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Development of a LPP CGR Combustion System with Ultra-Low Emissions for a SOLO161 Stirling Engine Based Micro-CHP Unit

Magnus Pålsson

Dep’t of Heat & Power Engineering, Lund University P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden Magnus.Palsson@vok.lth.se http://burn.at/stirling

Abstract

During the last decade extensive research has been made at Lund University, Sweden, on a lean premix (prevaporize) combustion concept with burnt gas recirculation and a metallic flame holder. From this concept a new lean premixed natural gas combustion chamber with internal combustion gas

recirculation (CGR) has been developed for the V160/SOLO 161 Stirling engines. This combustor has ultra-low emission levels, comparable to those of catalytic combustion. At the start of the current project the combustor was ready to be adapted for production, with expected market introduction in

2001.

The Lund combustion chamber was modified to investigate the impact of air-fuel ratio and combustion

gas recirculation rate on emissions and controllability of the combustion system, and on pressure losses in the combustion chamber. Different start-up strategies as well as different fuel-gas control valves were tried in order to find well-working control routines/parameters. The combustion chamber was redesigned using the gained knowledge, making it easy to manufacture while giving it maximum life expectancy and durability. The SOLO 161 Stirling engine’s control system was adapted to the new combustion system. Emissions of the final combustion system were measured and found to be close to

the design goal values. Combustor function and reliability has proved to be very good.

Introduction

To find a place for Stirling engines on today’s market for heat and power generation, it will be necessary to have combustion systems that produce the least amount possible of harmful emissions. The fact that modern gasoline engines produce less than 25 ppm (after the catalytic converter) of both nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and hydrocarbon emissions (HC), only stresses the importance of Stirling combustor design. Also, the use of well-designed combustion chambers with low emissions will increase overall system performance. High emission levels means poor combustion efficiency, and combustion gas flow patterns in the combustion chamber have a considerable impact on heater performance.

A combustor for a Stirling engine is characterised by the preheating of the inlet air to high

temperatures, typically 500-600ºC, which is needed for reasons of efficiency. This makes the Stirling combustor quite different from most other combustors. Its closest relatives can be said to be the gas turbine combustors, which due to the air compression and in some cases recuperators are also working with hot inlet air. The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) is highly temperature dependent (figure 1).

With inlet air that is preheated to high temperatures, measures have to be taken to avoid high flame temperatures with accompanying high NO x emission levels. The following strategies have been used in trying to get low NO x combustion:

Rich burn – Quick quench – Lean burn

Lean premixed burn

Recirculation of burnt gases (EGR, CGR)

Catalytic combustion

Using a three-way catalyst

Figure 1 - Temperature influence on NO formation rate [Ref 1]. Rich burn – Quick

Figure 1 - Temperature influence on NO formation rate [Ref 1].

Rich burn – Quick quench – Lean burn means that first the fuel is burned in a rich mixture, then the combustion is quenched, heat is removed from the partly burnt mixture, extra air is added and then the combustion is continued in a lean mixture. This method has been tried in Stirling combustors by United Stirling, but results were not satisfactory and there was a problem with soot formation. Tests in gas turbines have given a 50% NO x reduction compared to traditional diffusion combustors.

Lean premixed burn means that the combustion is taking place in a mixture with excess air compared to what is consumed by the combustion. The excess air acts as a bulk gas absorbing heat from the flame during the combustion. The drawback is that the extra air has to pass through the preheater, lowering preheater efficiency (or demanding a bigger preheater). Also, the excess air increases oxygen concentrations in the combustion chamber, affecting the oxidizing rate of nitrogen. Premixed combustion demands some sort of flame stabilizing device (e.g. a swirler or flame holder), or the flame will propagate backwards against the fuel outlet, where the flame will turn into a diffusion flame. The use of excess air will increase combustor pressure losses.

Recirculation of burnt gases works the same way as does lean premixed burn, but in this case it is the recirculated burnt gases that act as bulk flow. As the burnt gases are mostly inert, this means that the recirculation will decrease oxygen concentrations inside the combustion chamber. There are two main methods of recirculation, EGR and CGR.

EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) means that exhaust gases (cooled in the preheater) are recirculated. CGR (Combustion Gas Recirculation) means that hot combustion gases are recirculated from after the heater, inside the combustor. The use of EGR will decrease preheater efficiency, and both EGR and CGR will in varying degrees increase combustor pressure losses.

Catalytic combustion means that the combustion takes place in a catalytically active surface, where the oxygen and fuel molecules are bound to the surface, split, and recombined to form combustion products by the catalytically active material (e.g. platinum, palladium, rhodium) in the surface. The released heat then has to be removed from the material by convection, conduction and/or radiation. Catalytic combustion is developed in gas turbine combustors. Promising tests with catalytic combustion on the surface of Stirling heaters have been made at Lund University [Refs 2, 3].

Using a three-way catalyst means reducing the emissions only after they are already formed. For NO x reduction to be possible the combustion has to be fuel-rich or stoichiometric. For oxidization of CO and HC to be possible the combustion has to be stoichiometric or lean. E.g., for the catalyst to be effective in lowering all three target emission levels, the combustor has to be run at stoichiometric conditions. Also the catalyst has to reach light-off temperature to work, typically 400-500ºC, which

means that it cannot be used at the exhaust pipe of a Stirling engine because of its low exhaust temperature. However, a catalyst can be mounted inside the Stirling combustor downstream of the Stirling heater, where the combustion gas has a temperature of 700-900ºC.

Laboratory tests at Lund University

Initial tests along different development lines were made on the Lund University United Stirling V160F laboratory engine, onto which an experimental combustion chamber was fitted (figure 2). The design of the combustion chamber makes it possible to replace different parts inside it. The combustor chamber is at one end equipped with a big quartz glass window, allowing optical access to the flame and flame holder. Using the knowledge gained in these tests, a prototype combustion chamber was designed by Intersol and mounted on a SOLO 161 Stirling engine unit supplied by SOLO Kleinmotoren. The unit was installed in the Lund University engine laboratory, and was equipped with a solar application control system to made it possible to run the engine independent of what combustor control system was used. Subsequent tests were carried out on the SOLO 161 engine, and the SOLO engine control system was adapted to the new combustion system.

cooled

system was adapted to the new combustion system. cooled combustion gases preheater CGR holder inlet pre-
combustion gases preheater CGR holder inlet pre- air heated mixing tube air hot combustion gases
combustion gases
preheater
CGR
holder
inlet
pre-
air
heated
mixing tube
air
hot combustion
gases

stirling

engine

heater

flame
flame

exhaust gases

combustion gases stirling engine heater flame exhaust gases flow guide body QUARTZ fuel GLASS WINDOW HERE

flow guide

body

QUARTZ

fuel engine heater flame exhaust gases flow guide body QUARTZ GLASS WINDOW HERE ON LAB BURNER Figure

GLASS

WINDOW

HERE ON

LAB BURNER

flow guide body QUARTZ fuel GLASS WINDOW HERE ON LAB BURNER Figure 2 – Schematic view

Figure 2 – Schematic view of the V160/SOLO 161 combustor (radial flame holder, 4 air nozzles)

Flat axial flame holder fuel
Flat axial
flame holder
fuel

Figure 3 – Schematic view of the lab combustor with single air nozzle and flat axial flame holder fitted

Tests with single air nozzle and concentric gas nozzle The four-nozzle arrangement (shown in figures 2 and 6, right) used in [Ref . 1] had been replaced with the single air nozzle shown in figures 3 and 6, left. The single nozzle had an outer concentric gas nozzle, the idea being that injecting the fuel in the shear layer between high-speed air from the nozzle and the recirculation suction flow would improve mixing and lower emissions. However, no support for this theory could be found in the tests. On the contrary, ejector efficiency dropped and emission levels increased. Probably this is because the single nozzle needs a longer mixing tube than the four nozzles to reach the same ejector efficiency. Theoretically, splitting a nozzle into four smaller ones retaining the total cross section area will half the required mixing tube length.

Figure 4 – Flame holder variations Left: Flat axial flame holder Right: Cylindrical radial flame

Figure 4 – Flame holder variations

Left:

Flat axial flame holder

Right:

Cylindrical radial flame holder.

Tests with flat axial flame and single air nozzle with concentric gas nozzle The combustor was fitted with a flat axial flame holder (Figure 3, 4 left). The engine was run with this configuration in a series of tests. The design of the tests was to see how combustion chamber volume affects emissions, especially CO. No conclusive results were found. The combustor was easily started with the flat flame holder and worked fine at low and medium power, but had an unstable laminar flame at higher load so the design was abandoned. During all tests with the flat flame holder the single nozzle described in the last paragraph was used. Test results are shown in Figure 5.

HC emissions [ppm CH 4 ] 1.6 File 990902−2 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.7
HC emissions [ppm CH 4 ]
1.6
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1.9
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CO emissions [ppm]
200
File 990902−2
150
100
1.6
1.7
λ 1.8
1.9
NO x emissions [ppm] 25 File 990902−2 20 15 10 5 1.6 1.7 λ 1.8
NO x emissions [ppm]
25
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20
15
10
5
1.6
1.7
λ 1.8
1.9

Thermal Power [kW]

File 990902−2 20 15 10 5 1.6 1.7 λ 1.8 1.9 Thermal Power [kW] 19 18.5 18 1.6

19

18.5

18

1.6 1.7

λ

1.8

1.9

Figure 5 – Results of test with the flat axial flame holder and single air nozzle

Tests with cylindrical radial flame holder, four air nozzles and varied recirculation rates The four-nozzle arrangement is shown in figure 6, right. By connecting the exhaust pipe via an adjustable valve to the air inlet it was possible to add EGR to the internal CGR (figure 7). The EGR rate (and thus the combined EGR/CGR rate) could be varied by adjusting the EGR valve. This will affect combustion chamber temperatures somewhat, compared with CGR-only combustion.

Figure 6 – Nozzle configurations. Left: Single air nozzle with outer concentric gas nozzle Right:

Figure 6 – Nozzle configurations.

Left:

Single air nozzle with outer concentric gas nozzle

Right:

Four air nozzles prepared for a central gas nozzle.

The burner was tested at varying lambda while keeping the combined EGR/CGR rate as constant as possible. In the case of no added EGR (Figure 11, CGR=55%) the combustor’s innate CGR rate curve is followed. The test was repeated for different combined EGR/CGR rates (Figure 8). The burner was run at a power of 18 kW th , which corresponds to about 60% of full load. See also tests with varied EGR/CGR-rate for the single air nozzle and flat flame holder, reported in [Ref. 4].

air nozzle and flat flame holder, reported in [Ref. 4]. Figure 7 - Schematic view of

Figure 7 - Schematic view of arrangement for adding variable EGR flow to the CGR flow

Tests with four air nozzles and varied nozzle area Three different sets of four air nozzles were tried in the combustor’s ejector. The individual nozzles had diameters φ 0 , φ 1 , and φ 2 , where φ 1 =1.18*φ 0 and φ 2 =1.35*φ 0 . Emissions, temperatures, pressure losses and brake power were measured, and results are shown in Figure 9. For each set of nozzles two curves for pressure loss are plotted; the top curves represent total air pressure loss, while the bottom curves show pressure drop over air nozzles, flow guide body (see Figure 2 for reference) and flame holder. Please note that engine efficiency values shown in Figure 9, lower right, are for guidance only, as the combustion chamber was equipped with a big un-insulated window with large radiative and convective heat losses. Furthermore, the combustion chamber was not properly insulated in these tests, and auxiliary power consumption is not included in the calculations.

Shortening of the mixing tube To make the combustion chamber fit into the engine’s cover box, the combustion chamber length had to be shortened. Earlier measurements [Ref. 5] have shown that a shorter mixing tube will result in lower ejector efficiency (i.e. lower CGR rate), but the impact on emissions is not obvious. It was decided to shorten the mixing tube from a length of 6.5 diameters to a length of less than 4 diameters.

Efficiency [%]

40 30 25 30 20 20 15 10 10 5 0 0 1.2 1.4 1.6
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λ
λ
NO x [ppm]
CH 4 [ppm]
CO [ppm]
1700 1650 1600 1550 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 Adiabatic flame temp [°C] CGR rate [%]
1700
1650
1600
1550
1.2 1.4
1.6
1.8
Adiabatic flame temp [°C]
CGR rate [%]

λ

75 70 65 60 55 50 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 Mixtube temp [°C]
75
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55
50
1.2 1.4
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Mixtube temp [°C]

λ

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300

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0

CGR=55% CGR=60% CGR=70%
CGR=55%
CGR=60%
CGR=70%
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 λ 665 CGR=55% CGR=60% CGR=70% 660 655 650 1.2 1.4 1.6
1.2 1.4
1.6
1.8
λ
665
CGR=55%
CGR=60%
CGR=70%
660
655
650
1.2 1.4
1.6
1.8

λ

Figure 8 – Emissions 991005, radial flame holder, 4 air nozzles, diameter Φ 0 , varied EGR/CGR rate 60 % load (18 kW). 1 marker represents 1000 samples

15 10 5 0 NO x [ppm] CH 4 [ppm]
15
10
5
0
NO x [ppm]
CH 4 [ppm]

10

8

6

4

2

0

1.6 1.8 2 λ 1900 1850 1800 1750 1700 1.6 1.8 2 Adiabatic flame temp
1.6 1.8
2
λ
1900
1850
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1700
1.6
1.8
2
Adiabatic flame temp [°C]
CGR rate [%]

50

40

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λ

29 1000 800 28 600 400 27 200 26 0 1.6 1.8 2 Thermal Power
29
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800
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26
0
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1.8
2
Thermal Power [kW]
Pressure drop [mmH 2 O]

λ

Φ nozzle = Φ 0 Φ nozzle = Φ 1 Φ nozzle = Φ 2
Φ nozzle = Φ 0
Φ nozzle = Φ 1
Φ nozzle = Φ 2
1.6 1.8
2
CO [ppm]

λ

200

150

100

50

650 640 630 620 1.6 1.8 2 Mixtube temp [°C]
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1.6 1.8
2
Mixtube temp [°C]

λ

High values=total, low=ejector only
High values=total, low=ejector only

30

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24

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1.6 1.8
2

λ

low=ejector only 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 1.6 1.8 2 λ 1.6 1.8 2
1.6 1.8 2 λ CGR=55% CGR=60% CGR=70%
1.6 1.8
2
λ
CGR=55%
CGR=60%
CGR=70%

1.6

1.8

2

1.6

1.8

2

λ

λ

Figure 9 – Emissions for radial flame holder, comparison between 4 air nozzles diameter φ 0 , φ 1 , φ 2 ; V160 lab engine at 12Mpa cycle pressure and 1500rpm. 1 marker represents 1000 samples

Lowering of combustion chamber pressure drop Lowering combustor pressure losses is important for two reasons; first, low pressure drop will minimize air blower demands and thus auxiliary power consumption. Secondly, it is necessary to have a pressure inside the mixing tube that is lower than the gas supply pressure or no fuel can be fed to the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the mixing tube pressure should be low enough to allow a sufficient pressure difference over the gas-flow regulating device to allow reasonably accurate control of the gas flow. The main part of the combustor pressure drop is in two components; in the air preheater and in the air nozzles. The pressure drop in the preheater is hard to reduce, and can be regarded as “useful” pressure drop. Also the pressure drop in the air nozzle(s) can be regarded as useful as it drives the recirculation flow and mixing of the unburnt mixture, but as can be concluded from Figure 9 it is possible to lower the nozzle pressure drop (i.e. increasing nozzle diameter) considerably and still have a high enough recirculation rate to get acceptable emissions. On the other hand, lowering the recirculation rate will mean that we have to increase λ (read: air flow) to keep below a certain emission level, which in turn will lead to higher pressure losses in preheater and nozzles. As often is the case, we end up in a trade-off between different goals – it is all about finding the right balance.

Adaptation to 100 mbar natural gas supply pressure The Lund engine laboratory is equipped with a 3.6 bar (absolute) natural gas grid used for running the engines. At the location chosen for the field test of the engine, grid pressure is only 100 mbar, as is it for many end users. Therefore it was necessary to adapt the lab burner to this lower gas pressure, in order to analyse the impact on combustor performance. A larger gas nozzle had to be fitted, along with

a 100 mbar pressure regulator on the gas supply line. At start the lab’s integrated proportional gas

valve and precision mass flow meter, mounted on the high-pressure side of the pressure regulator, was used for combustion power control. Later its valve function was overtaken by low-pressure gas flow regulators (see Tests with different gas flow regulating devices below). However, the mass flow metering function was retained during all tests, with the integrated valve in the fully opened position. Tests showed that the combustor, after adaptation, could be run with a supply gas pressure of less than

100 mbar.

Tests with different gas flow regulating devices Different gas regulator valves were tried. Extensive tests with an electromagnetic proportional valve were made. The tests showed that the valve had too poor control characteristics. The hysteresis was far from negligible, and both precision and accuracy were bad. If an oscillating control signal to the valve was used, valve performance was improved, but not enough to make it satisfactory.

Design of the new combustion chamber

All information gained in current and earlier lab tests was applied in the designing of the new SOLO 161 combustion chamber. The main design is retained from the lab combustion chamber, but redesigning was made to get a light but rugged construction. Special care was put into making the combustor ready for cheap mass production. Apart from the air preheater all parts are easily manufactured from sheet metal. The use of expensive materials has been minimized. The design allows multiple dismantling of the combustor, to make replacements of all parts possible, an important feature for a prototype combustor. The innards of the combustor are shown in (Figure 10).

Redesign of flame holder and its supports

During the tests with the new SOLO 161 combustion chamber, the flame holder broke due to thermal

or mechanical stresses and fell off the mixing tube end. (But, amazingly, the combustor still worked!). Both the flame holder and the combustion chamber’s internal support for the flame holder were redesigned, and there has been no further problem with the combustion chamber after that.

Figure 10 – Combustor intestines Left: Flame hol der and flame shield attached to mixtube

Figure 10 – Combustor intestines

Left:

Flame holder and flame shield attached to mixtube

Middle:

CGR backplate w nozzles attached to mixtube inlet

Right:

Air preheater fitted outside CGR backplate.

Control system

Combustion control gets more and more important as demands on emission reductions gets tougher and tougher. To reach near-zero emission levels over a wide operating range, sophisticated combustion parameter control is needed. The fact that the Stirling engine combustor is very complicated, with high air preheat temperature and a need of a wide power range does in no way lessen the demands on the combustion control system. Strict mission control may lead to the need for varying air-fuel ratio (λ) over the power range, as the minimum emissions λ is generally not the same at low load as it is at high load. It also means that there must be some way to estimate λ in real-time. Work on real-time λ estimation using neural networks has been made at Lund and Halmstad Universities [Ref.s 7, 8]. An added control problem with the Stirling combustion chamber is its relatively high pressure losses because of the air preheating. The pressure loss is even higher when lean burn, EGR or CGR is used. The problem is that the air density is decreasing with increasing temperature, while the pressure loss is increasing with decreasing air density. At combustor operating temperature the pressure drop is more than doubled compared with the same massflow at cold conditions. This means that the air-blower characteristics affect start-up λ control. One way to control combustion λ dynamically is to us a lean lambda probe for real-time λ estimation. On the SOLO 161 combustor another (though not as exact) solution was chosen. For normal operation (hot engine) a Kromschröder air/gas ratio control is used. The air/gas ratio controller works by regulating inlet gas pressure so that it is the same as the air inlet pressure, measured at some suitable location. (c.f. Figure 11, NG pressure regulator). Then the air-fuel ratio is determined by an adjustable needle valve on the fuel line. No real-time air-fuel adjustment is done. During combustor start an on- off choke gas valve (c.f. Figure 11, Choke valve) in series with a restricting orifice on a parallel fuel line, bypassing the Kromschröder control, is used for cold start gas flow control. At combustion start the air blower is run at a calculated rpm, and the orifice-controlled gasflow is used for gas supply. When the combustor is hot enough for the Kromschröder control to start working, the air flow is increased an the fuel line feeding the Kromschröder control is opened. When the combustor temperature is close to operating temperature the choke valve is closed, and now the gas flow will be determined, via the Kromschröder control, by the air flow. The start sequence is shown in Figure 12.

E lectro n ic co n tro l u n it P rim ary m
E lectro n ic
co n tro l u n it
P rim ary
m ain NG
valve
S econdary
m ain NG
va lve
C hoke valve
NG
A ir blower
S park plug
M ain switc h
generato r
380 V
50 H z
NG p ress ure
regulator
C om bustio n
cham be r
E lectr(o n)ic
A ir
NG

Figure 11 – Schematic drawing of gas valves and control arrangement

S TA RT E N GIN E !– Schematic drawing of gas valves and control arrangement RU N B LO W E R

RU N B LO W E R A T MAX RP M W A IT
RU N B LO W E R
A T MAX RP M
W A IT
T IM E
t0
T H E >
T COL D STA R T?
NO
YES
NO
T H E >
T HO T STA R T?
YES
RU N B LO W E R
A T L OW
RP M
RU N B LO W E R
A T ME D IUM
RP M
TU RN
O N
IG N IT IO N
OPEN PR IMA R Y
MA IN GAS VALVE
OPEN C HOK E
GAS VALV E
W A IT
TIM E
t IG N
TU RN OFF
IG N IT IO N
IS THE RE A
FLA ME ?
NO
YES
T H E > TS TA RT, LO W? NO
T H E >
TS TA RT, LO W?
NO
THE RE A FLA ME ? NO YES T H E > TS TA RT, LO

YES

OP E N SE C OND A R Y MA IN GA S VALVE

RU N B LO W E R A T ME D IUM RP M NO
RU N B LO W E R
A T ME D IUM
RP M
NO
T H E >
TS TA RT, H IG H?
E R A T ME D IUM RP M NO T H E > TS TA

YES

TU RN O N GE NE RA TO R NO T H E > T
TU RN O N
GE NE RA TO R
NO
T H E >
T CH OK E O FF?
TU RN O N GE NE RA TO R NO T H E > T CH

YES

C LOS E C HOK E GAS VALV E NO T H E >= T
C LOS E C HOK E
GAS VALV E
NO
T H E >=
T CO NTROL?

YES

E NG INE IS N OW HO T A ND RUNNING OK !

RU N IN TE MP E RA TURE C O N TR OL M OD E

(M A IN C ON TROL LO OP - N ORM A L OPERA TION)

Figure 12 – Generalised engine start sequence

Operation of the new combustor mounted on the SOLO 161 engine.

When the new combustor and control system mounted on the SOLO 161 engine, a suitable start-up sequence had to be determined (see above). The operation of engine and combustor hardware and software guards was checked. The engine combustor control was constantly adapted as the running experience increased. The combustor was mapped for emissions at different powers and air-fuel ratios (some data shown in figure 13). A suitable air-fuel ratio was chosen for engine operation at full load, and the gas-supply system adjusted accordingly. The only problem with the combustion chamber so far is the flame holder breakdown described above, plus that the choke gas line restriction had to be changed from an adjustable valve to a milled orifice as the valve did not give correct flow when warm. Running time of the engine is at the time of writing approximately 1300 hours, of which 1200 were run on location in Göteborg. During these 1200 hours the engine delivered approximately 6000 kWh .

50 C 3 H 8 [ppm] 45 P th =20.0kW 40 35 30 25 20
50
C 3 H 8 [ppm]
45
P th =20.0kW
40
35
30
25
20
CO/10 [ppm]
15
10
NO x [ppm]
5
0
1.4
1.45
1.5 λ
1.55
1.6
200 P th =27.5kW 180 160 140 C 3 H 8 [ppm] 120 100 80
200
P th =27.5kW
180
160
140
C 3 H 8 [ppm]
120
100
80
CO/10 [ppm]
60
40
20
NO x [ppm]
0
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2

λ

Figure 13 – Emissions for the new SOLO 161 combustor when in Lund. Note the emissions at λ≤1!

Project partners

Project partners are: Intersol*, Sydkraft AB/Sydgas*, Lund University, (Div. of Combustion Engines)*, Göteborg Energi*, Swedish Gas Center*, Vattenfall Naturgas, Helsingborg Energi, Lunds Energi, Stockholm Energi Gas, STEM - Swedish National Energy Administration (Sweden), SOLO Kleinmotoren* (Germany), Danish Gas Technology Center (Denmark), and EnergieNed (The Netherlands), where * denotes active partners.

References

1. Nilsson, Johan, “A study on a Low Emission Combustor - Lean Premix Prevaporize Concept”, ISRN LUTMDN/TMVK--7014-SE. Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1992.

2. G. Lundholm, P. Lundqvist and L. Erlandsson, “A Stirling-Electric Parallel Hybrid Engine system with Catalytic Combustion and Integrated Air Conditioning”, ISEC97002, 8 th ISEC, Ancona, May 27-30, 1997.

3. G. Lundholm, M. Pålsson, “First Trials with Direct Catalytic Combustion on the Heater Surface of a V160 Stirling Engine”, submitted and accepted for the 10 th ISEC, Osnabrück, Germany, Sept 24-26, 2001

4. D. Laing and M. Pålsson, “Hybrid Dish/Stirling systems: Combustor and Heat Pipe Receiver Development”, accepted for publication in ASME-Journal of Solar Energy Engineering

5. Pålsson, Magnus, “Design and Testing of Stirling Engine Premix CGR Combustor for Ultra Low Emissions”, ISEC97001, 8 th ISEC, Ancona, Italy, May 27-30, 1997

6.

Pålsson, Magnus, “Development and Field Test of a SOLO161 Stirling Engine based Micro-CHP unit with Ultra-Low Emissions, submitted and accepted for the 10 th ISEC,

Osnabrück, Germany, Sept 24-26, 2001

7. P. Jansson, M. Pålsson, T. Rögnvaldsson, A. Törner, “Neural Networks for Air-Fuel Estimation and Burner Control in a Micro-Cogen System”, ISEC99049, Pilanesburg, South Africa, 1999