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A digital thermometer can be easily made by interfacing a temperature sensor to the

microcontroller AT89C51. The temperature sensor used in the project is LM35. The LM
35 IC generates a 10mV variation to its output voltage for every degree Celsius change
in temperature. The Output of the temperature sensor is analog in nature so we need an
analog to digital convertor for converting the analog input to its equivalent binary output.
The ADC 0804 is the analog to digital convertor IC used in the project. 0804 is a single
channel convertor which converts the analog input up to a range of 5V to an equivalent
8-bit binary output.

The step size is defined by the voltage applied at the Vref/2 pin of the ADC IC. For
example, if the voltage at Vref/2 pin is set to 1.28V then ADC has a step size of 10 mV.
So if the input voltage is 1V the equivalent binary output of ADC will be 100 or 0110
0100 in binary. The 8 bit binary output of the ADC is incremented by one for every 10
mV rise of input voltage. Different step size can be selected by changing the voltage
input to the Vref/2 pin. The step size of the ADC is calibrated using a preset to match
the actual temperature. Once the ADC is calibrated it will give the correct output
further. The binary output of ADC is fed parallel to a port of the microcontroller .The
microcontroller reads the input through ADC and displays the corresponding decimal
value on LCD indicating the temperature.


• Compatible with MCS-51™ Products
• 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
• Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Programmable Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K
bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The deviceis
manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is
compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pinout.
The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with
Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer which
provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control

AT89C51 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel's 8051 family. AT89C51 has
4KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 128 bytes
of RAM. It can be erased and program to a maximum of 1000 times.

In 40 pin AT89C51, there are four ports designated as P1, P2, P3 and P0. All these ports

are 8-bit bi-directional ports, i.e., they can be used as both input and output ports.

Except P0 which needs external pull-ups, rest of the ports have internal pull-ups. When

1s are written to these port pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be

used as inputs. These ports are also bit addressable and so their bits can also be

accessed individually.Port P0 and P2 are also used to provide low byte and high byte

addresses, respectively, when connected to an external memory. Port 3 has multiplexed

pins for special functions like serial communication, hardware interrupts, timer inputs

and read/write operation from external memory. AT89C51 has an inbuilt UART for serial

communication. It can be programmed to operate at different baud rates. Including two

timer & hardware interrupts, it has a total of six interrupts.

Pin Description:
Pin Function Name
1 P1.0
2 P1.1
3 P1.2
4 P1.3
8 bit input/output port (P1) pins
5 P1.4
6 P1.5
7 P1.6
8 P1.7
9 Reset pin; Active high Reset
Input (receiver) for serial
10 RxD P3.0
Output (transmitter) for serial
11 TxD P3.1
12 External interrupt 1 Int0 P3.2
8 bit
13 External interrupt 2 Int1 P3.3
14 Timer1 external input port (P3) pins P3.4
15 Timer2 external input P3.5
16 Write to external data memory Write P3.6
17 Read from external data memory Read P3.7
18 Crystal 2
Quartz crystal oscillator (up to 24 MHz)
19 Crystal 1
20 Ground (0V) Ground
21 P2.0/ A8
22 P2.1/ A9
23 8 bit input/output port (P2) pins P2.2/ A10
24 P2.3/ A11
High-order address bits when interfacing with external
25 P2.4/ A12
26 P2.5/ A13
27 P2.6/ A14
28 P2.7/ A15
29 Program store enable; Read from external program memory PSEN
Address Latch Enable ALE
Program pulse input during Flash programming Prog
External Access Enable; Vcc for internal program executions EA
31 Programming enable voltage; 12V (during Flash
32 P0.7/ AD7
33 P0.6/ AD6
34 8 bit input/output port (P0) pins P0.5/ AD5
35 P0.4/ AD4
Low-order address bits when interfacing with external
36 P0.3/ AD3
37 P0.2/ AD2
38 P0.1/ AD1
39 P0.0/ AD0
40 Supply voltage; 5V (up to 6.6V) Vcc

1.Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
2.Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
3. 0.5°C accuracy guaranteeable (at +25°C)
4.Rated for full −55° to +150°C range
5. Suitable for remote applications
6. Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
7. Operates from 4 to 30 volts
8. Less than 60 μA current drain
9. Low self-heating, 0.08°C in still air
10. Nonlinearity only ±1⁄4°C typical
11. Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load

LM35 is a precision IC temperature sensor with its output proportional to the

temperature (in oC). The sensor circuitry is sealed and therefore it is not subjected to
oxidation and other processes. With LM35, temperature can be measured more
accurately than with a thermistor. It also possess low self heating and does not cause
more than 0.1 oC temperature rise in still air.

The operating temperature range is from -55°C to 150°C. The output voltage varies by

10mV in response to every oC rise/fall in ambient temperature, i.e., its scale factor is

0.01V/ oC.

Pin Function Name

1 Supply voltage; 5V (+35V to -2V) Vcc
2 Output voltage (+6V to -1V) Output
3 Ground (0V) Ground

• Differential analog voltage inputs

• Logic inputs and outputs meet both MOS and TTL voltage level specifications
• Works with 2.5V (LM336) voltage reference
• On-chip clock generator
• 0V to 5V analog input voltage range with single 5V supply
• No zero adjust required
• 0.3" standard width 20-pin DIP package
• 20-pin molded chip carrier or small outline package
• Operates ratiometrically or with 5 VDC, 2.5 VDC, or analog span adjusted
voltage reference

Analog to digital converters find huge application as an intermediate device to convert

the signals from analog to digital form. These digital signals are used for further
processing by the digital processors. Various sensors like temperature, pressure, force
etc. convert the physical characteristics into electrical signals that are analog in nature.

ADC0804 is a very commonly used 8-bit analog to digital convertor. It is a single

channel IC, i.e., it can take only one analog signal as input. The digital outputs vary from

0 to a maximum of 255. The step size can be adjusted by setting the reference voltage

at pin9. When this pin is not connected, the default reference voltage is the operating

voltage, i.e., Vcc. The step size at 5V is 19.53mV (5V/255), i.e., for every 19.53mV rise

in the analog input, the output varies by 1 unit. To set a particular voltage level as the

reference value, this pin is connected to half the voltage. For example, to set a

reference of 4V (Vref), pin9 is connected to 2V (Vref/2), thereby reducing the step size

to 15.62mV (4V/255).

ADC0804 needs a clock to operate. The time taken to convert the analog value to digital

value is dependent on this clock source. An external clock can be given at the Clock IN

pin. ADC 0804 also has an inbuilt clock which can be used in absence of external clock.
A suitable RC circuit is connected between the Clock IN and Clock R pins to use the

internal clock.

Pin Description:
Pin No Function Name
1 Activates ADC; Active low Chip select
2 Input pin; High to low pulse brings the data from internal Read
registers to the output pins after conversion
3 Input pin; Low to high pulse is given to start the conversion Write
4 Clock Input pin; to give external clock. Clock IN
5 Output pin; Goes low when conversion is complete Interrupt
6 Analog non-inverting input Vin(+)
7 Analog inverting Input; normally ground Vin(-)
8 Ground(0V) Analog Ground
9 Input pin; sets the reference voltage for analog input Vref/2
10 Ground(0V) Digital Ground
11 D7
12 D6
13 D5
14 D4
8 bit digital output pins
15 D3
16 D2
17 D1
18 D0
19 Used with Clock IN pin when internal clock source is used Clock R
20 Supply voltage; 5V Vcc

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide
range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly
used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven segments
and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily
programmable; have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters(unlike
in seven segments), animations and so on.
A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In
this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers,
namely, Command and Data.

The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command

is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its

screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the

data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be

displayed on the LCD.

Key Features:
1. 16x2 LCD Alphanumeric Display
2. Simple serial (1 wire) connection to microcontroller (2400,N,8,1).
3. Optional i2c interface to PICAXE-X parts.
4. 7 Programmable pre-defined messages
5. Small footprint (almost same size as the LCD).
6. Optional low-cost clock upgrade, providing
• Real Time Clock
• Programmable Alarm Output
• 1Hz pulse output
• 10 year battery backup

Pin Description:
Function Name
1 Ground (0V) Ground
2 Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V) Vcc
3 Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor VEE
4 Selects command register when low; and data register when Register Select
5 Low to write to the register; High to read from the register Read/write
6 Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable
7 8-bit data pins DB0
8 DB1
9 DB2
10 DB3
11 DB4
12 DB5
13 DB6
14 DB7
15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+
16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-


The unregulated DC output produced is sensitive to the fluctuations of the input signal. To

stabilize the output DC against the input variations a voltage regulator IC (78XX) is used in

series with the bridge rectifier. XX here denotes the stable voltage level at the output pin of
78XX. To derive a constant 5V output, 7805 is used along with the 6-0-6V, 500mA step down

transformer and rectifier. A capacitor C2 (0.1uF) is used to suppress the oscillations if any

produced in the regulator IC. C2 is generally used when the regulator IC is far from the power

supply filter. Capacitor C4 (35uF) improves the ripple rejection of the regulator by preventing

the ripple voltages from being amplified at the output of the regulator. Capacitor C3 (0.1uF)

stiffens the output voltage and reduces output impedance. A diode D5 (1N4007) is also used to

protect the regulator from damage in case the input gets shorted. If D5 is not provided in the

circuit, the output capacitor can dump its charge instantaneously through low impedance paths

internal to the regulators.


7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage

regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed

voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The

xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7805 provides +5V

regulated power supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input and output pins

depending upon the respective voltage levels.

Pin Description:
Pin Function Name
1 Input voltage (5V-18V) Input
2 Ground (0V) Ground
3 Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V) Output


Capacitor is a passive component used to store charge. The charge (q) stored in a
capacitor is the product of its capacitance (C) value and the voltage (V) applied to it.
Capacitors offer infinite reactance to zero frequency so they are used for blocking DC
components or bypassing the AC signals. The capacitor undergoes through a recursive
cycle of charging and discharging in AC circuits where the voltage and current across it
depends on the RC time constant. For this reason, capacitors are used for smoothing
power supply variations. Other uses include, coupling the various stages of audio
system, tuning in radio circuits etc. These are used to store energy like in a camera

Capacitors may be non-polarized/polarized and fixed/variable. Electrolytic capacitors

are polarized while ceramic and paper capacitors are examples of non polarized

capacitors. Since capacitors store charge, they must be carefully discharged before

troubleshooting the circuits. The maximum voltage rating of the capacitors used must

always be greater than the supply voltage.


1N4001 is a member of 1N400x diodes. Diode is a rectifying device which conducts

only from anode to cathode. Diode behaves open circuited for the current flow from
cathode to anode. 1N4001 is a 1A diode with low forward voltage drop and high surge
current capability. It comprises of diffused PN junction and has low reverse leakage
current of 5µA. Its DC blocking voltage is 50V.

The cathode (n) is identified by a bar on diode case. The other terminal is the anode (p).