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A

PROJECT REPORT

ON

“Impact of TV advertisements on women”

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR


THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Session : 2009-11

SUBMITTED BY:
sonia munjal

Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak


DECLARATION

I, sonia munjal MBA 4th Semester of KEDARNATH AGGERWAL

INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, DADRI hereby declare that the project


entitled “Impact of TV advertisements on women” as the part of partial
fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of M.B.A.

All the information in the project is wholly my own and original and not copied
from anywhere else.

{sonia munjal)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A project report is never the sole product of the person whose


name appears on the cover. There are many others who put a lot of
efforts in it, so it is my duty to express my gratitude towards all of
them.
First of all, I express my gratefulness to Miss Neetu Munjal for

his guidance & cooperation in selecting the topic and due to

non availability of time he could not afford devote time for

further guidance.

Last but not the least I express my sincere thanks to


my family and my friends whose help me directly or
indirectly in this project.

With deep
regards
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration

Acknowledgement

Contents

List of figures

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Research methodology

2.1 Significance of the problem

2.2 Review of Literature

2.3 Conceptualization

2.4 Focus of the Study

2.5 Objectives

2.6 Limitations

2.7 Research Methodology

Chapter 3 Analysis & Interpretation

3.1 Objective Wise Analysis

3.2 Major Findings

Chapter 5 Suggestions

Chapter 6 Appendix

i.Questionnaire

ii. Bibliography
INTRODUCTION
Advertising is the engine of modern economies, and one of the crucial factors influencing the
behaviour and life style of modern societies.Since the Indian woman plays a dominant role in the
purchase activities, nowadays, many markets are targeting women and are targeting women and
are increasingly portraying them in their advertisements. Indian woman consumers have become
more demanding. With the growing importance of women in the existing scenario, an attempt
has been made to understand how women respond to TV advertisements and what kind of impact
these advertisements have on them.

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable because they are new and in experienced consumers and
are prime targets of many advertisements. They are in process of learning their values and roles
and developing their selfconcepts. Mass communication has made possible a kind of national
pressure that erodes private and individual values and standards. (Kilbourne, 1990) The influence
of advertising on adolescents in hardly surprising, researches show that adolescents emulate the
behavior of attractive models, especially when the behavior is rewarded. Nowhere else is the
heady combination of physical beauty and personal success portrayed as pleadingly and
persuasively as in commercial advertisements (Gardner, 1999). Advertisers often emphasize
sexuality and the importance of physical attractiveness is an attempt to sell products (Fox, 1996)
but researchers are concerned that this places undue pressure on women and men to focus on
their appearances. In today’s media, women are looked upon as a tool that can help to sell a
product, women and sex are often a great combination when to get a product to come off the
shelves. There are many different companies that stretch far and wide to include women and sex
in their advertisements for sale purposes and many use very interesting ways of including women
to sell their products (Lemmon, 2002). Women have been stereotyped in the media more than
any other group. A stereotype against women creates a world where no one is ugly, overweight,
poor, struggling and disabled. In advertisements women are often portrayed in similar roles and
are grouped together with the assumption that all women are the same or should be the same.
Women in advertisements take on a fake look because they are made to look as close to perfect
as possible. Women in advertisements are masked with make-up and almost always the pictures
airbrushed to perfection. Women like a super women image where they are supposed to do it all.
All with working with full time job she can still play the role of man and take care of kids, clean,
cook, and maintain a heavy relationship with husband. This is not true in all the real world but
because it is portrayed so much in the media people feel it is necessary to have high expectations
for women (Ryan, 2002). Women are still shown primarily in submissive positions as sex
objects. Sexual women are used in advertisements for women to imply.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Advertisement is a powerful medium designed to sell products, aspirations and communicate
concepts of acceptable behavior and gender roles. The question of women’s portrayal on T.V has
been a matter of debate for considerable time now. The present study, “perception of adolescents
regarding the portrayal of women in commercial advertisements on T.V” was conducted with the
objectives, to ascertain the responses of the adolescents regarding the image of women in
advertisements on T.V and study the impact of commercial advertisements on adolescents. The
study was conducted on a sample of 90 adolescents, which consisted of 45 girls and 45 boys. An
interview schedule was used to elicit the required information. The results of the study revealed
that advertisements left an impact on both the genders. The presence of female model in the
advertisement influenced their liking for a particular product. Fashion statement of girls was also
influenced by advertisements. Boys felt that whenever a beautiful model is screened in an
advertisement, it stays on their mind for long period of time. Majority of them felt that
advertisement depicts women in stereotype roles and that the advertisements are not representing
the personality of Indian women. The respondents wanted to see women in different kind of roles
in the future advertisements. They wanted advertisements to be more educative, informative,
product oriented, family oriented and with a bit of humor. Majority of girls wanted women to be
shown as confident, independent and empowered individuals, whereas, boys wanted women to
be projected in fashionable and glamorous roles.

Rachoza (2003) conducted a study “The stereotypical image of women in advertisements and
found that women are still seen as objects and women are expected to look and act like those
portrayed in ads. The women in advertisements represent what society, especially the men of
society, holds as the ideal image for a woman. The images of woman today are highly sexualized
to appeal to those looking. Women in the twenty first century are under the power of gaze, the
male gaze. In this context, it becomes important to study the opinion of adolescents about the
portrayal of women in commercial advertisements on T.V. It would be interesting to know the
likes and dislikes of adolescents about portrayal of women in advertisements and to see whether
they are different from rest of the population. It would be helpful in ascertaining the type of roles
and images of women; the adolescents want to see in future advertisements.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Much of literature available focus on the issue of women’s portrayal in advertisements, femine
buying behaviour, and other issues. But little literature is available on the impact of
advertisements on women. Though authors have highlighted the impact of advertisements on
women on their works, however they are not specially based on any particular product.

According to Bansal and Dhaka(2006), research studies have shown that women and girls are
more self conscious about their personal appearance than men. This make them the target f
advertisers. Studies have shown that women are projected as glamorous and enticing in most of
the advertisements. Research has shown that women are more amenable to persuasion than men
and the persuasive content used in advertising messages has a greater effect on women than men.
Women consumers represent a big business for beauty products.

In his work, Sreedhar(2006) expresses that as women’s financial independence grew, marketers
modified their approach. In the case of personal care and products, they began to communicate
the ways in which the use of their product would help women appear confident and poised. The
author further says that if marketers recognize the growing importance of women consumers and
cater to their likes and dislikes, it will result in a win-win situation for both.

It is believed that the prospective consumer attention and memory are greater in the beginning
and fade away towards the end. A resent research by Brunel and Nelson of Boston University of
Wisconsin(2004) attempts to empirically understand these message order effects. They have also
investigate the possibility of gender differences in advertising persuasion. It has been observed
that females have the tendancy to elaborate the contents of the message while males process the
information based on cues.

In addition, another study conducted to find the levels of awareness and the brand preferences
for fairness creams. The study revealed that the purchase decisions are highly influenced by the
quality of fairness and the price factor also.
FOCUS OF THE PROBLEM
The main focus of the study was taken up with the
objective-
i)To study the impact of commercial advertisements on adolescents with special references
to the images and role portrayal of women,
ii)Opinion of adolescents regarding stereotype image of women in advertisements,
iii)characteristics of a good advertisement, and
iv)changes needed for the future portrayal of women in advertisements.
v)Impact of Fair&Lovely product on women.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


Through this study an attempts was made to analyze the impact of TV advertisements on women.
This study focuses on what kind of advertisements women like and what kind of impact
advertisements generate on them. The objective set for the study are:

1To understand the general behaviour of women towards purchasing products and watching
television.
2To find out the impact of advertisements on women in general and in particular with respect
to fairness cream products.
3To analyze the impact of fair&lovely advertisements on women.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The present study is aimed at understanding the impact of TV advertisement on women with
respect to Fair&Lovely products. As the study is related to women, a sample of 220 women
respondants was selected. The sample was selected through stratified random sampling method.
Women of different age groups ranging from 18-55 years were chosen randomly, drawn from
different sections like housewives, students and working women.
The data was collected from the women through a structured questionnaire consisting of various
questions pertaining to the impact of advertisements and specially with respect to Fair&Lovely
adds.
After collecting data, the data was tablated and analysis was done usingcertain statistical
techniques like percentage analysis, Chi-square test and Anova test. The analysis was carried out
using SPSS Package12.0 The result was presented on the basis of the above stated method.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of media marketing on adolescent
girls. The following questions were explored:

1. Are adolescent girls influenced by the media?


2. What influences do celebrities have on adolescent girls?

Method of Data Collection


The survey instrument used in this study determined the impact of media marketing on
adolescent girls from the ages of 13-19. How the media and the different influences that
celebrities have on influence adolescent girls were the two research questions.

UNIVERSE AND SURVEY POPULATION


Demographics
Age:________
School:_____________________________________________________
Survey Questions
1 [strongly disagree] 2 [disagree] 3 [agree] 4 [strongly agree]
1 2 3 4 1. I have felt pressure to lose weight.
1 2 3 4 2. I have read fashion magazines (for example: Vogue, People, In Style,
California Style, Teen Vogue) in the past 12 months.
1 2 3 4 3. I shop and buy things that are trendy.
1 2 3 4 4. I watch media-driven television programs [Reality T.V. MTV, VH1, etc.].
1 2 3 4 5. Celebrity gossip is a topic of conversation in my life.
1 2 3 4 8. I have bought a perfume, clothing line, or product that a celebrity has
endorsed or designed [for example: Candy by Paris Hilton, clothing line by Mary-Kate and
Ashley Olsen, With Love perfume by Hilary Duff]

1 2 3 4 3. I buy only Fair&Lovely product.

RECCOMADATION AND SUGGESSIONS OF


STUDY

Advertisements play an important role in influencing and shaping values and attitudes,
particularly of adolescents; hence advertisers should ensure that it depicts a positive portrayal of
women in advertisements. The advertisements which exploit womanhood and portray vulgarity
should not be screened on T.V., as it reinforce a negative stereotypes on the viewers especially
on adolescents who are more vulnerable to advertisements and going to be our future generation.

There is need to recognize the changing roles of women. Advertisements should show women
working in a wide variety of career settings. They should be projected in diverse
roles such as educated, decision maker, independent, confident and self-reliant.

Advertisements should depict average Indian women instead of focusing only the upper strata of
the society. The viewers should be able to identify with product being advertised and with the
model shown in the advertisements.

The content of the advertisements should be relevant to the product. There should be
more emphasizes on the product rather than on the female models and their figures. Women in
the advertisements should not be used for attention seeking purpose. It is unnecessary to show
women in advertisements related to male products such as men’s underwear and vests.

There is need for special committee to scrutinize all advertisements carefully to ensure that
advertisers do not portray women in derogatory and stereotype ways.
It is necessary that society should be motivated and sensitized to the issues of portrayal
of women in commercial advertisements on T.V., so that they can take necessary steps for
healthy projection of women in the media.

ANALYSIS
The subjects sampled for this study were students enrolled at the Academy of the Canyons
located in Santa Clarita, California. They completed the survey on March 19 and 21, 2008.
Twenty-five copies of the survey instrument were distributed; twenty-five were returned,
and twenty-five were used in this study. The data collected from the twenty-five subjects
(Table 1) are discussed in subsequent sections, commencing with the reporting of the
demographic findings. Participants were asked to list age to determine at what stage of
adolescence they were. The survey indicated the results as follows: Age 19- 1, Age 18- 5,
Age 17- 13, Age 16- 6.
Table 1. Summary of Responses to Survey Questions
Scale number
Strongl Disagre Agre Strongl No
y e e y Agree Respons
Disagre e
e
1 1 2 11 11 0 25 14.5200 7.815
2 1 2 8 15 0 25 19.2308 7.815

3 1 6 10 8 0 25 7.1600 7.815

4 2 5 5 13 0 25 10.6800 7.815

5 8 9 7 1 0 25 6.200 7.815

6 1 4 15 8 0 25 3.9600 7.815
7 1 4 15 8 0 25 3.9600 7.815

8 3 5 12 8 0 25 2.3600 7.815

Research Question One


Are adolescent girls influenced by the media? Questions 1,2, 3, and 4 of the survey located
in Appendix A addressed this research question.
The results of the analysis revealed that the calculated value for questions 1, 2 and 4 were
at the .05 significance level and suggested that the media puts pressure on adolescent girls
to lose weight through popular fashion magazines. Question 3 indicated that the sample did
not shop for trendy clothes that paralleled with fashion magazines.
The findings from question one align with Mundell (p. 1) whose results show from a study
on fifth graders, ten-year-old girls and boys told researchers they were dissatisfied with
their own bodies after watching a music video by Britney Spears or a clip from the TV
show "Friends." Tiggemann & Pickering (p. 1) divulge a study done in 1996 that found
that the amount of time an adolescent watches soaps, movies and music videos is associated
with their degree of body dissatisfaction and desire to be thin. The National Institute on
Media and the Family (p. 1) discloses that the popular media has increasingly held up a
thinner and thinner body (and now ever more physically fit) image as the ideal for women.
The findings from question two align with the findings of Kilbourne (p. 132) who said that
the images in magazines play into the American belief of transformation and ever-new
possibilities. Marketing strategies and advertising then become strategic in the battle of
consumers. Kilbourne (p. 133) collected the results of studies at Stanford University and
the University of Massachusetts that found that about seventy percent of college women say
they feel worse about their own looks after reading women’s magazines. Kilbourne (p. 138)
revealed that not only are girls influenced by images of other girls, but they are especially
attuned to images of women, because they learn from these images what is expected of
them, what they are to become.
The finding from questions three conflicts with research by Liebau (p. 4) that revealed that
stores such as Victoria’s Secret and restaurants like Hooters capitalized on an implicit
message that being sexy at all times is a female imperative. In contrast to this finding,
Liebau (p. 4) reported that over the last forty years the United Sates has indeed
experienced an incremental but aggressive sexualizing of its culture—until today there
exists a status quo in which almost everything seems focused on what’s going on below the
waist.
The finding from question four aligns with the findings of Sutton, Brown, Wilson, & Klein
(p. 25) that more than half of the high school boys and girls in a national survey in 1997
said they had learned about birth control, contraception, or preventing pregnancy from
television. In the studies of Brown (p. 1), in the United States, young people spend six to
seven hours each day on average with some form of media. Kilbourne’s data (p. 35)
revealed that over $40 billion a year in ad revenue is generated for television and radio and
over $30 billion for magazines and newspapers.
Research Question Two
What influences do celebrities have on adolescent girls? Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the
survey located in Appendix A addressed this research question.
The results of the analysis revealed that the calculated values for all were not at the .05
significance level, which suggest that the participants feel that celebrities do not influence
their lives. The results also suggested that some adolescent girls have extreme opinions
about celebrities. Some embrace celebrities as role models and others despise them, having
repulsive opinions about their lifestyles. Regardless of the extreme position, media
marketing of celebrities has influenced both sides. Most people are not aware of how much
celebrities influence decisions made about the simplest things—clothes, perfumes, candy, or
choice of stores. Advertising influences the population beyond its knowledge. Companies
spend billions of dollars every year studying the population and consumer interests. The
general population desires to be accepted by its peers. The media provides an outlet for this
through advertising, using celebrities to give credibility to certain products.
The findings from question five conflict with research by Smith (p. 1), who stated that
fashion sensation Tom Ford asked gossip columnist Liz Smith, “What’s wrong with sluts?
If sluttiness is what [defines who] you are, what’s wrong with that? Why do we think being
a slut’s bad? Sluttiness is just a lot of freedom.” Rosenbloom (p. 1) confirmed celebrities’
influence with research that reflected that even young girls have come to embrace the
concept—to the point that the epithet has become a widely accepted, affectionate term of
familiarity among girlfriends.
The findings from question six differ from research by Liebau (p. 7), who stated that hit
song “My Humps” by Fergie, which extols the sexual magnetism of her breast and
buttocks, can be heard in almost every high school gym during warm ups and can be found
on millions of teenagers iPods. According to studies by Liebau (p. 8), the emphasis on
sexiness, revealing fashions, and the overvaluing of physical appeal creates pressure to
measure up to bone-slim models or celebrities and leads to unrealistic expectations among
young women about how their own bodies should actually look.
The findings from question seven suggest that they are not curious about celebrities’
personal lives. These findings differ from research conducted by Liebau (p. 8), who stated
that today’s culture celebrates celebrities such as Paris Hilton and highlights their “high-
profile party lives” along with their scandalous lifestyles in general. Liebau’s (p. 6)
research revealed gossip sheets that report many of the celebrities idolized by adolescent
girls are wearing clothes and engaging in behavior so vulgar that it once would have
destroyed their careers.
The findings from question eight suggest that they do not buy products, clothing lines, or
perfumes that are endorsed or designed by celebrities. In contrast, studies by Liebau (p. 8)
showed that emphasis on sexiness, revealing fashions, and the overvaluing of physical
appeal creates pressure to measure up to bone-slim models or celebrities and leads to
unrealistic expectations among young women about how their own bodies should actually
look.
Findings
The research questions were analyzed using STATPAK. The One–Dimensional Chi-square
statistical test was employed because it “analyzes the discrepancy, if any, between
frequencies observed in the sample of subjects measured and frequencies expected
according to the stated hypothesis” (Joseph & Joseph, 1986, p. 182). Nominal data were
assumed, which can be identified by “a number, a name, a symbol of some type, a letter, or
any device that indicates the various categories” (Joseph & Joseph, 1986, p. 54). The tables
located in the appendix of Research Methods in Human Development were utilized to
compare the calculated values derived from the statistical analysis of the research questions
with their respective tabled values. A .05 level of significance was used to test the results of
the study. Analysis of the data follows.
Discussion
Within the stated purpose and findings of this study, the following conclusions appear
warranted:
1. Adolescent girls are influenced by the media in more ways than they may be aware.
2. Celebrities influence adolescent girls in opposite ways, either inviting a repulsive
reaction or creating a star status view.
The findings of the study yielded some significant results. The majority of the responses
indicated that the participants either strongly agreed, or strongly disagreed, that media
marketing, whether through tangible means (magazines or television programs) or through
celebrity influence, had an effect on their lives. The surveyed adolescent girls had strong
opinions that either sided with the hypothesis that media marketing did influence them or
the opposite. Media marketing has infiltrated every part of an adolescent girl’s life,
whether it be the way she dresses, how she styles her hair that morning, how she speaks to
her friends, the way she respects her parents, expectations within a boyfriend relationship,
or the music she listens to. Media marketing plays an active role in influencing what is
“fashionably cool” and what is “in” and “out” of style. No matter what the opinion of
adolescent girls is, the media impacts their lives in a multitude of ways.
Celebrities are just one outlet for the media to push their agenda to the public. The system
of advertising expertly entices adolescent girls by using celebrities to push fashion products
or even political opinion. Each person emulates something. Everybody influences someone
else, either negatively or positively. The media’s main concern is making money.
Unfortunately, media marketing’s main concern is not influencing its consumers for the
greater good of society but rather selling products that the population will like and want to
emulate or buy. Whether adolescent girls choose to accept the fact that media marketing
influences them, it will remain a constant factor in their lifestyle and how they interact with
society.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Several limitations to this study existed. The sample population consisted of students
specifically the Santa Clarita Valley school system and the teenagers from the Grace
Community Church high school department during the spring semester of 2008. Although
the findings for this study pertain mainly to adolescent girls residing in Los Angeles
County, a general trend may be observed and conclusions drawn.

1Time constrain to complete the project was also another limitation faced
during the research.
2There were some qualitative questions that needed explaining hence some
respondents needed assistance thus slowing down the process of data
collection.
3Limited access to data available in archives.
SAMPLE DESIGN
PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS REGARDING PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN 123
model is shown in the advertisements, whereas 17.7% girls stated that they tried to imitate the
character shown in the advertisement and (28.8%) girls said that it affected their self esteem i.e.
various advertisements of fairness cream and beauty soaps enhance an inferiority complex in
them. Bahuguna (1997) also reported that in advertising women are depicted as groomed,
passive recipients of consumerism, creates images, which not only distort reality but also enforce
outdated ideals of womanhood. These images put a great stress on today’s urban woman to live
up to a fictional idea impossible to realize.

S. Responses Respondents
No. Girls (n=45) Boys (n=45)
N%N%

1. Consumption pattern 26 57.5 23 51.1


2. Affect on body image 13 28.8 - -
3. Dressing Style 9 20 - -
4. Desire to be like models 27 60 - -
5. Emulate 8 17.7 - -
6. Awareness 4 8.8 7 15.5
7. Model stay on mind - - 16 35.5
8. Influence liking 9 20 10 22.2
* Multiple responses

Impact Left by the Presence of Film Personality Majority of girls (68.8%) and (71.7%) boys
agreed that the presence of film personality in the advertisements do leave an impact on them. It
is clear from Table 2 that majority of both girls (55.5%) and boys (51.1%) felt that presence of
film personality in the advertisement influenced their consumption pattern. Large number of girls
(33.3%) stated that it affected their fashion. Both girls (15.5%) and boys (37.7%) felt that the
presence of their favorite film actress in the advertisement influenced their liking for a particular
product, 33.3% girls 22.2% boys said that whenever their favorite actor appeared in
advertisements, they watched the advertisement more carefully. The Figure 2 depicts that
majority of girls (64.4%) and boys (53.3%) agreed that advertisements portray women in
stereotype roles as they felt that woman is projected mostly as housewives or in glamorous roles.
Advertisements depict women as a product user but never Table 2: Kind of impact left by film
personalities

S. Responses Respondents
No.
Girls (n=45) Boys (n=45)
N%N%
1. Consumption pattern 25 55.5 23 51.1
2. Desire to be like them 14 31.1 - -
3. Influence liking 7 15.5 17 37.7
4. Affect fashion 15 33.3 - -
5. Watch it carefully 15 33.3 10 22.2
* Multiple responses.

The studies conducted by Kilbourne (1990) and (Vishav, 2003) also revealed that women are
shown in stereotype image exclusively as housewives or sex objects.

SAMPLE DESIGN
SAMPLE UNIT

The sample population was a selection of individuals of varied age groups (above the
age
of 18). The area covered was the Delhi & NCR region.

SAMPLE SIZE
The sample size selected was 100 respondents. This was due to the time and resource
constraint faced during the project.

SAMPLE SELECTION
Respondents were selected on random basis but the respondents had to satisfy the
following criteria:

Above the age of 18


Belong to HSM[Hindi speaking masses]

DATA COLLECTION TOOLS

PRIMARY DATA

Primary data was collected through questionnaire method.


SECONDARY DATA

Secondary Data was collected from websites, database of Star News and TAM
reports.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1exchange4media.com

2tamindia.com

3agencyfaqs.com

4emeraldinsight.com

5hindustannews.com

6domain-b.com

REFERENCES
Bahuguna, N. 1997. “Women as Stereotype.” Vidura,
34(2): 10-13.
Kilbourne, J. 1990. “Beauty and the Beast of Advertising.”
http//www. Beauty and the Beast of Advertising.htm
Laughin, M and A. Gaulet. 1999. “Stereotype Portrayal
of Women in the Media.” http//www. womenmedia
watch.org.html.
Malhotra, S. and N. Rogers 2002. Changing Female
126 ARUNA, NIDHI KOTWAL AND SHRADHA SAHNI
Images Revolution”. Singhal and Rogers From
Bullock Carts to Cyber Marts. New Delhi: Sage
Publications.
Rachoza, J 2003. “The Stereotypical Image of Women
in Advertisements.” http//www.stereotypical.org.
media.html
Sawhney, H.K and A. Capila. 1989. “Images of Girls on
T.V: Perceptions of Viewers of New Delhi. Unpublished
thesis, Delhi: Lady Irwin College.
Vishav 2003. Impact of Portrayal of Women in T.V Serials
and Advertisements. A Project Report by Department
of Sociology, Jammu, University of Jammu

COLLECTION OF DATA

The study was conducted on a sample of 90 adolescents, which consisted of 45 girls and 45 boys.
The two colleges (one Girls College and one Boys College) were selected purposively and 45
students were drawn randomly from each college. An interview schedule was used to elicit the
required information. The data were collected in the month of October and November 2005.

The data were collected to obtain information regarding the opinions of the respondents about
the kind of impact the advertisements leave on them, opinion of stereotype image of women in
advertisements, characteristics of a good advertisement and changes needed for future portrayal
of women in advertisements.

The Figure 1 depicts that majority of girls (75.5%) and boys (62.2%) felt that advertisement left
an impact on them The respondents who felt that advertisement do not have an impact on them
stated that they are mature enough to distinguish between right and wrong, and they are not
easily fooled by these advertisements.

Fig. 1. Impact of advertisements on respondents


75.5
24.4
62.2
37.7
0
20
40
60
80
Leave an Impact Do Not Leave an Impact
Girls
Boys

It is clear from above Table 1 that majority of


girls (57.7%) and boys (51.1%) felt that
advertisement affected their consumption pattern,
60% girls also felt that advertisement persuaded
them to be like beautiful models, where as 35.5%
boys said that whenever they see beautiful models
in the advertisement it stayed on their mind for
long periods. Dressing style of the model in the
advertisement also left an impact on 20% girls, as it
affected their fashion statement. Both girls (20%)
and boys (22.2%) felt that advertisement influenced
their liking for a particular product if an attractive

124 ARUNA, NIDHI KOTWAL AND SHRADHA SAHNI


and Rogers (2000) studied the television images
of women and found that they are more openly
sexual. This image did not match the reality of
women’s bodies in India.
It is evident from the Table 3 that majority of
both girls (57.7%) and boys (51.1%) felt that an
advertisement should be educative and
informative. A number of girls (48.8%) and boys
(42.2%) felt that advertisement should be family
oriented. An equal percent of both girls (33.3%)
and boys (33.3%) felt that an advertisement
should have a comic content in it which makes
an advertisement more interesting to watch.
women should not be vulgar. The other changes
suggested by the respondents were that
advertisements should be more comic and the
content of the advertisements should be strong.
It is clear from the Table 5 that majority of
girls (73.3%) wanted women to be shown in
independent and empowered roles in future. A
large number of girls (60%) felt that women
should be projected as affectionate and loving.
In contrast majority of boys (64.4%) felt that
women should be projected in fashionable and
glamorous roles, while only (44.6%). Wanted to
see women in independent roles. Very few girls
(13.3%) and boys (6.6%) wanted to see women
in traditional and conservative roles.
Table 4: Changes needed in advertisement
S. Responses Respondents
No.
Girls (n=45) Boys (n=45)
N%N%
1. Product oriented 28 62.2 26 57.7
2. No vulgarity 15 33.3 9 20
3. Less emphasis on the 15 33.3 3 6.6
model
4. More educative 14 31.1 14 31.1
5. Different roles of 12 26.6 2 4.4
women
6. Comic 4 8.8 10 22.2
7. Content strong 8 17.7 6 13.3
* Multiple responses

Table 5: Depiction of women in future advertisements


S. Responses Respondents
No.
Girls (n=45) Boys (n=45)
N%N%
1. Fashionable and 18 40 29 64.4
Glamorous
2. Simple 12 26.6 7 15.5
3. Independent\ 33 73.3 20 44.4
Empowered
4. Affectionate and 27 60 17 37.7
Loving
5. Traditional and 6 13.3 3 6.6
Conservative
6. Feminine 5 11.1 9 20
* Multiple responses
These findings are contradictory to the study
done by (Capila and Sawhney, 1989). Which
revealed that majority of the respondents wanted
girls to be shown as simple, docile, domesticated
within the family nucleus. The difference in the
findings may be due to the age difference, because
adolescence is the age when they identity
themselves with the present T.V. characters and
fashionable and glamorous images attract them.
There was a sex difference in the opinions of
boys and girls majority of boys wanted to see
women as fashionable and glamorous, whereas
majority of girls wanted women to be projected
as independent.

CONCLUSION
Advertisement is a powerful medium designed
to sell products, aspirations and communicate
concepts of acceptable behavior and gender
roles. The repetition of Television commercials
day after day, though boring to the adults leaves
Table 3: Quality of a good advertisement
S. Responses Respondents
No.
Girls (n=45) Boys (n=45)
N%N%
1. Family oriented 22 48.8 19 42.2
2. Comic 15 33.3 15 33.3
3. Educative and 26 57.7 23 51.1
Informative
4. Emphasis on the 7 15.5 5 11.1
product
* Multiple responses.
Table 4 reveals that majority of respondents
felt that a change is needed in advertisements
especially in the portrayal of women. Majority
of girls (62.2%) and boys (57.7%) felt that
advertisement should be more product oriented
rather than emphasis given on the female model.
An equal percent of girls (31.1%) and boys
(31.1%) suggested that advertisements should
be more educative and informative. Some girls
(26.6%) and (4.4%) boys suggested that women
should be presented in different roles and in
different career settings, 33.3% girls and 20%
boys stated that advertisements portraying

PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS REGARDING PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN 125


an indelible mark on impressionable young mind. All advertisements by and large (mainly on
T.V) depicts sports, work situations as man’s existence and as a woman’s world hardly is a
woman shown as an equal partner who is employed and a person of her own will. The question
of women’s portrayal on T.V has been a matter of debate for considerable time now, hence the
present study entitled “perception of adolescents regarding the portrayal of women in
commercial advertisements on T.V” was conducted with the objectives, to ascertain the
responses of the adolescents regarding the image of women in advertisements on T.V and study
the impact of commercial advertisements on adolescents with special reference to the images and
role portrayal of women. The results of the study revealed that advertisements left an impact on
both the genders. It affected the consumption pattern of both the respondents. The presence of
female model in the advertisement also influenced the liking of a particular product. Fashion
statement of girls was also influenced by advertisements whereas boys felt that whenever a
beautiful model is screened in an advertisement, it stays on their mind for long period of time.
Presence of film personality influenced the liking of both boys and girls and the respondents paid
more attention to that particular advertisement. Regarding the views of the respondents about
stereotype image of women in advertisements, majority of both girls and boys felt that
advertisement depicts women in stereotype roles and that the advertisements are not representing
the personality of Indian women. After having an informal discussion with the respondents, it
was found that the respondents wanted to see women in different kind of roles in the future
advertisements. They were of the opinion that advertisements should be more educative,
informative and product oriented, it should be family oriented and should contain a bit of humor
in it. Respondents suggested that women should be presented in different roles; she should not be
projected only as product user but also as product maker. In advertisement portrayal of women
should not be vulgar and the product should be given more emphasis than the female model.
Majority of girls wanted women to be shown as confident, independent and empowered
individuals in future advertisement, whereas, boys felt that women should be projected in
fashionable and glamorous roles.