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The Anthropology of the Rwala Bedouins.

Author(s): William M. Shanklin


Source: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol.
65 (Jul. - Dec., 1935), pp. 375-390
Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2844067 .
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375

THE ANTHROPOLOGYOF THE RWALA BEDOUINS.


[WITH PLATES XXVII-XXIX.]

By WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN.

(From the Department of Histology, School of Medicine, American University of Beirut,


Beirut, Lebanon (Syria). )

THEArabs dwelling in the vast areas of the Arabian and Syrian deserts have long stirred the
imagination of a number of explorers. Thanks to the efforts of such men as Burckhardt,
Niebuhr, Doughty, Hogarth, Musil and, more recently, Bertram Thomas and Philby, we now
have considerableknowledge concerning the geography of the land and the customs and manners
of the Bedouins of these deserts.
However, our anthropological knowledge of these people is very scanty. Seligman (1917)
collected the scattered data that appeared before that date. Kappers (1931) mile a few
observations on the Bedouins along the Syrian border of the desert, and Shanklin (1934) reported
on the cephalic indices of 791 Transjordanians, most of whom were nomads or semi-nomads,
representing twelve different tribes. Bertram Thomas (1932), in his daring trip across the
Empty Quarter, also secured some measurements. The scanty material available suggests
that the nomad Arabs of the Syrian and Transjordandeserts are dolichocephalic or mesocephalic,
whereas many of those of south Arabia are brachycephalic (Leys and Joyce, 1913; Thomas,
1932).
During the summer of 1934, the writer planned an expedition into the Syrian desert to
make more extended studies on a single tribe of pure Bedouins. Major Glubb (1935) defines
a Bedouin as follows: " The first requisite is that the Bedouin must be a nomad who breeds and
keeps camels, and he must be able to trace his descent from certain recognized pure-bred
Bedouin tribes." The Rwala tribe was made the object of this study because it most completely
fuffils the above requirements and, at the same time, is the largest and most powerful tribe in
the Syrian desert.
HISTORICAL.

The Arabs are traditionally divided into two great branches, the Qahtan, represented by
some of the Yemenite tribes, and the Adnan, found more to the north, especially in the Hejaz
and Syrian deserts.
Accordingto Wuistenfeld(1852) the Adnan branch gave rise to Ma'add, from which we have
Nizar that in turn is divided into two main groups, Modhar and Rabia el-Faras. The strongest
offspring of the latter is the large group of tribes forming the Anazeh nation. Musil (1927, p. 14)
gives the major branches of the Anazeh as Beni Wahab and Al Glas, of which the Rwala are a
VOL. LXV. 2 c
376 of the Rwala Bedouins.
W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology

subdivision. Burckhardt (1831) divided the northern Anazeh into four principal bodies:
Would Aly, el Hessenne, el Besher, and el Raualla, also called el Djelaes. Burckhardt (1831,
p. 9) states that the whole northern Anazeh nation may be estimated at from three hundred to
three hundred and fifty thousand souls, spread over a country of at least forty thousand square
miles. Although the Anazeh to-day are still the dominant group, it is the writer's impression
that the above estimate is entirely too high for the present day.
Being entirely nomadic, the Rwala have never attained to a very high degree of culture
except such as relates to raiding and camel breeding. The customs and manners of the Rwala
have been described by Burckhardt (1831) and Musil (1928).
The Rwala spend the winter, spring, and early summer in the interior of the Syrian desert,
migrating as far south as the Hejaz. In the summer, however, they are forced by the lack of
water to migrate to the wells along the border of the desert, northward almost to the southern
border of Turkey, westward to the desert border cities of Damascus, Homs, the region of the
Hauran, and eastward into the Jezeereh in Iraq.

ANTHROPOLOGICALMETHODS.

All measurements were made with the small-size spreading Martin calipers, the small-size
sliding Martin calipers, and the Martin anthropometer, all of which were purchased from
P. Hermann, Zurich. The measurements taken are based largely on the books on anthropological
technic by Hrdlicka (1920) and Wilder (1920). Also thanks are due to Dr. Henry Field for
practical suggestions regarding field work. The measurements made are listed in the order in
which they were taken: stature, sitting height, head length, greatest head breadth, minimal
frontal diameter, bizygomatic breadth, bigonial breadth, total facial height, upper facial height,
nasal height, nasal breadth, ear height and ear breadth.' In addition to the physical measure-
ments a number of observations was made; 320 blood samples were secured for blood grouping;
palm and finger-prints were taken on 250 subjects; photographs were taken of 75 men in the
frontal and profile views, and 40 hair samples were obtained.
Physical measurements were made on a total of 270 male adults. As the Rwala Arabs
are all Moslem and our party consisted entirely of men, it was impossible to secure any data or
photographs of the women. No measurements were made on boys, the youngest males included
being not less than eighteen years of age.
The Rwala Arabs, like all the desert nomads, are suspicious of all others because Muntilthe
past few years they were continually raiding each other. Furthermore, there was constant
strife between the Rwala and the villagers from whom the nomads collected tribute. Even
after the camps are reached it is very difficult to secure the co-operation of the individual tribes-
men, as each man is very independent. Dlring the first expedition, data were only secured on
80 subjects, after which there were so many obstacles that the party was forced to return to
Beirut. During the latter part of the summer, a more successful expedition was made to
another part of the desert, due to the help of Hussein Bey Ibbish.

1 For definitions see page 382.


W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropologyof the Rwala Bedouins. 377

The writer wishes to express his deep gratitude to the officials of the French High Com-
missariat in Beirut, to Emir An-Nuri Shalan, chief sheikh of the Rwala, and his grandson,
Fawwaz, to Hussein Bey Ibbish, and to his assistants, Dr. Sinnu, Dr. Salameh, and Mr. Tamir
Nassar, for the success of the expedition.

SEROLOGY.

Although the blood-group studies on the Rwala Bedouins are reported in a separate com-
munication, it seems advisable to include a summary of the results in this paper because the
serology of the Rwala suggests that they are a race of great antiquity. The blood-group findings
on the Rwala reveal that most of them belong to group 0, whereas the blood-group studies by
Parr (1931, 1934) show a relatively low percentage of group 0 for many Near East races.
The percentage of group 0 of 320 Rwala from different camps is as follows: camp 1, 79
subjects, 94-94 per cent. group 0; camp 2, 67 subjects, 87-01 per cent. group 0; camp 3,
48 subjects, 92476 per cent. group 0; camp 4, 43 subjects, 72-88 per cent. group 0; camp 5,
30 subjects, 6383 per cent. group 0. The last camp was that of the emir where there are many
former negro slaves and mixed whites, hence the decrease in group 0 can be attibuted to the
negro blood, although persons frankly negro were excluded.
On the basis of serology, the Rwala should be classified with the Pacific-American type of
Snyder (1929, p. 124). The best examples of this type are the American Indians and the
Eskimos. Hrdlicka (1932), on the basis of somatological and archaological evidence, concludes
after many years of research that the American Indian first, and later the Eskimo, had an
Asiatic origin. Snyder (1929, p. 124) says: " It would thus appear that these races (American
Indians and Eskimos) were isolated from the Eurasic continent before either mutation took
place." The writer suggests that the Rwala Bedouins, like the American Indians and Eskimos,
separated from the main stem of the human race before the mutation of agglutinogens A and B,
and hence represent a race of great antiquity that has maintained a high, degree of purity.
Hooton (1930, p. 354), in commenting on the high percentage of group 0 prevailing among the
American Indians, is inclined to believe that both agglutinogens A and B are of comparatively
recent origin, and that perhaps the A agglutinogen did not originate much before the Christian
era.
Parr (Kappers and Parr, 1934, p. 188), in discussing the validity of racial study by blood
typing methods, refers to the fact that blood-group results may be invalidated by in-breeding.
This may be true for a single family such as the one he quotes, or for a very small group like
the Samaritans, a community of some 150 persons all residing in the limited area of one village,
who, during the past 2,000 years, have for religious reasons forbidden intermarriagewith outside
groups. These conditions, however, are in no way comparable with those prevailing among the
Rwala who are a large and widely-spread community. The blood samples quoted in this report
were obtained on individuals scattered over an area 200 miles in length and 150 miles in width.
Hence the high percentage of blood-group 0 is not to be attributed to close in-breeding.
2 c2
378 W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropolojyof the Rwala Bedouins.

DESCRIPTIVE OBSERVATIONS.
Physiognomy.
The Rwala males are a handsome, well-developed, fairly muscular group. The women
are relatively tall and have magnificent erectness of the body due, undoubtedly, to the custom
of carrying heavy jars of water on their heads. The facial features of the males are shown
by the photographs at the end of the text.

Colour of the Skin.


Most of the observations on the colour of the skin were made on exposed parts (due to the
reluctance of the subjects to remove clothing) and without colour standards, and hence are very
unsatisfactory. The colour of the skin was recorded on 100 adult males. Of these, 84 were
classified as light or dark brown and 16 as brunet. No observations were made for Mongolian
spot.

Colour of Hair.
The hair in most cases was found to be brown or black. The colour distribution found
among 105 subjects was as follows: black, 78 (74 3 per cent.) subjects; dark brown, 19 (13 *3
per cent.) subjects; light brown, 12 (11 4 per cent.) subjects; grey, 1 subject. Forty hair
samples were secured and comparedin the laboratory with the Fisher-Saller hair colour standards.
These hair samples had the following distribution: Al, NI, 01, T5, U8, V4, W8, X7, Y2, and
2 were dyed. One sample of a reddish-chocolate colour did not match any of the standards.
Although observations were only recorded on about one-fifth of the total number of Rwala seen,
not a single light-haired or blue-eyed individual was seen. Grey hair was not found except in
the case of men of advanced age; the same is true of baldness.

Characterof the Hair.


Among the Rwala males, the hair is frequently worn in long braids. The form of the hair
is mostly straight. Of a total of I13 subjects, 78 (69.0 per cent.) had straight hair, 27 (23.9
per cent.) low waves, 7 (6.2 per cent.) deep waves, and one curls. The curly hair may be due
to negro blood. It should also be noted that among many of the Rwala males the hair over the
cheeks is rather sparse.

Colourof the Eyes.


Among both the children and male adults, the colour of the eyes is brown. Of 108 observa-
tions, 71 (65. 7 per cent.) were dark brown, 24 (22 . 2 per cent.) greyish brown, 7 (6 . 5 per cent.)
black, 6 (5 6 per cent.) bluish brown. The sclera of 90 individuals showed 74 (82.2 per cent.)
clear, 7 (7. 8 per cent.) yellowish, 5 (5. 6 per cent.) speckled, and 4 (4 4 per cent.) bloodshot.
Those persons having yellowish pigment in the sclera were all seen in the camp of the emir, and
the presence of many negroes in this camp would seem to suggest the probability of an admixture
of negro blood.
W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropologyof the Rwala Bedouins. 379

Eye Slant.
In no case was eye slant noted among any of the Rwala. The Mongolian fold was also
absent, even among the children.

Nasal Form.
The Rwala have high, straight noses, typical of the Semitic race. Of 105 subjects, on which
nose form was recorded, 96 (91 *4 per cent.) were straight, 5 (4-8 per cent.) convex, and 4 (3.8 per
cent.) concave. The nose was compressed in 80 (76.2 per cent.) of the subjects, medium in 23
(21 . 9 per cent.), and flaring in 2 (1. 9 per cent.). The measurements on the Rwala nose confirms
the observations that the nose is long and narrow.

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY.

As practically no measurements (except those on the head) have been previously reported
on the Near East races, the data of this study is reported in two tables without attempting to
correlate it with similar data on other racial groups. The writer is much indebted to -Professor
Faris of this university for his suggestions regarding the statistical treatment of the data.

HEAD MEASUREMENTS.

Thanks to the extensive studies of Professor Kappers (1930-34) and Dr. Krischner and
Mrs. Krischner (1932), we now have data on the cephalic indices of nearly all the Near East
races.
The Rwala Arabs' cephalic indices border between dolichocephalic and mesocephalic,
with an average head length of 191-5 mm. (range, 175-207 mm.), average head breadth of
143 6 mm. (range, 127-159 mm.), and an average cephalic index of 75 0 mm. (range,
67-82 mm.). The traditional high degree of purity of the Rwala tribe is substantiated by the
blood-group findings, i.e. the high percentage of group 0, and further confirmed by a relatively
low coefficient of variation of the head measurements.
Apparently the Arabic-speaking inhabitants of Syria and the Lebanon have had practically
no influence on the racial characteristics of the Rwala Arabs, for when the Rwala frequency
curve (Fig. 1) is compared with the frequency curve of the " desert border population " of
Kappers (1932, IV, Fig. 4), it is seen that the main peak for the latter is at 80 with a very low
peak at 75, whereas the Rwala peak is at 74. The Lebanese living in the mountainous region
are all brachycephalic and hyperbrachycephalic. Some of the cephalic indices o inhabitants
of the Lebanon taken from Kappers and Parr (1934) are: Lebanese (Fig. 11), main peak, 84-86,
lesser peak at 80; Alouites (Fig. 13), peaks range from 82-88, and Druses (Fig. 14), main peak,
85. Neither have the settled inhabitants on the eastern border of the Syrian desert influenced
the characteristics of the Rwala, for the cephalic indices reported by Dr. and Mrs. Krischner
show that the so-called Christian " Arabs " of Mosul (1932, A, Fig. 6) range from 79 to 88 with
the main peak at 84; and the Molim Arabs of Mosul (1932, B, Fig. 2A) range from 73-85 with
the main peaks from 76 to 83.
380 W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology of the Rwala Bedouins.

Although the surrounding settled populations are nearly all brachycephalic, all of the
Bedouins of the Syrian and Transjordaniandeserts appear to be dolichocephalic or mesocephalic.
Among representatives of 12 Transjordanian tribes measured by Shanklin (1934) the lowest
average cephalic index found was 74 2 on 49 members of the Howeitat tribe and the highest
average cephalic index was 78 .2 on 34 members of the Batayyni. Furthermore, the average
cephalic index for 791 Transjordanians (tribesmen and villagers) was found to be 77 3.
It is interesting to note that dolichocephalic and mesocephalic peoples are also found to-day
in all parts of Egypt. This is especially true of Upper Egypt, both at the present day and as
far back as the early predynastic era. Elliot Smith (1910, p. 16) found skulls of the early pre-
dynastic period with an average cranial index of 71 66, and the present population has been
found by Myers (1908), Craig (1911) and Orensteen (1915) to be largely dolichocephalic. Von
Luschan (1911, Fig. 1) also shows that among the Greeks there is a high frequency of dolicho-
cephalism. This is very striking because also among the Greeks on certain of the islands
Kumaris (Kumaris, 1928) found in blood-group studies a high percentage of group 0.
In the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, dolichocephalic peoples have dwelt from early historic
times. The al-'Ubaid skulls described by Sir Arthur Keith (1927), dating from about the fourth
millenium B.C., had an average cranial index of 72 I 6. Buxton and Rice (1931) found that, among
164 living males of the Kish region, the major peak of the frequency curve was 76 with lesser
peaks at 74 and 79.

DISCUSSION.

It is an accepted fact among anthropologists that the so-called Mediterraneanrace at one


time inhabited most of the lands bordering the Mediterranean sea. During the subsequent
years, anthropological, archaeological,and historical studies record successions of invasions of
foreign peoples, so that to-day the original race in Egypt and Palestine is considerably mixed.
Moreover, in the Lebanon mountains and the coastal plain, the long-headed representatives of
the Mediterranean race have been almost completely replaced by brachycephalic peoples.
If we accept the viewpoint of Hooton (1930, p. 354) that agglutinogens A and B are of
relatively recent origin, it is almost certain that the primitive Mediterraneans all belonged to
blood-group 0. It is very probable that after the mutation of agglutinogens A and B these new
factors were carried by invading peoples into the Mediterraneanlands so that to-day the serology
of the Mediterranean peoples is considerably changed. The Rwala Arabs, however, in their
desert retreat have retained the primitive condition and most likely also many of the primitive
physical characteristics of the early Mediterraneans.
The similarity of the blood-grouping between the Rwala Arabs and the American Indians
suggests that both of them were isolated at an early date and that they may have been offshoots
of a common primitive race. In passing, the writer wishes to refer to a monograph by Leesberg
(1903), who maintains there is a striking similarity between the Semitic and American Indian
languages. Hooton (1903, p. 355) calls attention to the fact that skeletons of the lower levels
in most shell heaps of North and South American and other excavations are those of long heads,
whereas the upper levels frequently contain brachycephalics. Hooton also says that the long-
of the Rwala Bedouins.
W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology 381

headed earlier group does not have Mongolian characteristics such as are associated with the
Indians of to-day.
Among the Pecos Indian skeletal remains, Hooton identified seven types, three of which
were dolichocephalic. These three types he named the " basket-maker " type, the " pseudo-
negroid " type and the " pseudo-australoid " type. The " basket-maker " type is of particular
interest to this paper as Hooton demonstrates that they show striking similarities to skeletons
of the Mediterraneanrace.
Hooton (1930, p. 242), after making numerous studies on many South-Western Indian crania,
especially between those of Pecos basket-maker type, Arizona basket-makers, the Coahuila
cave crania, and the Santa Catalina skulls, states: " With two exceptions the differencesbetween
the means of indices of this group of American crania and of the Egyptian crania are less than
the inter-group differences of the American crania." Hooton (p. 346) states, furthermore, that
these craniometric similarities cannot be interpreted as evidence that any group of American
Indians was of Egyptian origin, but rather that both the basket-maker Coahuila and the ancient
Egyptian groups represent divergent offshoots of a common primitive race which may have
sent colonies in many different directions during the neolithic period.
On the basis of similarities of blood-groupingand physical characteristics, the writer suggests
that the earliest American Indians, the Rwala Arabs, and most probably many other Bedouin
tribes of the Syrian desert, had their origin from a common primitive race. The writer does
not suggest any particular region as the place of origin for the IRwalabut wishes to point out
that it is surprising to find such a low nasal index (mean 63 7) which is characteristic of races
living in a cold climate.
Davies (1930, p. 348) says that winter climatic conditions have comparatively little effect
on the nasal index, and he further adds that the nasal index is found to correspondto the summer
climate unless a relatively recent migration has occurred. The Syrian desert is very hot in the
summer, yet the average nasal index of the Rwala is even lower than the N.I. of 64 for Eskimos
given by Davies (1932, p. 348). The nasal index would suggest that at one time the Rwala
dwelt in a much colder climate.

SUMMARY.

Thirteen measurements chiefly of the head and face are reported on 270 adult male Rwala
Bedouins. Observations were made on form and colour of the hair, colour of the eyes, and
nasal form. Blood-group studies reveal a high percentage of blood-group 0. The evidence
indicates that the Rwala represent a race of considerable antiquity, and the suggestion is made
that both the Rwala and the earliest American Indians had their origin from a common
primlitiverace.
Physical measurements reported on 270 adult male Rwala Bedouins show the following
averages: stature, 162 cm.; sitting height, 83 cm.; head length, 191 mm.; head breadth,
144 mm.; minimum frontal diameter, 123 mm.; bizygomatic breadth, 130 mm.; bigonial
breadth, 106 mm.; total facial height, 119 mm.; upper facial height, 70 mm.; nasal height,
55 mm.; nasal breadth, 35 mm.; ear height, 60 mm.; ear breadth, 33 mm. The range of the
382 W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology
of the RwalasBedouins.

cephalic index is from 67 to 82 with an average of 75. The data are reported in tabular form
with the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and their probable errors.
Observations reveal that the Rwala are white but have brown or brunet skin, straight
black or brown hair, brown eyes, and high, straight, narrow noses.
Blood-group studies on 320 Rwala show a very high percentage of group 0 subjects, the
purer camps ranging above 80 per cent.
The serology and physical measurements give evidence that the Rwala Bedouins are a
race of considerable antiquity, and the suggestion is made that both the Rwala and the earliest
American Indians had their origin from a common primitive race.

LIST OF DEFINITIONS.

1. Stature-Measured by Martin anthropometer, subject standing without shoes or sandals (stockings are
not worn).
2. Sitting height-Subject seated on stool 50 cm. high, and sitting erect. Height of stool was deducted.
3. Head length-Maximum glabello-occipitallength.
4. Head breadth-Greatest transverse diameter.
5. Minimalfrontal diameter-Minimal distance between the two temporal crests.
6. Bizygomatic breadth-Most widely separated points on the zygomatic arches.
7. Bigonal breadth-Distance between the two angles of the jaws.
8. Total facial height-Lowest point of chin to the nasion.
9. Upper facial height-From prosthion to the nasion.
10. Nasal height-From lower border of the nasal septum to the nasion.

Most of the indices are taken from Wilder, 1920, A LaboratoryManual of Anthropometry,p' 62-

head breadth x 100.


1. Cephalicindex hedlegh
head length.

2. Sitting height index = sitting height X 100.

total facial height x 100.


3. Total facial index = bzgmtcbedh
bizygomatic breadth.
nasion-prosthionline x 100.
4. Superiorfacial index: = bzgmtcbedh
* breadth.
~~~~~~~~~bizygomatic
nasion-prosthionline x 100.
iminmum frontal diameter.
minimum frontal diameter X 100.
6. Zygomatico-frontalindex = bimygomaticbeth.
bizygomatic breadth.

7. Zygomatico-mandibularindex =
bigonial breadth x 100.
blzygomatic breadth.
bizygomatic
bi breadth X 100.
8. Tcansverse craniofacialindex head breadth.
head breadth.
so W. M. SHANKLTN.-Anthropology of the Rwalca Bedouins. 383
45
49
47
46'
45

41
4.0
3,
36
37
36
35
34
33
32
.31
30
(J29

C287

25
24
23
22
21
-20
Is
Is
47
16

16

13

7
l ,

01 68 82
384 W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology
of the Rwala Bedouins.

TABLE I.-Anthropometric Data on 270 Adult Rwala Males.

The numbers listed below represent the mid-interval: the actual range is 140X5-142X49, 142X5-
144 49, etc.

Standing Height. Sitting Height. Head Length. Head Breadth.


* ~~~~~I~ I_
Range Range Range Range
in cm. Frequency in cm. Frequency. in mm. Frequency in mm. Frequency.

.I
141 5 1 69X5 1 175X5 1 127 5 1
143X5 2 71X5 4 177X5 0 129-5 1
145X5 2 73.5 1 179-5 7 131X5 1
147X5 3 75X5 10 181X5 6 133X5 3
149 5 4 77 5 21 183 5 14 135X5 10
151X5 7 79*5 43 185X5 29 137X5 25
153X5 16 81X5 41 187X5 17 139X5 37
155X5 16 83X5 56 189X5 47 141X5 35
157X5 31 85X5 53 191X5 34 143X5 38
159X5 29 87X5 26 193X5 41 145X5 43
161*5 21 89*5 7 195X5 27 147 5 32
163X5 44 91X5 6 197X5 18 149X5 24
165X5 34 93*5 0 199X5 9 151X5 6
167X5 19 95.5 1 201X5 10 153X5 11
169X5 22 203X5 5 155X5 2
171X5 6 205X5 4 157X5 0
17355 6 207-5 1 159-5 1
175-5 3
177*5 3
179-5 0
181-5 0
183-5 0
185-5 1

M 161*892 i *271 M 82X686 i *165 M 191X478i 234 M 143*633 i *205


SD 6*612 ? *192 SD 4X014 ? *117 SD 5X710 i *166 SD 4X996 ? *145
V 4*08 + *119 V 4*85 ? *141 V 2X98 ? 087 V 3*48 + *101
W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology of the Rwala Bedouins. 385

TABLE 1-(continued).

MinimumFrontal Bizygomatic Total Facial Upper Facial


Diameter. Breadth. Height. Height.
Range F Range F Range F Range F
in mm. nFrequency. mm. nFrequency. mm. Frequency. in mm. Frequency.

93*5 1 113X5 1 101X5 5 51X5 1


95 5 2 115X5 2 103X5 4 53X5 0
97*5 2 117X5 4 105.5 5 55*{ 0
99 5 10 119X5 5 107X5 6 57X5 3
101X5 11 121X5 13 109X5 14 59.5 2
103X5 15 123X5 18 111X5 18 61 5 11
105X5 22 125X5 30 113X5 18 63X5 19
107X5 22 127X5 26 115X5 22 65 5 27
109X5 45 129X5 42 117X5 30 67X5 37
111X5 30 131X5 47 119X5 33 69X5 43
113X5 30 133X5 29 121X5 22 71X5 45
115X5 31 135X5 27 123X5 23 73X5 39
117X5 15 137X5 15 125X5 29 75-5 22
119X5 9 139X5 2 127X5 13 77X5 8
121X5 9 141X5 7 129X5 10 79*5 8
123X5 4 143X5 1 131 5 13 81 5 1
125X5 3 145X5 1 133X5 1 83X5 4
127X5 1 135X5 2
129X5 3 13755 1
139-5 0
141-5 1

M 110X98 i *270 M 129 87 i *223 M 119X204i *323 M 69X988 i *204


SD 6X56 i *191 SD 5X442 i *158 SD 7 418 i *215 SD 4X980 i *145
CV 5X92 i *172 CV 4X19 i *122 CV 6X22 i *181 CV 7*12 i *208

Nasal Height. Nasal Breadth. Ear Height. Ear Breadth.


Range Range Range Range
in mm. Frequency. in mm. Frequency. in mm. Frequency. in mm. Frequency

41-5 1 27X5 1 51X5 3 23X5 1


43X5 0 29X5 5 53X5 18 25X5 4
45.5 5 31X5 38 55X5 23 27X5 12
47.5 5 33X5 66 57X5 46 29X5 32
49 5 24 35X5 93 59.5 52 31X5 73
51X5 32 37X5 43 61X5 49 33.5 59
53X5 41 39.5 21 63X5 30 35X5 57
55X5 62 41 5 3 65X5 34 37 5 20
57X5 50 67X5 6 39*5 7
59.5 33 69X5 5 41X5 3
61X5 10 71-5 0 43X5 1
63*5 5 73X5 3 45X5 0
65-5 2 75 5 0 47*5 1
77.-5 1

M 55-1O8 ? *16J) M 35 002 ? *102 M 60*478 ? *174 M 33-115 i *133


SD 3-908 i *133 SD 2-484 ? *721 SD 4 229 i *123 SD 3 242 ? *941
V 7 09 i *207 V 7-06 ? *206 V 6*99 ? *204 V 9.79 i *287
386 W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropologyof the Rwala Bedouins.

TABLE I -(continued).

Bigonal. Sitting Height Index. CephalicIndex. Total Facial Index.

Range Range Range Range |


in mm. Frequency in per cent. Frequency. in per cent. Frequency in per cent. Frequency.

91*5 7 44 1 67 1 75 1
93.5 4 45 1 68 1 76 0
95*5 7 46 0 69 4 77 0
97 5 8 47 2 70 3 78 0
99*5 25 48 8 71 12 79 3
101 5 33 49 32 72 20 80 1
103*5 30 50 54 73 34 81 4
105*5 48 51 59 74 46 82 4
107*5 28 52 61 75 34 83 6
109*5 29 53 38 76 37 84 6
111*5 21 54 9 77 35 85 15
113*5 11 55 2 78 22 86 6
115*5 4 56 1 79 9 87 17
117*5 9 57 0 80 7 88 13
119*5 2 58 1 81 3 89 18
121*5 3 59 0 82 2 90 17
123*5 0 60 1 91 22
125*5 1 92 23
93 14
94 13
95 15
96 19
97 13
98 11
99 8
100 10
101 2
102 4
103 2
104 1
105 0
106 0
107 1
108 0
109 1

M 105*530 ? *250 I ? 073


M 51111 M 75 000 ? *103 M 91*667 ? 227
SD 6*086 + *177 SD 1773 ? *515 SD 2*499 ? *160 SD 5*518 + *725
V 5*77 + 168 j V 3*47 ? *101 V 3*33 ? 097 V 6*02 ? *175
of the Rwala-Bedouins.
W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology 387

TABLE I-(continued).

Superior Upper Zygomatico- Zygomatico-


Facial Index. Facial Index. Frontal Index. MandibularIndex.

Range Range Range Range


in per cent. Frequency. in per cent. Frequency. in per cent. Frequency. in per cent. Frequency

49 1 41 1 72 1 72 2
50 4 42 0 73 1 73 2
51 1 43 1 74 1 74 9
52 1 44 0 75 0 75 1
53 5 45 4 76 3 76 10
54 4 46 5 77 3 77 17
55 5 47 1 78 5 78 15
56 9 48 6 79 10 79 20
57 8 49 7 80 11 80 25
58 13 50 24 81 17 81 37
59 13 51 18 82 21 82 30
60 19 52 26 83 18 83 31
61 25 53 34 84 35 84 22
62 17 54 26 85 37 85 16
63 24 55 27 86 33 86 9
64 15 56 25 87 17 87 11
65 19 57 17 88 16 88 5
66 15 58 10 89 22 89 1
67 11 59 13 90 6 90 1
68 10 60 14 91 7 91 2
69 9 61 7 92 3 92 3
70 12 62 1 93 0 93 0
71 12 63 2 94 1 94 1
72 7 64 0 95 0
73 4 65 0 96 0
74 2 66 1 97 1
75 1 98 1
76 1
77 0
78 3

M 63 020 ? *219 M 53 963 ? *153 M 85 60 ? *154 M 81 445 i *155


SD 5 330 ? *155 SD 3 868 ? *112 SD 3 76 ? *109 SD 3-755 ? *110
V 8-45 ? *247 V 7*17 ? *209 V 4.39 ? *128 V 4-63 ? *135

The terms total facial index, upper facial index, and superior facial index have caused considerable
confusionin the literature, hence are definedas used in this paper:

Total facial height = Total facial index.


Bizygomatic breadth
Upper facial height = Upper facial index.
Bizygomatic breadth
Upper faciaj height . . .
=
Minimumfrontal diameter
Bizygomatic breadth
Head breadth = Transversecrani-facial index.
388 W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology of the Rwala Bedouins.

TABLE I-(continued).

TransverseCranio-FacialIndex. Nasal Index. Ear Index.

Range F Range F Range F


in per cent. Frequency. in per cent. Frequency. in per cent. Frequency.

79 1 52 2 39 1
80 1 53 4 40 1
81 1 54 5 41 0
82 2 55 8 42 2
83 2 56 8 43 4
84 7 57 11 44 0
85 7 58 12 45 3
86 9 59 19 46 3
87 17 60 15 47 5
88 26 61 13 48 14
89 23 62 13 49 8
90 36 63 19 50 9
91 30 64 28 51 9
92 29 65 23 52 29
93 31 66 15 53 24
94 20 67 16 54 15
95 12 68 6 55 24
96 11 69 15 56 19
97 0 70 7 57 18
98 2 71 5 58 13
99 1 72 6 59 15
100 2 73 4 .60 10
74 1 61 8
75 4 62 13
76 4 63 7
77 1 64 4
78 4 65 5
79 0 66 4
80 1 67 1
81 0 68 1
82 0 69 0
83 0 70 0
84 1 71 0
72 0
73 1

M 90*493 -*141 M 63*726 -*236 M 54*974 E *222


SD 3 *423 -*994 SD 5* 760 -*167 SD 5*439 : *354
V 3-78 E *110 V 9*03 -*264 V 9*89 *290
W. M. SHANKLIN.-Anthropology
of the Rwala Bedouins. 389

TABLE II.-Summary of AnthropometricData of 270 Rwala.

Coefficientof
Standard
Mean. Standard Variation in
1 1 Denation, ] per cent.

Standing Height ... ... ... 161-892 ? 271 cm. 6-612 ? *192 4-08 ? *119
Sitting Height ... ... ... ... 82-686 ? *165 cm. 4-014 j *117 4-85 j *141
Head Length ... ... ... ... 191*478 ? 234 mm. 5 710 ? *166 2*98 ? *087
Read Breadth ... ... ... ... 143 633 t *205 mm. 4 996 ? *145 3*48 -*101
MinimumFrontal Diameter ... ... 110*98 f 270 mm. 6*56 *191 5*92 f *172
Bizygomatic Breadth ... ... ... 129-870 f
223 mm. 5-442 r *158 4-19 ? *122
Total Facial ieight ... ... ... 119*204 f
323 mm. 7*418 ? *215 6*22 f *181
Upper Facial Height ... ... ... 69 988 ?
*204 mm. 4 980 -*145 7*12 -*208
NasalHeight ... ... ... ... 55-108 ?
*160 mm. 3-908 ? *113 7 09 -*207
Nasal Breadth ... ... ... ... 35*002 ?
*102 mm. 2*484 ? *072 7*06 *206
-
Ear Height ... ... ... ... 60*478 ?
*174 mm. 4 229 f *123 6 99 f *204
Ear Breadth ... ... ... ... 33d115
i 133 mm. 3-242 A 094 9.79 ? *287
Bigonial Breadth ... ... ... 105 530 f *250 mm. 6-086 f *177 5.77 *168
Sitting Height Index ... ... ... ? 073 per cent.
51*111 1 *773 E *052 3*47 -*101
Cephalic Index ... ... ... ... ? *103 per cent.
75 000 2-499 ? *073 3.33 ? 097
Total Facial Index ... ... ... ? *227 per cent.
91.667 5-518 ? *160 6-02 -*175
Superior Facial Index ... ... ... ? 219 per cent.
63 020 5 330 ? *155 8 45 ? *247
UpperFacialIndex ... ... ... ? *153percent.
53-963 3-868 ? *112 7-17 ? *209
Zygomatico-FrontalIndex ... ... 85*60 ? *154 per cent. 3 76 ? *109 4.39 ? *128
Zygomatico-MandibularIndex... ... 81.445 ? *155per cent. 3.765 ? *110 4-63 ? *135
TransverseCranio-FacialIndex ... 90 493 ? *141per cent. 3 423 ? 099 3 78 ? *110
Nasal Index ... ... ... ... 63*726 ? *236 per cent. 5*760 ? *167 9*03 j *264
Ear Index ... ... ... ... 54.974 ? *222 per cent. 5*439 ? *157 9*89 ? *290

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Journal of the Royal AnthropologicalInstitute, Vol. LXV, 1935, Plate XXVII.

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