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# 1

1−
= lim 𝑒 2𝑛 = 1 − 0 = 1 ( 𝑥𝑛 1)
1 ⟶
1 + 2𝑛 1 + 0
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞
𝑒

𝑛2 𝜋
5. (𝑥𝑛 ) = 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑛
2𝑛+1
𝑛2 𝜋 𝑛 𝜋
Solución: lim 𝑥𝑛 = lim 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑛 = lim 2𝑛+1 𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑛
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 2𝑛+1 𝑛⟶∞

𝑛 𝜋
= lim ( ) lim 𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛
𝑛⟶∞ 2𝑛 + 1 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛
𝜋 𝜋
1 𝑠𝑒𝑛 (𝑛) 1 (𝑛 ) 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
= . lim = 𝜋𝜋lim 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝜋 = (1) = ( 𝑥𝑛 ⟶ )
2 𝑛⟶∞ 1 2 ⟶0 2 2 𝑛⟶∞ 2
𝑛 𝑛
𝑛

𝑛+𝑎 2𝑛+3
6. (𝑥𝑛 ) = 𝑥𝑛 = ( ) ,𝑎 ∈ ℝ
𝑛+1
Solución:
lim 𝛼(𝑛)𝜓(𝑛)
Nota: lim (𝜑(𝑛))𝜓(𝑛) = 𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ si:
𝑛⟶∞
i) lim 𝜑(𝑛) = 1, ii) lim 𝜓(𝑛) = +∞, iii) 𝜑 = 1 + 𝛼(𝑛) ∕ 𝛼(𝑛) ⟶ 0
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞

## 𝑛+𝑎 𝑛+𝑎 𝑎−1

i) lim = 1, ii) lim (2𝑛 + 3) = +∞, iii) = 1 + 𝑛+1, donde
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛+1 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛+1

## 𝑎−1 𝑛 + 𝑎 2𝑛+3 𝑎−1

lim (𝑛+1)(2𝑛+3)
𝛼(𝑛) = 0 ⇒ lim 𝑥𝑛 = lim ( ) =𝑒 𝑛⟶∞
𝑛+1 ⟶ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛 + 1
𝑛⟶𝑎
2𝑛+3
(𝑎−1) lim ( )
=𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛+1 = 𝑒 2(𝑎−1) (𝑥𝑛 ⟶ 𝑒 2(𝑎−1) )
𝑛⟶∞
𝑛
7. (𝑥𝑛 ), 𝑥𝑛 = √𝑛2
Solución:
𝑛 2
lim 𝑥𝑛 = lim √𝑛2 = lim 𝑛2⁄𝑛 = lim 𝑒 𝑛𝐿𝑛(𝑛)
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞
1
𝐿𝑛(𝑛) 𝑛
2 lim 2 lim
=𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛 =𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ 1 = 𝑒 2(0) 𝑒 0 = 1

## Teorema 10. (Criterio del Emparedado o Principio de Encaje de Cantor). Sean

(𝑎𝑛 ), (𝑏𝑛 ) 𝑦 (𝑐𝑛 ) sucesiones de números reales, tal que: 𝑎𝑛 ≤ 𝑏𝑛 ≤ 𝑐𝑛 , ∀𝑛
suficientemente grande y lim 𝑎𝑛 = lim 𝑐𝑛 = lim 𝑏𝑛 = ℓ
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞
𝑛
Ejemplo 1. Calcular lim √2𝑛 + 3𝑛
𝑛⟶∞
Solución: como: 0 < 2 < 3𝑛 ⇒ 3𝑛 < 2𝑛 + 3𝑛 < 3𝑛 + 3𝑛
𝑛

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
⇒ 3𝑛 < 2𝑛 + 3𝑛 < 23𝑛 ⇒ √3𝑛 < √2𝑛 + 3𝑛 < √2𝑛 . 3𝑛
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
⇒ 3 < √2𝑛 + 3𝑛 < 3 √2 ⇒ 3 < lim √2𝑛 + 3𝑛 < 3 ⇒ lim √2𝑛 + 3𝑛 = 3
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞
1
𝑛 𝐿𝑛2
donde lim √2 = lim 21⁄𝑛 = lim 𝑒 𝑛
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞
1
𝐿𝑛2 lim 𝑛
=𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ = 𝑒0 = 1
𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!)
2. ( )
𝑛2 +1 𝑛≥1
Solución:
𝑛 𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!) 𝑛
−1 ≤ 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!) ≤ 1 ⇒ −𝑛 ≤ 𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!) ≤ 𝑛 ⇒ − ≤ ≤
𝑛2 + 1 𝑛2 + 1 𝑛2 + 1
𝑛 𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!) 𝑛
⇒ − lim ≤ lim ≤ lim
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛2 + 1 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛2 + 1 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛2 + 1
1 1
𝑛 ≤ lim 𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!) 𝑛
⇒ − lim ≤ lim
𝑛⟶∞ 1 2
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛 + 1 𝑛⟶∞ 1
1+ 2 1+ 2
𝑛 𝑛
𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!) 𝑛𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑛!)
⇒ −0 ≤ lim ≤ 0 ⇒ lim =0
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛2 + 1 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛2 + 1

1 1 1
3. (𝑣𝑛 ), 𝑣𝑛 = + + ⋯+
√𝑛2 +1 √𝑛2 +2 √𝑛2 +𝑛
Solución:
1 1 1 1
≥ ≤
√𝑛2 +1 √𝑛2 +1 √𝑛2 +𝑛 √𝑛2 +1

1 1 1 1
≥ ≤
√𝑛2 +1 √𝑛2 +2 √𝑛2 +𝑛 √𝑛2 +2
. .
. .
. .
. .
1 1 1 1
≥ ≤
√𝑛2 +1 √𝑛2 +𝑛 √𝑛2 +𝑛 √𝑛2 +𝑛
𝑛 𝑛
⇒ ≥ 𝑣𝑛 ⇒ ≤ 𝑣𝑛
√𝑛2 +1 √𝑛2 +𝑛
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
⇒ ≤ 𝑣𝑛 ≤ ⇒ lim ≤ lim 𝑣𝑛 ≤ lim
√𝑛2 + 𝑛 √𝑛2 + 1 𝑛⟶∞ √𝑛2 + 𝑛 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ √𝑛2 + 1

1 1
⇒ lim ≤ lim 𝑣𝑛 ≤ lim ⇒ 1 ≤ lim 𝑣𝑛 ≤ 1
𝑛⟶∞ 1 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 1 𝑛⟶∞
√1 + √1 +
𝑛 𝑛
∴ lim 𝑣𝑛 = 1
𝑛⟶∞

## Teorema 11. Sea (𝑎𝑛 ) una sucesión tal que:

𝑎𝑛+1
i) 𝑎𝑛 > 0, ∀ 𝑛 ∈ ℤ+ , 𝑖𝑖) lim
𝑛
= ℓ ⇒ lim √𝑎𝑛 = ℓ
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑎𝑛 𝑛⟶∞

## Ejemplo: Calcular lim 𝑣𝑛 si:

𝑛⟶∞
𝑛
1) (𝑣𝑛 ), 𝑣𝑛 = √2𝑛 + 3𝑛
Solución: i) 𝑎𝑛 = 2𝑛 + 3𝑛 > 0, ∀ 𝑛 ∈ ℤ+
2 2 𝑛
𝑎𝑛+1 2𝑛+1 +3𝑛+1 ( ) +1 0+1
3 3
ii) lim = lim = lim 𝑛 = 1 =3
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑎𝑛 𝑛⟶∞ 2𝑛 +3𝑛 𝑛⟶∞ (2) +1
1 0+3
3 3 3

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
⇒ lim 𝑣𝑛 = lim √2 + 3 = 3
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞
𝑛 𝑛!
2) (𝑣𝑛 ), 𝑣𝑛 = √ 𝑛
𝑛
𝑛!
Solución: i) 𝑎𝑛 = > 0, ∀ 𝑛 𝜖 ℤ+
𝑛𝑛
𝑎𝑛+1 (𝑛+1)! 𝑛𝑛 (𝑛+1)𝑛! 𝑛𝑛
iii) lim = lim (𝑛+1)𝑛+1
= lim = lim
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑎𝑛 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛!(𝑛+1)𝑛 (𝑛+1) 𝑛⟶∞ (𝑛+1)𝑛
𝑛!
𝑛𝑛
𝑛 𝑛 1
= lim ( 𝑛 ) = 𝑛⟶∞
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛+1
1
lim (1 − 𝑛+1 lim (− )𝑛
) = 𝑒𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛+1

𝑛
−lim 1 𝑎𝑛+1
= 𝑒 𝑛⟶∞𝑛+1 = 𝑒 −1 = 𝑒 ⇒ lim = 𝑒 −1
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑎𝑛

𝑛 𝑛! 1
⇒ lim 𝑣𝑛 =⇒ lim √𝑛𝑛 = 𝑒
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞
𝑛
3. (𝑣𝑛 ), 𝑣𝑛 = √𝑛5 + 𝑛4

Solución. i) 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑛5 + 𝑛4 > 0, ∀ 𝑛 ∈ ℤ+
𝑎𝑛+1 (𝑛+1)5 +(𝑛+1)4 𝑛
ii) lim = lim = 1 ⇒ lim √𝑛5 + 𝑛4 = 1
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑎𝑛 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛5 +𝑛4 𝑛⟶∞

• También así:
𝑛
lim √𝑛5 + 𝑛4 = lim (𝑛5 + 𝑛4 )1⁄𝑛
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞

## 5𝑛4 +4𝑛3 5𝑛4 +4𝑛3

1 5 4 lim
lim 𝐿𝑛(𝑛5 +𝑛4 ) lim 𝑛 +𝑛 =𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛5 +𝑛4
= 𝑒 𝑛⟶∞𝑛 = 𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ 1
1 1
5 +4 2
lim 𝑛 1𝑛 0+0 0
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛
1+𝑛
= 𝑒 =𝑒 1 = 𝑒 1 = 𝑒 0 = 1 ⇒ lim √𝑛5 + 𝑛4 = 1
𝑛⟶∞

Teorema 12. (Teorema de la Media Aritmética) sea (𝑎𝑛 ) una sucesión tal que
𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛
lim 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎 ⇒ lim ( )=𝑎
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛
3
1+√2+ √3+ 4√4+⋯+ 𝑛√𝑛
Ejemplo: 1. Calcular: lim
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛

## Solución. Sea (𝑎𝑛 ) la sucesión tal que 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑛√𝑛, donde:

3
𝑎1 = 1, 𝑎2 = √2, 𝑎3 = √3, … , 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑛√𝑛
1
𝐿𝑛(𝑛)
Calculando lim 𝑎𝑛 = lim √𝑛 = lim (𝑛)1⁄𝑛 = lim 𝑒 𝑛
𝑛
𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛⟶∞

1
𝐿𝑛(𝑛) 𝑛
lim lim 𝑛
=𝑒 𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛 =𝑒 𝑛→∞ 1 = 𝑒 0 = 1 ⇒ lim 𝑎𝑛 = lim √𝑛 = 1. Entonces por el
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞
3
1+√2+ √3+⋯+ 𝑛√𝑛
T.M.A. se tiene que: lim ( ) = 1∎
𝑛→∞ 𝑛

1 8 15 7𝑛+1
2. Calcular: lim 𝑣𝑛 𝑠𝑖 𝑣𝑛 = 2 ( + 4 + ⋯ + 𝑛+2 )
𝑛→∞ √𝑛 +4𝑛+1 3

1 8 15 7𝑛+1
Solución. lim 𝑣𝑛 = lim = 2 ( + 4 + ⋯ + 𝑛+2 )
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞ √𝑛 +4𝑛+1 3

8 15 7𝑛 + 1
(3 + 4 + ⋯ + 𝑛 + 2 )
𝑛
lim =
𝑛→∞ √𝑛2 + 4𝑛 + 1 𝑛
8 15 7𝑛 + 1
1 + 4 + ⋯+ 𝑛 + 2
lim = . lim ( 3 ) = 1.7 = 7∎
𝑛→∞ 4 1 𝑛→∞ 𝑛
√1 + + 2
𝑛 𝑛
7𝑛+1 8 15 7𝑛+1
Sea (𝑎𝑛 ), 𝑎𝑛 = , 𝑎1 = 3 , 𝑎2 = , … , 𝑎𝑛 = =
𝑛+2 4 𝑛+2

7𝑛 + 1
𝑦 lim 𝑎𝑛 = lim =7
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞ 𝑛 + 2

Teorema 12. (Teorema de la Media geométrica), sea (𝑎𝑛 ) una sucesión tal que:
𝑎𝑛 > 0 ∧ lim 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎 ⇒ lim 𝑛√𝑎1 . 𝑎2 … 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞

𝑛 2 6 𝑛!
Ejemplo. 1. Calcular: lim √1. . … 𝑛𝑛
4 27

𝑛! 2 6 𝑛!
Sea (𝑎𝑛 ) = ( ), donde 𝑎𝑛 = 1, 𝑎2 = 4 , 𝑎3 = 27 , … , 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑛𝑛
𝑛𝑛
𝑛! 1
Calculando lim 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎 ⇒ lim 𝑛 = lim 𝑛 𝑛𝑛 𝑒 −𝑛 √2𝜋𝑛
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞ 𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑛

1
√2𝜋𝑛 √𝑛 2√𝑛 √2𝜋 1 √2𝜋
= lim = √2𝜋 lim = √2𝜋 lim = lim = (0) = 0
𝑛→∞ 𝑒 𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑒 𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑒 𝑛 2 𝑛→∞ √𝑛𝑒 𝑛 2
𝑛!
⇒ lim 𝑎𝑛 = lim =0
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞ 𝑛𝑛

𝑛2 6 𝑛!
⇒ lim √1. . … 𝑛 = 0∎
𝑛→∞ 4 27 𝑛

## Teorema 13 (Criterio de la Razón).

𝑎𝑛+1
Sea la sucesión (𝑎𝑛 ) tal que: lim | | = 𝑟. Entonces:
𝑛→∞ 𝑎𝑛

## a) Si 𝑟 < 1 entonces 𝑎𝑛 ⟶ 0 ( lim 𝑎𝑛 = 0)

𝑛⟶∞ 𝑛→∞
b) Si 𝑟 = 1 entonces no podemos afirmar si converge o diverge.
c) Si 𝑟 > 1 entonces la sucesión es divergente.
𝑎𝑛
Ejemplo: 1. 𝑎 ∈ ℝ, (𝑎𝑛 ) = ( )
𝑛! 𝑛≥1

𝑎𝑛+1
𝑎𝑛+1 (𝑛+1)!
Solución. Calculamos: : 𝑟 = lim | | = lim | 𝑎𝑛 |
𝑛→∞ 𝑎𝑛 𝑛→∞
𝑛!

𝑛! 𝑎 𝑛 𝑎 1
= lim | | |
| = 𝑎 lim ( ) = |𝑎 | = 0, ∀ 𝑎 ∈ ℝ ⇒
𝑛→∞ (𝑛 + 1)𝑛! 𝑎 𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑛 + 1

𝑎𝑛+1 𝑎𝑛
𝑟 = lim | | = 0 < 1 ⇒ lim 𝑎𝑛 = lim = 0∎
𝑛→∞ 𝑎𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞ 𝑛!

## Teorema 14. Si 𝑓: [0, 1] ⟶ ℝ es una función continua en [0, 1]

𝑛 1
1 𝑘
⇒ lim ∑ 𝑓 ( ) = ∫ 𝑓(𝑥 )𝑑𝑥
𝑛→∞ 𝑛 𝑛
𝑘=1 0
1 1 1
Ejemplo: 1. Calcular lim 𝑣𝑛 𝑠𝑖 𝑣𝑛 = + + ⋯+
𝑛→∞ √𝑛2 +1 2 √𝑛2+2 2 √𝑛2+𝑛2
1 1 1
Solución. 𝑣𝑛 = + + ⋯+
√𝑛2 +1 2 √𝑛2+2 2 √𝑛2 +𝑛2
1 1 1
= 2
+ 2
+⋯+
1 2 𝑛2
𝑛√1+ 2 𝑛√1+ 2 𝑛√1+ 2
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
1 1 1 1
= 𝑛( 2
+ 2
+ ⋯+ 2
)
√1+(1 ) √1+( 2) √1+(𝑛)
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛

1 1
= 𝑛 ∑𝑛𝑘=1 2
√1+(𝑘)
𝑛

𝑛 1
1 1 1
⇒ lim 𝑣𝑛 lim ∑ =∫ 𝑑𝑥
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞ 𝑛 2 √1 + 𝑥 2
𝑘=1 √1 𝑘 0
+( )
𝑛
1 1
∫ 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃𝑑𝜃 = ∫ 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃𝑑𝜃 = 𝐿𝑛|𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃 + 𝑡𝑔𝜃|
√1 + 𝑥2 √1 + 𝑡𝑔2 𝜃
𝑥 = 𝑡𝑔𝜃 = 𝐿𝑛|√𝑥 2 + 1 + 𝑥|
1
𝑑𝑥 = 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝜃𝑑𝜃 ⇒ lim = 𝐿𝑛√𝑥 2 + 1 + 𝑥]0
𝑛→∞
𝑥
𝑡𝑔𝜃 = 1 = 𝐿𝑛|√2 + 1| − 𝐿𝑛|1 + 0|

## = 𝐿𝑛(1 + √2) − 0 = 𝐿𝑛(1 + √2)

𝑛+1+√𝑛+2+√𝑛+3+⋯+√𝑛+𝑛
2. (𝑣𝑛 ), 𝑣𝑛 = √
𝑛√𝑛

## 1 𝑛+1 𝑛+2 𝑛+3 𝑛+𝑛

Solución. 𝑣𝑛 = (√ +√ +√ +⋯+ √ )
𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛

1 1 2 3 𝑛
= 𝑛 (√1 + 𝑛 + √1 + 𝑛 + √1 + 𝑛 + ⋯ + √1 + 𝑛)

1 𝑘 1 𝑘 1
= 𝑛 ∑𝑛𝑘=1 √1 + 𝑛 ⇒ lim 𝑣𝑛 = lim 𝑛 (∑𝑛𝑘=1 √1 + 𝑛 = ∫0 √1 + 𝑥𝑑𝑥)
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞

1
1 (1 + 𝑥 )3⁄2 2 2
= ∫ (1 + 𝑥)1⁄2 𝑑(𝑥 + 1) = ] = (√23 − 1) = (2√2 − 1)
0
3 3 3
2 0
Teorema 14. (Criterio de Stolz-Cesario)

𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞

## b) (𝑏𝑛 ) es monótona y lim 𝑏𝑛 = +∞, entonces

𝑛→∞
𝑎𝑛 𝑎𝑛+1 −𝑎𝑛
lim = lim
𝑛→∞ 𝑏𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑏𝑛+1 −𝑏𝑛

𝑛→∞

(1) 𝑣𝑛 =
𝑛3

## Solución. Sea (𝑎𝑛 ), 𝑎𝑛 = 12 + 22 + 32 + ⋯ + 𝑛2 ∧ (𝑏𝑛 ), 𝑏𝑛 = 𝑛3

𝑏𝑛 = 𝑛3 es creciente pues: 𝑏𝑛+1 − 𝑏𝑛 = (𝑛 + 1)3 − 𝑛3
= 𝑛3 + 3𝑛2 + 3𝑛 + 1 − 𝑛3 = 3𝑛2 + 3𝑛 + 1 > 0, ∀ 𝑛 ∈ ℤ+ ⇒ 𝑏𝑛+1 − 𝑏𝑛 > 0
⇒ 𝑏𝑛 < 𝑏𝑛+1 ∧ lim 𝑏𝑛 = lim 𝑛3 = +∞
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞

## 𝑎𝑛 𝑎𝑛+1 − 𝑎𝑛 (12 + 22 + 32 + ⋯ + 𝑛2 + (𝑛 + 1)2 ) − (12 + 22 + ⋯ + 𝑛2 )

⇒ lim = lim = lim = +∞
𝑛→∞ 𝑏𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑏𝑛+1 − 𝑏𝑛 𝑛→∞ (𝑛 + 1)3 − 𝑛3

(𝑛 + 1)2 1 12 + 22 + 32 + ⋯ + 𝑛 2 1
= lim 2 = ⇒ lim =
𝑛→∞ 3𝑛 + 3𝑛 + 1 3 𝑛→∞ 𝑛3 3
Ahora usando la fórmula:
𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1)
12 + 2 2 + 32 + ⋯ + 𝑛 2 =
6
1 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1)
12 + 22 + ⋯ + 𝑛2
⇒ lim 𝑣𝑛 = lim 3 = lim 6
𝑛→∞ 𝑛→∞ 𝑛 𝑛→∞ 𝑛3
3 1
1 2𝑛3 + 3𝑛2 + 𝑛 1 2+𝑛+ 2
= lim = lim ( 𝑛 )=1
6 𝑛→∞ 𝑛3 6 𝑛→∞ 𝐿 3

1𝑝 +2𝑝 +⋯+𝑛𝑝
2. 𝑣𝑛 = 𝑛𝑝+1

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