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# AP Physics C Exam Review #1: Kinematics & Newton’s Laws

## One Dimensional Motion

• Given a graph of position, velocity, or acceleration versus time, be able to describe the motion of an
object, and sketch graphs of the other two quantities.
o If velocity is constant, then the change in the position is constant and acceleration is zero
o If velocity is positive and increasing, then change in position is exponentially increasing, and
acceleration is positive

• Given a function of position, velocity, or acceleration in terms of time, be able to determine the
functions of the other two quantities
d d
v (t ) = x (t ) a (t ) = v(t ) x(t ) = ∫ v (t )dt v(t ) = ∫ a(t )dt
dt dt

## • Constant Acceleration Equations

1 1
∆x = vi t + at 2 ∆x = (vi + v f )t v 2f = vi2 + 2a∆x v f = vi + at
2 2

## Two Dimensional Motion

• NEVER do calculations with the overall velocity of a projectile, ALWAYS resolve into components and
use 1-D motion relationships from above
vx = v0 cos θ v0 y = v0 sin θ

• Time of flight depends on the y-component of the motion, unless you are trying to find a height at a
given distance
1 1
∆y = v0 y t + gt 2 ∆y = (v0 y + v f )t v 2fy = v02y + 2 g ∆y v fy = v0 y + gt
2 2
Newton’s Laws of Motion (Forces)

## Newton’s 1st Law

• Objects in motion want to continue to remain in straight-line motion, and objects at rest want to remain
at rest
• The Law of Inertia

## Newton’s 2nd Law

• The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to the object, and inversely
proportional to the mass of the object
• F = ma

Summation Equations
• When forces act upon an object, the sum of these forces must be added as vectors because force is a
vector quantity
• These equations will represent either the vertical or the horizontal, and only will be at an angle if we are
discussing “blocks on ramps”
• The sum of the equations will always be either ma (from Newton’s 2nd law) or 0, if the object is at
equilibrium

Equilibrium
• When the net force acting upon and object is 0, the object is said to be at equilibrium.
• Two types of equilibrium:
o Static
 Object remains at rest
o Kinetic
 Object moves at a constant velocity

Constant Forces
• When a constant force is applied to an object, the object will be accelerating at a constant rate

F = ma
Variable Forces
• As you remember from the discussion of momentum last semester, the integral of a variable force over
time is equal to the impulse experienced by the object

J = m∆v = ∫ F (t )dt

• Therefore, if you want to determine the change in the object’s velocity, simple divide the impulse by the
object’s mass. SIMPLE!!!

Frictional Forces
• Frictional forces always oppose the direction of an object’s motion
• The frictional force between an object and the surface it rests upon is equal to the product of the
coefficient of friction and the normal force of the object

Ff = µ FN
• Static Friction
o The friction that must be overcome for an object to begin motion
o The coefficient of static friction is used
o When one is asked to determine the coefficient of static friction, set the applied force equal to the
friction equation and solve for µ S

Fapp = µs FN
• Kinetic Friction
o The friction that opposes an object sliding
o The coefficient of kinetic friction is used

Blocks on Ramps
• When a block is placed on a ramp, its tendency is to accelerate down the ramp at a fraction of gravity
• If you’ll remember from all of your studies of blocks on ramps, you should label the diagram with all of
the following forces
o Parallel force ( FII = mg sin θ )
o Gravitational force ( FG = mg )
o Normal force ( FN = mg cos θ )
o Frictional force, if present ( Ff = µ FN )

## Newton’s 3rd Law

• For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
• FORCE PAIRS!!!
• Especially important when dealing with blocks stacked on each other where friction is present
o The force of friction is the SAME between the two

## Two or More Objects Connected

• When objects are connected via a massless or light rope, the objects will accelerate at the same rate, and
the tension force present on the rope is constant throughout
• If connected over a frictionless, massless pulley, no torque must be taken into account
• Use parallel equations and either add or use substitution to solve for the unknown needed, usually
acceleration or tension force