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Understand the manufacture of

sulphuric acid.
Synthesise the manufacture of
ammonia and its salts.
 Understand alloys.

 Evaluate the uses of synthetic

 Apply the uses of glass and

Evaluate the uses of composite
 Appreciate various synthetic

industrial materials.


1. Sulphuric acid is used to produce chemical fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate and
potassium sulphate, which are highly soluble in water and can be easily obsorbed by
2. Car batteries contain sulphuric acid which is used as the electrolyte.
3. Sulphuric acid also used in the making of artificial silk-like fibres and
4. Chemical like paints, dyes and drug use sulphuric acid as one of their
component materials.


1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured in industry though contact process
2. The process contain three stage

STAGE1: Production Of Sulphur Dioxide From Sulphur

i. Combustion of sulphur or sulphide ores in the air produce sulphur dioxide SO2.

ii. sulphur dioxide is dried and purified.

STAGE2: Production Of Sulphur Trioxide From Sulphur Dioxide

i. The purified sulphur dioxide SO2 and excess air are passed over vanadium(V)
oxide V2O5 at controlled optimum condition optimum condition to produce sulphur
trioxide SO3.
2SO2(g)+O2(g) 2SO3(g)
ii. The optimum used are
a) Temperature:450-500°C
b) Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres
c) Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide
iii. Under controlled optimum conditions, 98% conversion is possible. Sulphur dioxide
and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over the catalyst
in the converter.

STAGE3: Conversion of trioxide to sulphuric acid

i. Sulphur trioxide SO2 is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4 to form oleum
H2S2O7 which is then diluted with water to form sulphuric acid H2SO4.


H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)2H2SO4(aq)

ii. The two reactions in stage3 are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide directly into


iii. The addition of sulphur trioxide directly into is not carried out because the reaction
is vary vigorous; a lot of heat is given off. As a result, alarge cloud of sulphuric acid
fumes is produced, which is corrosive and causes severe air pollution.

The Contact Process

Sulph Oxyge
ur nnn
In the converter
S(s) + 2SO(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
O2(g)SO2(g) Temperature: 450-500°C
Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres
Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide
Oxyge 2%so2 is
flowed back
to converter
together with
SO2(g) +
H2S2O7(l) +
H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq)

1. Sulphur dioxide is one of the by-product of contact process. It is a colourless and

poisonous gas with a vary pungent smell.
2. Sulphur dioxide which escape into the air causes air pollution.
3. Sulphur dioxide is an acidic which dissolves in water to form sulphurous acidic,
H2SO3. In the atmosphere, sulphur dioxide dissolve in water droplets to form
sulphurous acidic.

SO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO3(aq)

4. Oxidation of sulphur acid by oxygen produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4, which falls to
the earth as acid rain. Sulphur trioxide is also easily oxidised in the air to form
sulphur trioxide. Sulphur trioxide dissolve in rainwater to produce sulphuric acid.

SO3(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO4(aq)

Acid rain and environmental pollution


1. Ammonia that is produce commercially has many uses.
2. It uses:
i. In the manufacture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonia
nitric, ammonia phosphate and urea.
ii. To manufacture nitric acid and explosive.
iii. In the making of synthetic fibre and nylon.
iv. As a degreasing agent in aqueous form to remove greasy stains in the kitchen.


1. The physical properties of ammonia gas include the following:
i. It colourless and has a pungent odour.
ii. It is vary soluble in water and form a weak alkaline solution.
iii. It less dense then water.
iv. It easily liquified (at about 35.5°C) when cool.
2. The chemical properties of ammonia gas:
a) Ammonia gas dissolves in water to form a weak alkali.

NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

b) The presence of hydroxide icon causes the aqueous solution to become alkaline. Thus
aqueous ammonia solution:
i. Turns red litmus paper blue.
ii. Reacts with acid to form only salt and waterin neutralization reaction.

NH3(aq) + HCI(aq)  NH4CI(aq)

2NH3 + H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq)

iii. Reacts with solution of metallic cations to produce precipitates.

Fe²+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Fe (OH)2(s)

(Form ammonia
solution) Dirty green precipitate


1. Ammonia is manufacture on a large scale in industry through the haber process. In
this process, ammonia is formed form direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen
gas in the volume ratio 1:3.
2. The gas nitrogen obtain form the fractional distillation of liquefied air. The hydrogen
gas is obtained form the cracking of petroleum or from the catalysed reaction of
natural gas, CH4, with steam.

CH4(g) + H2O(g)  CO(g) + 3H2(g)

3. The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases is passed over an iron catalyst under
controlled optimum condition as below to form ammonia gas.
i. Temperature: 450-500°C
ii. Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres
iii. Catalyst used: Iron fillings

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

4. Under these control optimum condition, only 15% of the gas mixture turn into ammonia
gas. The nitrogen and hydrogen that have not reacted are then flow back over the
catalyst again in the reactor chamber.
5. The ammonia product is then cooled at a low temperature so that it condenses into a
liquid in the cooling chamber.

The Haber Process

Nitrogen Hydrogen

N2 and H2 are mixed in the proportion of

1:3 In the reactor chamber Unreacted N2 and
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NHIn(g)cooling chamber
H2 gases
Temperature: 450-500°C
Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres
Catalyst used:ammonia
Iron fillings
Outline Of Habert process

1. Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins which are necessary
for growth and cell repair.
2. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen supply directly from the air although it is
abundant in the air (78%). Plants can only absorb soluble nitrogen compounds from
soil through their roots.

3. The nitrogen compounds are usually soluble nitric salt, ammonia and ammonia salt
which are manufacture as chemical fertilizer.
4. Reactions of ammonia with acids produce ammonium fertilizers.

NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq)  NH4NO3(aq)

Ammonium nitrate

3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq)  (NH4)3PO4(aq)


2NH3(aq) +H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq)

Ammonium sulphate

1. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. This causes the metal to have
a hight density
2. The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong. More heat
energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the atoms are further apart
during the melting. This is why metals usually have hight melting point.
3. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This
make metal good conduct of heat.
4. The freely moving outermost electrons within the metal’s structure are able to
conduct electricity. Metal are, therefore, good electrical conductors.
5. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size, they are arranged orderly in a
regular layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal, layer of atom slide
easily over one another. This make pure metals soft, malleable and ductile.

Layer of atom slide


Metals are ductile

The shape of the

Force metal change

Matel are malleable

1. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. They also have a low resistance to
corrosion. They rush and tarnish easily.
2. To improve the physical properties of metal, a small amount of another element
(usually metal) is added to form another an alloy.
3. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something non-metal) in a specific
proportion. For example:
a. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin)
b. Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon)
4. The purposes of making alloys include the following:
a) Increase the strength
i. Pure iron is soft and vary malleable. When a small amount of carbon is added
to iron, an alloy, steal is formed. The more carbon is added, the stronger
the steel becomes.
ii. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. With a small amount of copper and
magnesium are added to aluminium, a strong, light and durable alloy call
duralumin is produced.
b) Improving the resistance to corrosion
i. Iron rust easily but stainless steel which contains 80.6% of iron, 0.4% of
carbon, 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush. These properties
make stainless steel suitable for making surgical instrument and cutlery.
ii. Pure copper tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added, the yellow alloy which
is known as brass develops a high resistance to corrosion.
c) Enhancing the appearance
i. Pewter, an alloy of tin (97%), antimony and copper is not only hard but also
has a more beautiful white silvery appearance.
ii. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel, an alloy that has an
attractive silvery, bright appearance is formed which is suitable for making

Alloy Composition Properties Uses
High carbon steel 99% iron Strong,hard and • Making of cutting
1% carbon high wear resistance tools, hammers
and chisels
Stainless steel 80.6% iron Do not rust and • Making of surgical
0.4% carbon tarnish, strong and instrument, knives
18%chromium durable forks and spoons
1% nickel
Brass 70% copper Hard, do not rust, • Making of
30% zinc bright appearance ornaments,
electrical wiring
and plug.
Bronze 90% copper Hard, do not • For casting bells,
10% tin corrode easily and medals, swords
durable and statues
Pewter 90% tin Ductile and • Making of
2.5% copper malleable, white ornaments,
0.5% antimony silvery appearance souvenirs and mugs
Duralumin 95% aluminium Light, strong and • Making part of
4% copper durable aircrafts and
1%magnesium racing cars
Cupronickel 75%copper Attractive, silvery • Making of silver
25%nickel appearance, hard coins
and tough
Composition, properties and uses of alloys

The formation of alloy

1. Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar units joined
together repeatedly are called polymer.
2. The smaller molecules that make up the repeating unit in polymer are caller monomer.
3. The process of joining together a large number of monomers to form a long chain
polymer is called polymerisation.
4. Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). Natural polymer are
found in plant and in animals for example of natural polymers are starch cellulose,
protein and rubber.
5. Two type of polymerisation in producing synthetic polymer are additional
6. Double bonds between two carbon atoms usually undergo addition polymerisation.

Some Common Addition Polymers

Name(s) Formula Monomer Properties Uses

Polyethylene ethylene film wrap, plastic

–(CH2-CH2)n– soft, waxy solid
low density (LDPE) CH2=CH2 bags

Polyethylene electrical
ethylene rigid, translucent
high density –(CH2-CH2)n– insulation
CH2=CH2 solid
(HDPE) bottles, toys

atactic: soft, elastic

–[CH2- propylene solid similar to LDPE
(PP) different
CH(CH3)]n– CH2=CHCH3 isotactic: hard, carpet, upholstery
strong solid

Poly(vinyl chloride) –(CH2- vinyl chloride pipes, siding,

strong rigid solid
(PVC) CHCl)n– CH2=CHCl flooring

Poly(vinylidene vinylidene
dense, high-melting
chloride) –(CH2-CCl2)n– chloride seat covers, films
(Saran A) CH2=CCl2

Polystyrene –[CH2- styrene hard, rigid, clear toys, cabinets

(PS) CH(C6H5)]n– CH2=CHC6H5 solid packaging

soluble in organic

Polyacrylonitrile high-melting solid

–(CH2- acrylonitrile rugs, blankets
(PAN, Orlon, soluble in organic
CHCN)n– CH2=CHCN clothing
Acrilan) solvents

Polytetrafluoroeth tetrafluoroeth non-stick surfaces

resistant, smooth
ylene –(CF2-CF2)n– ylene electrical
(PTFE, Teflon) CF2=CF2 insulation

Poly(methyl methyl
–[CH2- lighting covers,
methacrylate) methacrylate hard, transparent
C(CH3)CO2C signs
(PMMA, Lucite, CH2=C(CH3)CO2 solid
H3]n– skylights
Plexiglas) CH3

–(CH2- vinyl acetate

Poly(vinyl acetate) latex paints,
CHOCOCH3)n CH2=CHOCOCH soft, sticky solid
(PVAc) adhesives
– 3

–[CH2- isoprene requires

CH=C(CH3)- CH2=CH- soft, sticky solid vulcanization
natural rubber
CH2]n– C(CH3)=CH2 for practical use

Polychloroprene –[CH2- chloroprene

synthetic rubber
(cis + trans) CH=CCl- CH2=CH- tough, rubbery solid
oil resistant
(Neoprene) CH2]n– CCl=CH2
Uses of synthetic polymers


1. Synthetic polymers have many advantages over other type of materials:
a. They are cheap, light-weight and translucent.
b. They are easily coloured, easily moulded and shaped.
c. They are non-corrosive, waterproof and good insulator.
d. They are durable and long lasting because they are resistant to decay, rusting
and chemical attacks.
2. There are disadvantage using synthetic polymer:
a. Most of the synthetic polymer are flammable. When a synthetic polymer
material catches fire, poisonous fumes are produce causing air pollution.
b. Synthetic polymers are non-biodegradable. When there are discharge, they
cause litter problem and pollute the environment.
c. Plastic container that are left aside in an open area collect rainwater which
becomes the breeding ground for mosquitoes.

d. There are limitation in recycle have to be separated out as the addition of
non-recyclable polymers in the mixture affect the properties of the recycled

1. Glass is one of the most useful but inexpensive materials in the world. Many products
are made from glass because of its specials properties.
2. Glass is:
a. Transparent, hard but brittle.
b. A heat and electric insulator.
c. Resistant to corrosion.
d. Chemical not reaction and therefore resistant to chemical attack.
e. Easy to maintain.

Type of glass Composition Properties Uses

Fused glass SiO2: 100% • Transparent • Lens
• High melting point • Telescope mirrors
• Good heat • Laboratory
insulator apparatus
Soda-lime glass SiO2: 75% • Low melting point, • Drinking glass,
Na2O:15% easily molded into bottles
CaO: 9% desired shape and • Electric bulbs
Other:1% size • Window glass
• Low resistant to
chemical attacks
• Brittle
Borosilicate glass SiO2: 78% • Resistant chemical • Cooking utensils
B2O3: 12% attack and durable • Laboratory
Na2O: 5% • High melting point glassware such as
CaO: 3% • Good insulator to conical flaks and
Al2O3:2% heat boiling tube
Lead crystal glass SiO2: 70% • High refractive • Lenses and prisms
(flint glass) Pbo/PbO2:20% index • Decorative
Na2O: 10% • High density glassware and art
• Attractive object
glittering • Imation jewellery

1. Traditional silicate ceramics are made by heating aluminosilicate clay such as kaolin to
a vary high temperature.
2. Ceramics have many special properties that make them one of the most useful
materials in our everyday life. That:
a.Are hard, strong but brittle
b.Have high melting point and remain stable at high temperature
c. Are heat and electric instrument
d.Are resistant to corrosion and wear
e.Are chemically not reactive
f. Do not readily deform under stress
3. Ceramic play important role in our daily life. They are uses as
a.Construction materials
i. Ceramic are strong and hard, uses to make roof tiles, bricks cement, sinks,
and toilet bowls.
ii. They are also used to make refractory bricks because high resistant to heat.
b.Decorative items
i. To make pottery, china plates, and porcelain vases since they do not tarnish
easily and are durable.
ii. They are used to make bathroom fixture such as floor and wall tiles.
c. Electrical insulator
i. Ceramic are used to make electrical insulator in electrical items such as
toasters, fridges and electrical plug.

Materials Melting point/ Density/G cm-3 Elastic modulus/ Hardness/ mohs

Oxide ceramic
Alumina,AL2O3 2054 3.97 380 9
Beryllia, BeO 2574 3.01 370 8
Zirconia, ZiO 2710 5.68 210 8
Boron 2350 2.50 280 9
carbide,B4C3 2830 3.16 400 9
Silicon nitride,
Si3, n4 1900 3.17 310 9
Aluminium 660 2.70 70 3
Steel 1515 7.86 205 5

1. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is formed by
two or more different substances such as metal, glass, ceramic and polymer.
2. Some common composite materials are:
a. Reinforces concrete
b. Superconductor
c. Fibre optic
d. Fibre glass
e. Photochromic glass


1. Concrete is hard, fireproof, waterproof, comparatively cheap and easy to maintain.

It is more important construction materials.
2. The reinforces is a combination of concrete and steel.

1. Metal such as copper and aluminium are good conductor of electricity, but 20% of the
electric energy is lost in the form of heat during transmission.
2. Super conductor are materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity at a
particular temperature. Hence, 100% electricity transmission is possible.
3. One of the most dramatic properties of a superconductor is its ability to levitate a
magnet. Superconductor are used to build magnetically levitate high-speed train (at
about 552 km/h).
4. Superconductor are used to make chips for smaller and faster supercomputer.
Superconductor also play an important role in high speed data processing in internet

1. Fibre optic is a composite material that in used to transmit signals for light wave.
2. Fibre optic is used in
a. Telecommunicate where the telephone substation are liked by fibre optic cables.
b. Domestic cable television network
c. Closed circuit television security system.

3. Fibre optic also used in medical fields. It is used in a number of instrument which
enable the investigation for internal body part without having to perform surgery.

1. Fibre glass is glass in the form of fine threads. Molten gas is dropped onto a
refractory rating disc when the glass flies off the disc glass to form fibre.
2. Fibre glass is strong than steel, do not burnt, stretch or rot, resistant to fire and
water but is brittle.
3. When fibre glass added to a plastic, a new composite material fibre glass reinforces
plastic is formed.
4. Fibre glass reinforces plastic has more superior properties than glass and plastic. It
a. Extremely strong
b. Light weigh
c. Resistant to fire and water
d. Can be molded, shaped and twisted

1. When 0.01 to 0.1% of silver chloride (a type of photochromic substances) and a
small amount of copper (II) chloride are added to molten silicon dioxide, photochromic
glass is formed.
2. The photochromic glass has a special properties. It darken when exposed to strong
sunlight or ultraviolet.
3. Photochromic glass is suitable for making sunglasses.