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DRAFT OF FIELD WORK PROPOSAL

IN MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


INSTITUTE
Integrated Pest and Disease Management System in Tropical Fruits

THE CONSTRAINTS IN TROPICAL FRUITS PESTS AND DISEASES


MANAGEMENT FOR EXPORT QUALITY

by

JATU BARMAWATI
08/270191/PN/11481

PLANT PROTECTION DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE
GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2011
LEGITIMATION PAGE
FIELD WORK PROPOSAL

IN MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


INSTITUTE
Integrated Pest and Disease Management System in Tropical Fruits

THE CONSTRAINTS IN TROPICAL FRUITS PESTS AND DISEASES


MANAGEMENT FOR EXPORT QUALITY

Created by

Name : Jatu Barmawati


NIM : 08/270191/PN/11481

Known by,

Academic Committe Adviser Lecturer

( Dr. Ir. Sri Sulandari, S.U. ) ( Suputa, SP., MP. )


Date : Date :

Head of Plant Protection Department

( Prof. Dr. Ir. Y. Andi Trisyono, M.Sc. )


Date :
FIELD WORK PROPOSAL
IN MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
INSTITUTE

Integrated Pest and Disease Management System in Tropical Fruits

THE CONSTRAINTS IN TROPICAL FRUITS PESTS AND DISEASES


MANAGEMENT FOR EXPORT QUALITY

I. BACKGROUND
A. General
Free trade opens the opportunities for any other country to be competitive
in marketing their products, one of it is agriculture products. The development in
the agricultural sector is the most important to do because agriculture is not only
as a source of income for the family but also the historically value of agriculture
has been considered as a way of Indonesian people life. According to Agricultural
statistic in, efforts had been made to attain the state of high agriculture
competitiveness from existing comparative advantages. In its development,
however, the government has ordered the development priority to food crops in
the first category, and other such as horticulture, estate crops, and live stock is the
next priority. Contribution of fruit crops including horticultural GDP was
amounted to 52%, while the others were 18%, 16%, and 14%, respectively for
estate crops, fisheries, and livestock. That’s mean the prospect of horticulture
crops will be increase as soon as the market liberalitation era.
As one of the source of vitamins which are needed by our body, fruits has
great demand by the public. The Fruits contain many vitamins, minerals, proteins,
and also an antioxidant that can prevent the aging of the cells until death on tissue.
Therefore, the benefits of fruits are very important for our health, even mentioned
in the Qur'an surah An-Nahl (69) that “Eat all of the types of fruits and follow the
road that easier for you, from inside of the bees stomach out various honey which
can healing the humans. Surely it is a sign of the greatness of God for the
thinking people.” Thats why the fruits has a lot of benefits beside its
characteristics and unique flavor and not much known its usefulness. Therefore,
the prospect cultivation of tropical fruit is extremely good for Indonesian
agriculture.
Located at the 6°LU-11°LS, dan 95°BT-141°BT position, Indonesia has wet
tropical climate which very favorable for the growth of fruit crops because of
every degree of BT causes the differences flowering time and fruiting season so
the variety of fruit can be available along the the year. East Malaysia is in 1ºLU-
7ºLU and 100º40’BT-119ºBT potition. West Malaysia 1ºLU-7ºLU dan 100ºBT-
104º02’BT with average Rainfall 2.540 mm/year and the average temperature is
27ºC. The rainy season occurs from November to March. The dry season occurs
from June to early September.
The synthesized information on tropical fruits and nuts for South-East
Asia enumerates 120 major and 275 minor species (Verheij and Coronel 1992).
More important fruit crop diversity belongs to about 30 families and 59 genera.
Overall, this diversity of cultivated and wild types is better represented in South-
East Asia and South Asia than in East Asia. The number of wild species variety
depending on their ecology, and most of these occur in seasonal or evergreen
forests; the cultivated diversity being mainly distributed in the humid
tropical/subtropical climates.
Efforts always conducted to develop new export products and to improve
the quality of export products with to improved product quality. To gain the
market trust, required some efforts to set the quality requirements and packing
methods also in some export products added to the certificate that guarantees its
product quality. Also sought contact with the market and consumers for the
presentation of their products can be customized to requirements put forward by
the overseas buyers (Siswopurtanto, 1976). There are some factors that can
Influencing the global market potential for tropical fruit are quantity and
consistency of supply, for quality and production standars, shel life and post
harvest technologies, and also logistic limitation.

Field work is one of compulsory subjects that must be attended by every


student as a graduation requirements. By a field work activities, students are
expected to understand how the knowledge which had been get in college applied
in the field. Moreover, field work can provide a work experience, increase and
expand the knowledge so the students can independently able to go directly to the
field to solve problems which arise related to the agricultural sector, especially in
the field of knowledge of pests and plant diseases.

B. Specific
By 2015, the target countries in Southeast Asia is to reach the AEC
(ASEAN Economic Community) which the aims are improve the intra and extra
ASEAN trade in order to strengthen the global competitiveness of ASEAN
countries in the world trade map. For that, the required readiness of each country
to be able to deal with this reality, so, there were no gaps and is reached economic
growth and stability. To reach that, the countries in ASEAN should have the
strategy for improving their economical skills. The strategy include protection the
domestic market, strengthening of global competitiveness, and strengthening
export.
Circulation of export-import prioritize the quality standards in terms of
quality and quantity. In this case, fresh products like fruits are very susceptible to
deterioration. The Agency for Agricultural Quarantine of Indonesia as the SPS
Secretariat and in its function in the task of providing plant health insurance
(Phytosanitary Certification) to the parameters to achieve the harmonization of
trade, so that ISPM standard compliance is mandatory followed by IPPC member
countries. In the face of regional trade in ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement, it
is expected to unite ASEAN region in determining policy for the implementation
of SPS measures, especially to guard against the marketing of agricultural
products of both regions of mutual benefit. Other tropical fruits requested are
avocados and lansium to China, and mangosteen to Australia must be prepared
with both technical and refers to the importing country risk analysis(Anonyms,
2009).
Almost 400 species of edible fruits and nuts are identified and used either
commonly or in a limited way in different countries of South-East Asia. Nearly
90% of them are woody plants including 250 tree species that mostly produce
fleshy fruits, many of them with recalcitrant seeds. Among the tree species, only
about 35% are cultivated in home gardens, around the villages, orchards or
plantations and the remaining 65% are in the wild. Nevertheless, the fruits from
the forest trees are regularly collected, sold and used. The commonly cultivated
species are about 20 in number. Fruits play an important role in the Asian society
especially among the rural people. Besides meeting dietary needs, fruits are used
for traditional and cultural uses like offering in temples, ceremonies, giving
presents, for new years greetings, weddings, decorations and others. Many species
of fruits, wild or cultivated, have medicinal value (Burkill 1966; Verheij and
Coronel 1992).
Most fruits crops are usually attacked by a few (1-3) key pest, several
secondary pest, and a large number of occasional of minor pest whose identities
may vary depending on geographical region(Quilici, 2002). However, demand
for tropical fruit products is rapidly increasing in key consumer markets such
as Japan, the European Union and the Middle East. The biggest challenges for
Indonesian producers include maintaining fruit quality, gaining good market
access and keeping supply chains moving quickly so that fruit does not
deteriorate.
The increase in area alone cannot maximise the yields unless and until per
unit area production is increased. It is possible only through the development of
high yielding varieties and the knowledge about the factors responsible for the
crop losses. Among these factors, plant diseases specially fungal diseases, play a
major role in reducing yields of horticultural crops in the tropics. It is estimated
that the production could be increased atleast by 28% if the crop could be
protected against various diseases. Many a time, most of the diseases lead to the
complete crop failure if it is not checked in time. Many of these diseases are
transmitted through the planting material. The phenology of fruit crops which are
perennial is different from other field crops which are seasonal in nature and
hence the pathogens keep on perpetuating on the plant itself in fruit crops.
Further, the knowledge about etiology and epidemiology of diseases is most
important which would help in profitable cultivation of fruit crops and the
measures adopted thus, in turn, will improve the economy(Rawal, 1990).
Tropical fruit crops provide a relatively stable environment over many
years, offering continuing habitats for both pest and natural enemies, and
providing opportunities for biological control and effective pest management
programs. Any attempt to develop integrated control programs in fruit crops must
take into account the following: (1) knowledge of native or resident arthrophod
fauna, (2) arthrophod fauna affecting the tree crop in its area of origin or
domestication, and (3) presence of natural enemies. The basis of integrated pest
management includes the pest biology and ecology, sampling and monitoring
techniques, economic thresholds and the application of management
tactics( Capinera, 2008).
II. PURPOSE
A. General
1. To obtain a relation in realistic picture, about the
implementation / application of knowledge or theory that has been gained in
college and compare it with the real conditions in the field
2. To develop mindset and sensitivity to solve the
problems that arise in an activity and and directly involved in agricultural
activities
3. To get the knowledge and experience that opens
wider insight of thinking about science that has been occupied.
4. To learn, trained, and share the experiences in
establishing partnership among the countries.
5. To get skills in dealing with the public community
and the work environment after completing the education.
B. Specific
1. To get the knowledge about the method of
cultivation in plantations of tropical fruit exports scale starting from breeding
to post-harvest.
2. Find out the constraints that appear in the plant
cultivation of tropical fruits and try to learn to find solutions to solve these
problems.
3. To get knowledge about the integrated pest
management system on tropical fruit plantations.
4. To add the knowledge on using latest technology in
the pests and diseases management which exist in tropical fruit plantations.
III. THE PROBLEMS THAT WE WANT TO STUDY
A. General
1. History and background of the establishment of MARDI(Malaysian
Agricultural Research and Development Institute)
2. Physical conditions and topography in MARDI
3. Pest management techniques on a plantations of tropical fruit exports
B. Spesific
1. The constraints that appear in the cultivation of tropical fruit from pre-to
post-harvest crop mainly the problem of pests and diseases.
2. Effort of handling pests and diseases of tropical fruit plantations in an
integrated ways.
IV. IMPLEMENTATION METHOD
A. Indirect Methods
Collecting secondary data concerning :
1. History and background of the establishment of MARDI
2. Physical conditions and topography in MARDI
3. Collecting information about the integrated pest management system
conducted by MARDI
B. Direct Methods
1. Collecting the data about some problems in pests and diseases
management that appear in the cultivation of tropical fruit..
2. Berpartisipasi aktif dalam seluruh kegiatan lapangan dan melakukan
inventarisasi hama dan penyakit yang ada pada perkebunan buah tropis.
V. LOCATION AND TIME OF EXECUTION

A. Location
Field work will be conducted at MARDI.
B. Time of execution
The work field will be held from the 4th till 30th July 2011..

C. Schedule
1st Week : Orientation, data gathering, and follow the activities of
tropical fruit cultivation
2nd Week : Participate and follow the activities of maintaining,
management and inventory of pests and diseases in
tropical fruit plantations.
3rd Week : Following the post-harvest management activities and
inventory of post harvest pests.
4th Week : Evaluate the data and making temporary reports.
VI. CLOSING
Thus proposal is made truthfully with the hope to give a brief overview and
clear about the purpose and the aims for the work field in MARDI, it is my hope
to be able to carry out Field Work in MARDI.
For the help and partnership of all stakeholders, I said thank you very much.
APPENDIX
SCHEDULE OF FIELD WORK
IN MALAYSIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
INSTITUTE

The following table is the planning timetables of Field Work as


consideration for the implementation of Field Work at MARDI (Malaysian
Agricultural Research Development Institute).

Plan Field Work schedule :

No. Activities Week


I II III IV
1 Orientation 
2 Data gathering 
3 Inventaritation  
4 Cultivation and maintenance  
5 Post-harvest management activities 
6 Data evaluation 
7 Making temporary reports 
.
REFERENCES
Capinera, J.L. 2008. Encyclopedia of Entomology 2nd Edition. Springer. USA.
Anonyms, 2009. ASEAN Workshop on Harmonizing of SPS Measures
Implementation. http://karantina.deptan.go.id/eng/index.php?link=read&id=214
Quilici, S. 2002. Fruit Crop Perst Management (Insects and Mites). Encyclopedia
of Pest Management. Marcel Dekker Inc.
Verheij, E.W.M. and R. E. Coronel. (eds.). 1992. Plant Resources of South-East
Asia. No.2. Edible Fruits and Nuts. PROSEA, Bogor, Indonesia.
Burkill, I.H. 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of Malay Peninsula.
Ministry of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Dicky. 2009. Malaysia. http://jackdics.wordpress.com/makalah/malaysia/
Rawal, R.D. 1990. Fungal and bacterial diseases of fruits. A decade of research on
diseases of horticultural crops under AICRP (1980-1989). Group discussion of
plant pahtologists working in the co-ordinated project of horticultural crops held
at IIHR, Bangalore during 14-15 June 1990.