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Stoichiometry Practice Problems

Directions: Before you start solving any of these problems, you must:
a) Write out the equation and balance it
b) Map out your plan of attack
c) Write out all of your conversion factors in advance
d) Using dimensional analysis only, solve the problem.

Remember, you will only receive credit if you follow these steps and show all
your work.
1. How man y moles of ammonium sulfa t e ca n b e mad e form th e r e ac t ion
of 30.0 mol of NH3 with H2SO 4 according to t h e followin g e qua tion:

NH3 + H2SO 4 (NH 4 )2SO 4

(15 mol (NH 4 )2SO 4 )


2. In a v e r y viole nt r e ac tion call e d a th e rmit e r e ac tion, aluminum me t al
r e a c ts with iron (III) oxid e to form ir on me t al and aluminum oxid e
a c cording to th e following e qu a tion:

F e 2 O 3 + Al F e + Al 2 O 3

a. Wha t mass of Al will r e a c t with 150. g of F e 2 O 3? (51 g Al)


b. If 0.9 05 mol Al 2 O 3 is produc ed in th e r e a tion, wha t mass of F e is
produ c e d? (101 g F e)
c. How man y mol es of F e 2 O 3 will r e a c t with 99.0 g of Al? (1.83 mol
F e 2 O 3)

3. Th e r e ac tion N 2 + 2 H2 2 NH3 is use d to produc e ammonia


comme r cially. If 1.4 0 g of N 2 a r e use d in th e r e a c tion, how man y
g rams of H2 will b e n e e d e d? (0.303 g H2)

4. Wha t mass of sulfu ric a cid is r equir e d to r e a c t with 1.27 g of


pot assium hydroxid e ? (1.11 g sulfu ric a cid)

5. Ammonium hydr og e n phospha t e, a common f e r tili z e r; is mad e f rom


r e a c ting phosphoric a cid with ammonia, NH3 .

a. Writ e th e e qu a tion for this r e a c tion.


b. If 10.0 0 g of ammonia r e a c t, how man y mol es of f e rtili z e r will
b e produ c e d? (0.293 mol ammonium hydrog e n phospha t e)
c. Wha t mass of ammonia will r e a c t with 28 0 0 kg of H3PO 4 ? (970 kg
ammonia)

6. Th e following r e a c tion shows th e sy nth esis of z inc cit r a t e, a


ingr e di e nt in toothpast e, f rom z inc c a rbona t e and cit ric a cid.

Z nCO3 + C 6 H8 O7 Z n 3(C6 H5 O7)2 + H2 O + CO 2

a. How man y mol es of Z nCo 3 and C 6 H8 O7 a r e r e quir e d to produc e


30.0 mol of Z n 3(C 6 H5 O7)2? (90.0 mol Z nCO 3; 6 0.0 mol C6 H8 O7)
b. Wha t qu antiti es, in kilogr ams, of H2 O a nd CO2 a r e produ c e d b y
th e r e a c tion of 50 0. mol of cit ric a cid? (13.5 kg H2 O; 33.0 kg CO 2)

7. Me th yl bu t a noa t e , a n oily substa nc e with a st rong f ruit y f ra g ra nc e


c an b e mad e by r e a c ting bu t a noic a cid with me thanol a ccording to
th e following e qu a t ion:

C3H7COOH + CH3OH C3H7COOCH3 + H2 O

a. Wha t mass of me thy l bu t a noa t e is produ c e d f rom th e r e ac t ion


of 52.5 g of bu t anoic a cid? (6 0.9 me thy l but anoa t e)
b. In ord e r to pu rif y me th yl bu t a noa t e, wa t e r must be r emov e d.
Wha t mass of wa t e r is produ c e d f rom th e r e ac tion of 58 0 0. g of
me tha nol? (3261 g wa t e r)

8. Ammonium nit r a t e d e composes to yi eld, nit rog e n gas, wa t e r and


oxy g e n gas.
a. How man y mol es of nit rog e n gas a r e produc e d whe n 36.0 g of
ammonium nit r a t e r e ac ts? (0.450 mol N 2)
b. If 7.35 mol of wa t e r a r e produ c e d in th e r e ac t ion, wha t mass of
ammonium nit r a t e r e ac t e d? (29 4 g ammonium nit r a t e)

9. Le ad (II) nit r a t e r e a c ts with pot assium iodid e to produc e le ad (II)


iodid e and pot assium nit r a t e. If 1.23 mg of le ad nit r a t e a r e consume d,
wha t is th e mass of th e pot assium nit r a t e produc e d? (0.751 mg
pot assium nit r a t e)

10. A c a r ba t t e r y produc es ele c t ric al e n e rg y with th e following ch emic al


r e a c tion:

Pb + PbO 2 + H2SO 4 PbSO 4 + H2 O


If th e ba t t e r y loses 0.34 kg of le ad in this r e ac t ion, how man y moles
of l e ad (II) sulf at e a r e produ c e d? (3.3 mol le ad (II) sulfa t e)

11. In a spa c e shu t tl e , th e CO 2 tha t th e c r e w e xhales is r emov e d f rom th e


air by a r e a c tion within c anist e rs of lithium h y droxid e . On av e r ag e ,
e ach ast rona ut e xhales about 20 .0 mol of CO 2 daily. Wha t mass of
wa t e r will b e produc e d wh e n this amound r e a c ts with lithium
h y droxid e? Th e oth e r produc t of this r e a c tion is lithium c a rbona t e .
(36 0 g wa t e r)

12. Wa t e r is some tim es r emov e d f rom th e pr oduc ts of a r e ac t ion by


pla cing th em in a close d cont ain e r with e xc ess P 4 O10 . Wa t e r is
absorbe d by th e following r e ac tion:

P 4 O10 + H2 O H3PO 4

a. Wha t mass of wa t e r c an b e absorb ed b y 1.0 0 x 10 2 g of P 4 O10 ?


(38.1 g wa t e r)
b. If th e P 4 O10 in th e cont ain e r absorbs 0.614 mol of wa t e r, wha t
mass of H3PO 4 is produ c e d? (4 0.1 g phosphoric a cid)
c. IF th e mass of th e cont ain e r of P 4 O10 inc r e ases f rom 56.64 g to
63.70 g, how man y moles of wa t e r a r e absorb e d? (0.392 mol
wa t e r)

13. Etha nol, C 2H5 OH, is consid e r e d a cle an fu el b e c a use it bu rns in oxy g e n
to produc e c a rbon dioxide and wa t e r with f e w t r a c e pollu t an ts. If 95.0
g of H2 O a r e produ c e d du rin g th e combust ion of e thanol, how man y
gr ams of e tha nol w e r e pr es e nt a t th e b e ginning of th e r e ac t ion?
(81.0 g e tha nol)

14. Sulfu r dioxid e is on e of th e major cont ribu tors to a cid r ain. Sulfu r
dioxid e can r e ac t with oxy g e n and wa t e r in th e a tmosph e r e to form
sulfu ric a cid. If 50.0 g of sulfu r dioxide f rom pollu t an ts r e a c ts with
wa t e r and oxy g e n found in th e air, how man y g rams of sulfu ric a cid
can b e produ c e d? How man y gr ams of oxy g e n a r e use d in th e
proc ess. (76.5 g sulfu ric a cid; 12.5 g oxy g e n)

15. Wh e n h e a t e d, sodium bic a rbona t e d e composes int o sodium c a rbona t e,


wa t e r and c a rbon dioxid e. If 5.0 0 g of sodium bic a rbona t e
d e compos es, wha t is th e mass of th e ca rbon dioxid e produ c e d? (1.31 g
c a rbon dioxid e)
16. A r e a c tion b e tw e e n h y dr a z in e, N 2H 4 , and dinit rog e n t e t roxid e has
b e e n use d to lau nch rock e ts int o spa c e. Th e r e ac tion produ c es
nit rog e n g as a nd wa t e r vapor.

a. Writ e a balan c e d ch emical e qua tion for this r e ac tion.


b. Wha t is th e mole r a tio of dinit rog e n t e t roxid e to nit rog e n gas?
c. How man y mol es of nit rog e n gas will b e produc e d if 20,0 0 0 mol
of hydr a z in e a r e use d by a rock e t? (30 0 0 0 mol nit rog e n)
d. How man y gr ams of wa t e r a r e mad e wh e n 450 . kg of dinit rog e n
t e t roxid e a r e consume d? (3.52 x 10 5 g wa t e r)

17. Jose ph Priestl e y is c r e dit e d with th e discov e r y of oxy g e n. He


produ c e d O 2 by h e a ting me r cu r y (II) oxid e to d e compose it int o its
eleme nts. How man y moles of oxy g e n could Priestle y hav e produ c e d if
h e had d e compos e d 517.84 g of me r cu r y (II) oxid e? (1.1954 mol
oxy g e n)

18. Iron (III) chlorid e c an b e mad e by th e r e a c tion of iron with chlorin e


gas. How much iron, in g r ams, will b e n e e d e d to comple t ely r e a c t with
58.0 g of Cl 2? (30.5 g F e)

19. Sodium sulfid e and c admium (II) nit r a t e und e rgo a double -r e pla c eme nt
r e ac t ion. Wha t is th e mass, in milligr ams, of cadmium sulfid e tha t ca n
b e mad e f rom 5.0 0 mg of sodium sulfide? (9.26 mg c admium (II)
nit r a t e)

2 0.Pot assium p e rma nga na t e and gly c e rin r e ac t e xplosiv ely according to
th e following e qu a t ion:

KMnO 4 + C3H5 (OH)3 K2CO 3 + Mn 2 O 3 + CO 2 + H2 O

a. How man y mol es of c a rbon dioxid e c an b e produc e d f rom 4.44


mol of KMnO 4 ? (1.59 mol of c a rbon dioxid e)
b. If 5.21 g of H2 O a r e produ c e d? How man y moles of gly c e rin e,
C3H5 (OH)3, w e r e use d? (0.0723 mol gly c e rin e)
c. If 3.39 mol of pot assium ca rbon a t e a r e mad e, how man y gr ams
of mangan ese (III) oxid e a r e also mad e? (535 g ma nga n ese (III)
oxid e)
d. How man y g r ams of gly c e rin will b e n e e d e d to r e a c t with 50. 0
g of KMnO 4 ? How man y g rams of CO 2 will b e produc e d in th e
same r e ac tion? (8.33 g gly c e rin e; 4.97 g c a rbon dioxid e)