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REAZIONE AL FUOCO

Focus sulla misura S.1


del Codice di prevenzione incendi
• REAZIONE AL FUOCO

REAZIONE AL FUOCO
2021

Inail - Direzione centrale pianificazione e comunicazione


Edizione 2021

piazzale Giulio Pastore, 6 - 00144 Roma


dcpianificazione-comunicazione@inail.it COLLANA RICERCHE
www.inail.it ISBN 978-88-7484-692-4
REAZIONE AL FUOCO

Focus sulla misura S.1


del Codice di prevenzione incendi
• REAZIONE AL FUOCO

2021
Pubblicazione realizzata da

Inail
Dipartimento innovazioni tecnologiche
e sicurezza degli impianti, prodotti e insediamenti antropici

Responsabili scientifici
Raffaele Sabatino1, Mara Lombardi2, Stefano Marsella3, Gaetano Fede4

Autori
Raffaele Sabatino1, Mara Lombardi2, Piergiacomo Cancelliere3, Marcello Lombardini3, Andrea Marino3,
Fabio Mazzarella3, Luca Ponticelli3, Sergio Schiaroli3, Andrea Bosco4, Chiara Crosti4, Marco Di Felice4,
Mauro Galvan4, Roberto Orvieto4, Giombattista Traina5, Vincenzo Cascioli6, Filippo Cosi7
1
Inail, Dipartimento innovazioni tecnologiche e sicurezza degli impianti, prodotti e insediamenti antropici
2
“Sapienza” Università di Roma - DICMA
3
Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco
4
Consiglio Nazionale degli Ingegneri
5
Istituto Giordano
6
Libero professionista - iscritto all’Ordine degli Ingegneri della provincia di Terni
7
Libero professionista - iscritto all’Ordine degli Ingegneri della provincia di Torino

per informazioni
Inail - Dipartimento innovazioni tecnologiche
e sicurezza degli impianti, prodotti e insediamenti antropici
via Roberto Ferruzzi, 38/40 - 00143 Roma
dit@inail.it
www.inail.it

© 2021 Inail

ISBN 978-88-7484-692-4

Gli autori hanno la piena responsabilità delle opinioni espresse nella pubblicazione, che non vanno intese come posizioni
ufficiali dell’Inail.
Le pubblicazioni vengono distribuite gratuitamente e ne è quindi vietata la vendita nonché la riproduzione con qualsiasi
mezzo. È consentita solo la citazione con l’indicazione della fonte.

Tipolitografia Inail - Milano, maggio 2021


La presente pubblicazione è il risultato della collaborazione
tra Inail, Sapienza Università di Roma, Corpo Nazionale
dei Vigili del Fuoco e Consiglio Nazionale degli Ingegneri
nell’ambito dei progetti previsti nel Piano delle attività di ricerca
dell’Inail per il triennio 2019/2021
Indice

Prefazione 9

1. Obiettivi 11

2. Introduzione 12

3. Le soluzioni fornite dal Codice - la misura antincendio S.1 13


S.1.1 Premessa 13
S.1.2 Livelli di prestazione 13
S.1.3 Criteri di attribuzione dei livelli di prestazione 13
S.1.4 Soluzioni progettuali 14
S.1.4.1 Soluzioni conformi per il livello di prestazione II 14
S.1.4.2 Soluzioni conformi per il livello di prestazione III 14
S.1.4.3 Soluzioni conformi per il livello di prestazione IV 14
S.1.4.4 Soluzioni alternative 14
S.1.5 Classificazione dei materiali in gruppi 14
S.1.8 Esclusione dalla verifica dei requisiti di reazione al fuoco 16
S.1.8 Riferimenti 17

Osservazioni 18

La reazione al fuoco nelle nuove RTV 19

Classi di reazione al fuoco dei materiali in funzione dell’attività e del luogo di posa 21

4. La misura antincendio reazione al fuoco 22

5. La classificazione al fuoco dei materiali 29

Il Regolamento Prodotti da Costruzione 29


Classificazione di reazione al fuoco 30
Omologazioni, estensioni, ulteriori omologazioni e rinnovi 31
Certificazione di materiali e prodotti nel settore della reazione al fuoco 31

Caso studio 1: edificio storico adibito ad attività scolastica 33

Descrizione 33

Dati salienti e attribuzione dei livelli di prestazione: 33

Contestualizzazione dell’attività in relazione alla prevenzione incendi 35

Riferimenti normativi 35

Obiettivi dello studio 35

Inquadramento del progetto antincendio in riferimento alla misura S.1 36


Soluzione conforme 36
Soluzione alternativa 37
Definizione degli obiettivi di sicurezza antincendio 37
Definizione delle soglie di prestazione (par. M.3.3.2) 38
Individuazione degli scenari di incendio di progetto 38
Elaborazione delle soluzioni progettuali 40
Valutazione delle soluzioni progettuali 41
Selezione della soluzione progettuale idonea 48

Considerazioni a commento 49

Caso studio 2: edificio storico adibito ad attività uffici aperti al pubblico 50

Descrizione 50

Dati salienti e attribuzione dei livelli di prestazione: 50

Contestualizzazione dell’attività in relazione alla prevenzione incendi 52


Riferimenti normativi 52

Obiettivi dello studio 52

Inquadramento del progetto antincendio in riferimento alla misura S.1 53


Soluzione conforme 53
Soluzione alternativa 54

Considerazioni a commento 57

Caso studio 3: edificio adibito ad attività commerciale 58

Descrizione 58

Dati salienti e attribuzione dei livelli di prestazione: 58

Contestualizzazione dell’attività in relazione alla prevenzione incendi 60

Riferimenti normativi 60

Obiettivi dello studio 60

Inquadramento del progetto antincendio in riferimento alla misura S.1 61


Soluzione conforme 61
Soluzione alternativa 61
Definizione degli obiettivi di sicurezza antincendio 62
Definizione delle soglie di prestazione (par. M.3.3.1) 62
Individuazione degli scenari di incendio di progetto 63
Elaborazione delle soluzioni progettuali 66
Valutazione delle soluzioni progettuali 68
Selezione della soluzione progettuale idonea 92

Considerazioni a commento 93

Caso studio 4: edificio storico adibito ad attività ricettiva turistico - alberghiera 94

Descrizione 94

Dati salienti e attribuzione dei livelli di prestazione: 94

Contestualizzazione dell’attività in relazione alla prevenzione incendi 97

Riferimenti normativi 97

Obiettivi dello studio 97

Inquadramento del progetto antincendio in riferimento alla misura S.1 98


Soluzione conforme 98
Soluzione alternativa 99
Definizione degli obiettivi di sicurezza antincendio 99
Definizione delle soglie di prestazione (par. M.3.3.1) 99
Individuazione degli scenari di incendio di progetto 99
Elaborazione delle soluzioni progettuali 103
Valutazione delle soluzioni progettuali 103
Selezione della soluzione progettuale idonea 105

Considerazioni a commento 106

Caso studio 5: edificio storico adibito ad attività commerciale 107

Descrizione 107

Dati salienti e attribuzione dei livelli di prestazione: 107

Contestualizzazione dell’attività in relazione alla prevenzione incendi 108

Riferimenti normativi 108

Obiettivi dello studio 110


Inquadramento del progetto antincendio in riferimento alla misura S.1 112
Soluzione conforme 112
Soluzione alternativa 112
Definizione degli obiettivi di sicurezza antincendio 113
Definizione delle soglie di prestazione 113
Individuazione degli scenari di incendio di progetto 113
Elaborazione delle soluzioni progettuali 119
Valutazione delle soluzioni progettuali 122
Selezione della soluzione progettuale idonea 124

Considerazioni a commento 125

Caso studio 6: edificio adibito ad asilo nido 126

Descrizione 126

Dati salienti e attribuzione dei livelli di prestazione: 126

Contestualizzazione dell’attività in relazione alla prevenzione incendi 128

Riferimenti normativi 128

Obiettivi dello studio 128

Inquadramento del progetto antincendio in riferimento alla misura S.1 129


Soluzione conforme 129
Soluzione alternativa 130

Considerazioni a commento 134

Appendice A - sistema di classificazione di reazione al fuoco di cui alla norma EN 13501-1 135
A.1 Introduzione 135
A.2 Definizioni 136
A.3 Classi di reazione al fuoco 137
A.4 Obbligo di marcatura CE 143

Appendice B - sistema di classificazione di reazione al fuoco di cui alla norma EN 13501-6 145
La norma EN 13501-6: scopo e campo di applicazione 145

Appendice C - descrizione delle prove UNI 8547 e UNI 9174 149


Prova di piccola fiamma 149
Prova di pannello radiante 152

Bibliografia 158

Fonti immagini 160


 
   

 



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IL CODICE DI PREVENZIONE LA RESISTENZA AL FUOCO
INCENDI DEGLI ELEMENTI STRUTTURALI

La progettazione antincendio Focus sulla misura S.2


Applicazioni pratiche nell’ambito del del Codice di prevenzione incendi
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Inail - Direzione centrale pianificazione e comunicazione


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Inail - Direzione centrale pianificazione e comunicazione


Edizione 2019

piazzale Giulio Pastore, 6 - 00144 Roma


dcpianificazione-comunicazione@inail.it COLLANA RICERCHE
www.inail.it ISBN 978-88-7484-171-4
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Inail - Direzione centrale pianificazione e comunicazione


Edizione 2019

piazzale Giulio Pastore, 6 - 00144 Roma


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Inail - Direzione centrale pianificazione e comunicazione


Edizione 2020

piazzale Giulio Pastore, 6 - 00144 Roma


dcpianificazione-comunicazione@inail.it COLLANA RICERCHE
www.inail.it ISBN 978-88-7484-608-5

Focus sulla misura S.3


del Codice di prevenzione incendi
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COMPARTIMENTAZIONE ANTINCENDIO
2020
Inail - Direzione centrale pianificazione e comunicazione
Edizione 2020

piazzale Giulio Pastore, 6 - 00144 Roma


dcpianificazione-comunicazione@inail.it COLLANA RICERCHE
www.inail.it ISBN 978-88-7484-643-6

Inail - Direzione centrale pianificazione e comunicazione


Edizione 2020

piazzale Giulio Pastore, 6 - 00144 Roma


dcpianificazione-comunicazione@inail.it COLLANA RICERCHE
www.inail.it ISBN 978-88-7484-669-6



                      
 














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Con riferimento alle prove europee, le caratteristiche di reazione al fuoco sono definite a seconda dei metodi
di prova utilizzati che verificano, in funzione del metodo specifico, le seguenti caratteristiche:

• durata dell'incendio;
• perdita di massa;
• aumento della temperatura;
• potere calorifico superiore;
• tendenza a produrre gocce infiammate/accese;
• calore totale rilasciato e la velocità di rilascio;
• tendenza a produrre fumi densi e opachi;
• propagazione della fiamma lungo il campione di prova.

Per le prove Italiane, le caratteristiche di reazione al fuoco sono definite a seconda dei metodi di prova utilizzati
e in funzione del metodo specifico prevedono sempre un lavaggio e/o precondizionamento caratteristico, non
previsto invece dalle norme europee.
I metodi di prova servono a verificare le seguenti caratteristiche:

• durata dell'incendio;
• perdita di massa;
• aumento della temperatura;
• velocità di propagazione della fiamma;
• estensione della zona danneggiata;
• tendenza a produrre gocce infiammate/accese;
• tempo di post combustione per i prodotti imbottiti,
• tempo di post incandescenza sul provino.

Un materiale di finitura con una buona prestazione di reazione al fuoco, ad esempio come un materiale di
classe 1 italiana, permette di limitare la propagazione dell'incendio, se non l’inibizione dell'innesco.
Se il materiale viene installato in opera difformemente dalle condizioni di prova, non si ha più la garanzia del
comportamento atteso di quel materiale nel corso dell'incendio.
Ad esempio, un manufatto tessile in classe 1, posato su pavimento non combustibile, conserva le medesime
caratteristiche dei test di prova se testato in appoggio su supporto incombustibile.
La stessa pavimentazione, posata sopra un supporto combustibile, deve essere nuovamente certificata, al
fine di determinare la classe di reazione al fuoco, in riferimento ai due materiali pavimentazione e supporto.
È sempre opportuno leggere la “modalità di impiego” e di “posa in opera” nel Certificato di Prova.




"""! ##   



 
  

Si segnala che, nel caso in cui un prodotto sia marcabile CE, in quanto esiste una norma armonizzata, la
procedura di omologazione viene sostituita dalla “marcatura CE”.
Quando si tratta di classe europea per la marcatura CE, si deve andare oltre la classe in DoP (Dichiarazione
di Prestazione) approfondendo il campo di applicazione di detta classe nel Rapporto di Classificazione.
Nell’ultima pagina di detti rapporti, emessi ai sensi della norma EN 13501-1 (o altre parti se trattasi di tetti, cavi
o resistenza al fuoco), si trova infatti un paragrafo ben identificato in cui viene riportata la validità di quella
classe in relazione al tipo di substrato usato, modalità di impiego e posa, colori coperti ed eventuali altre
caratteristiche nel caso la norma armonizzata conceda già delle estensioni di suo o nel caso siano state
eseguite più prove per fare una applicazione diretta o estesa del campo di validità.

Nelle figure seguenti viene mostrato dove cercare le informazioni sull’impiego e campo di applicazione nel
Certificato italiano e l’ultima parte di un Rapporto di Classificazione EN 13501-1.



 
  



 
  



 
  

 



 
  


   


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all’allegato E, riporta i tempi di pre-movimento per il 1° percentile in funzione '(--0 4&(/$3,0
&0.1035$.(/5$-( &0/4,'(3$50 della tipologia del sistema di allarme, della complessità dell’edificio,
dell’efficacia della gestione della sicurezza. 
Per l’attività in oggetto di studio (con profilo di rischio Rvita A2) si ha:



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o livello A1 del sistema di allarme: rivelazione automatica estesa a tutto l’edificio in grado di
attivare un allarme generale;
o livello B2 della complessità dell’edificio: edificio a più piani con layout interni rispondenti alle
regole prescrittive;
o livello M1 della gestione della sicurezza antincendio considerato che la misura S.5 prevede
un livello di prestazione II.
Dalla seguente tabella si ottiene tpre (1°   
) di 60 s; si segnala, peraltro, che tale tempo è riferito ad
una situazione più sfavorevole di quella che si sta esaminando, prevedendo un livello di gestione della
sicurezza con livello di prestazione I (M2), mentre quello di progetto sarà di livello di prestazione II
(M1).





 
  


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• " (coda), tempo di coda; """!#!"$ !#!# "  #"
#"#$ ! che dipende dalla geometria della via di esodo e dal numero di occupanti in
attesa all’uscita, prima dell’i-esimo occupante. 
Viene calcolato impiegando l’equazione seguente:

ttra (coda) = Pvert / Wvert - [(n - 1) * Dscala * 13,75)] / 70% * Fs,vert
ttra (coda) = 317 / 1,45 - [(2 - 1) * 2,10 * 13,75)] / 70% * 1,09 = 249 s

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dove:
•   (!$#  &* +#" (
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  ' " #"'&+#"  l’edificio è dotato di
impianto IRAI * #$&'(+#"$& '(#" ')&++"(""#!#((#&!(
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•   (!$#   &! ( *" '')"(# $&  +&# " $&'"+  )"+#"    '('#  ()((#
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• (pre (1°    ), è il tempo di pre-movimento per i primi occupanti;  &$$#&(#("#ISO/TR 16738:2009,
all’allegato E, riporta i tempi di pre-movimento per il 1° percentile in funzione  # '"&#
#!$#&(!"(  #"'&(# della tipologia del sistema di allarme, della complessità dell’edificio,
dell’efficacia della gestione della sicurezza. 
Per l’attività in oggetto di studio (con profilo di rischio Rvita Ciii2) si ha:
o livello A1 del sistema di allarme: rivelazione automatica estesa a tutto l’edificio in grado di
attivare un allarme generale;
o livello B2 della complessità dell’edificio: edificio a più piani con layout interni rispondenti alle
regole prescrittive;
o livello M1 della gestione della sicurezza antincendio considerato che la misura S.5 prevede
un livello di prestazione II.
Dalla seguente tabella si ottiene tpre (1°    ) di 900 s.





 
  


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prima dell’i-esimo occupante. 
Viene calcolato impiegando l’equazione seguente:

ttra (coda) = Pvert / Wvert - [(n - 1) * Dscala * 13,75)] / 70% * Fs,vert

ttra (coda) = 97 / 1,30 - [(2 - 1) * 2,10 * 13,75)] / 70% * 1,09 = 60 s



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La prova UNI 8457 è anche detta di piccola fiamma, mentre la prova UNI 9174, di pannello radiante.
Tali prove consentono la determinazione di parametri quali la velocità di post combustione, la propagazione
della fiamma, la relativa velocità, la degradazione termica e meccanica e l’eventuale gocciolamentodi parti
ardenti (vedi Appendice C).
Seguendo le prescrizioni di cui alla norma UNI 9176 “Preparazione dei materiali per l’accertamento delle
caratteristiche di reazione al fuoco” è possibileottenere una classificazione da 1 a 5.

All’art. 10 del d.m. 26 giugno 84 sono stabiliti i metodi di prova al fine di poter classificare i materiali da
costruzione, nel caso in cui non si intenda procedere con la loro omologazione; sono destinati a questo tipo di
valutazione i materiali già in opera, quelli destinati ad usi specifici o che sono destinati ad essere impiegati per
periodi di tempo di durata limitata o di limitata produzione.

Particolare cura è richiesta per l'individuazione del campione da prelevare e da sottoporre a prova, al fine di
ottenerne uno significativo in termini di dimensioni, di condizioni di posa, di esposizione, ecc.
A tal fine è bene interfacciarsi con il direttore del laboratorio presso cui si invierà a prova il campione.

La classificazione dei materiali in questione, a seguito dell’esecuzione delle prove sperimentali, potrà essere
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Norma UNI 8457 “Prodotti combustibili suscettibili di essere investiti dalla fiamma su una sola faccia
- Reazione al fuoco mediante applicazione di una piccola fiamma”

Il sistema di strumentazione, mediante il quale eseguire la prova, è così articolato: all’interno di una camera di
combustione, il provino da testare viene installato su un apposito sistema di aggancio e fissato su di un’asta
di sostegno; alla base dell’asta il bruciatore è libero di muoversi su un piede scorrevole.




           



La metodologia di test su piccola fiamma interessa un provino di materiale, come si presenterebbe durante il
suo impiego.
Nel caso in cui il provino sia destinato ad usi particolari o se l’intento della prova fosse quello di verificarne il
comportamento al fuoco durante una ordinaria manutenzione, esso viene sottoposto a trattamenti preliminari.
Il bruciatore presente nell’apparecchio di prova ha il compito di assicurare l’accensione del provino; la
posizione del bruciatore è verticale, inclinato di 45° rispetto al provino.
Il bruciatore conserva la libertà da vincoli di posizione e può, quindi, essere spostato permettendo all’operatore
di avvicinarlo o allontanarlo dal provino.



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Parametri della prova

Di seguito sono indicati i parametri che risultano dalle prove su piccola fiamma (UNI 8457):

 tempo di post combustione: è il periodo, in s, che trascorre da quando viene tolta la fiamma di prova
dal provino, a quando cessa il processo di combustione.

Questo parametro consente di assegnare un livello al provino in base al tempo di post combustione:

• 1: tempo di post combustione ≤ 5 s;


• 2: 5 s < tempo di post combustione ≤ 60 s;
• 3: di post combustione > 60 s.

 tempo di post incandescenza: è il periodo, in s, che trascorre da quando cessa il processo di


combustione, al momento in cui l’incandescenza del provino termina definitivamente.

Questo parametro consente di assegnare un livello al provino in base al tempo di post incandescenza:

• 1: tempo di post incandescenza ≤ 10 s;


• 2: 10 s < tempo di post incandescenza ≤ 60 s;
• 3: tempo di post incandescenza > 60 s.

 zona danneggiata: estensione, in mm, del provino compromessa dalla combustione che presenta
danni, degradazione termica e meccanica o punti di fusione.

Questo parametro consente di assegnare un livello al provino in base all’estensione della zona danneggiata
  

•  

•   

•       

 gocciolamento: parametro che descrive la perdita di gocce fuse di prodotto o la produzione di particelle
ardenti prima e successivamente la combustione.

Questo parametro consente di assegnare un livello al provino in base alla presenza di gocce ardenti:

• 1: gocciolamento non presente, o presente ma con gocce che smettono di ardere appena toccano il
fondo della camera di combustione;
• 2: effettiva presenza di gocce ardenti, ma che smettono di ardere per un t < 3 s;
• 3: effettiva presenza di gocce che ardono per un t > 3 s.

Ogni livello assegnato al provino oggetto del test viene moltiplicato per fattori relativi e ciascun risultato così
ottenuto viene utilizzato come addendo di una somma finale, in grado di assegnare al prodotto esaminato una
classe di appartenenza.
I fattori moltiplicativi sono pari a 2 per tempo di post combustione e zona danneggiata, 1 per tempo di post
incandescenza e gocciolamento.
I valori risultanti dalle somme sopra definite sono riportati nella tabella seguente, dove viene indicata la relativa
classe di reazione al fuoco di appartenenza.

Classificazione italiana Somme ottenute


Classe 1 da 6 a 8
Classe 2 da 9 a 12
Classe 3 da 13 a 15
Classe 4 da 16 a 18

  
       



 
  

Iter di prova

Una volta posto il provino sull’apposito alloggio, si stabilizza il bruciatore.


Se la prova su piccola fiamma riguarda un provino che deve esporre al fuoco una sola faccia (UNI 8457), il
piede del bruciatore deve mantenere una prefissata distanza dal provino di 40 mm, e la sua testa deve essere
messa a metà del campione, mentre la testa a 5 mm.
Prima di innescare la fiamma sul bruciatore, l’operatore lo toglie momentaneamente dal provino (le regolazioni
prima descritte si mantengono anche quando viene tolto il bruciatore).
Tramite apposita valvola viene abbassata o alzata l’altezza di fiamma.
Viene riposizionato il bruciatore in prossimità del provino, esponendolo a fiamma viva per 30 s.
Vengono annotati dall’operatore la durata del tempo di post combustione e quella del tempo di post
incandescenza e, alla fine del test, viene stimata la zona danneggiata sulla superficie del campione.



    
 






 




    


  
  

Norma UNI 9174 “Reazione al fuoco dei prodotti sottoposti all'azione di una fiamma d'innesco in
presenza di calore radiante”

Secondo quanto riportato in tale norma, la prova consiste nell’esame di un provino soggetto all’irraggiamento
di un pannello radiante.
Il flusso termico che dal pannello si sprigiona in direzione del materiale di prova provoca la decomposizione
termica della sua superficie e la produzione di gas di pirolisi infiammabili.
Questi gas vengono innescati da una fiamma posizionata nelle immediate prossimità del campione in prova.
Le condizioni mediante le quali sarà installato il provino devono corrispondere a quelle che si prevedono
essere le future modalità di utilizzo nel suo impiego reale, a seconda che esso sia esso destinato all’uso a
parete, a pavimento o a soffitto.

  

 


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