who has given me chance to deliver
my English speech.

Honorable Juries, Ladies and gentlemen, Sisters and Brothers…