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ADL – 09

Human Resource Management

Assignment A
Ques. 1. What is a profession? Is personnel a profession in India. Describe with
Ans. Occupation possessing certain characteristics in called profession. These c
haracteristics are:
1. Members must possess advanced, specialized formal education and training
2. A national level association, which standardizes terminology, must regul
ate a profession, sets policies and standard practices and publishes the officia
l journal of the profession.
3. Members of the profession must possess minimum level of skills, knowledg
e, establish standards of ethical practices and promote the advancement of scien
ce and art of profession.
4. Members of the profession should make their knowledge and contributions
freely available to others in the profession.
5. Members of the profession must sustain at all times an attitude towards
their work and society, be interested in continue acquisitions of skills and kno
wledge, have a sense of trusteeship, individual initiative and a right to expect
and receive adequate financial recognition.
Profession has been accepted as another name of dynamism and progressive outlook
. The central theme of any profession is unselfish service to mankind.
Personnel is not a profession in Indian but is emerging as a full fledged profes
sion as it possess some of the characteristics of profession (as mentioned above
) the point wise details are as follows:

1. Academic qualifications: The qualifications prescribed for the post of p

ersonnel manager vary from one organization to another. The list of qualificatio
n include any degree from a recognized university, postgraduate degree/diploma i
n social sciences, sociology, social work, personnel management and industrial r
elations, labour welfare laws, MBA with specialization in personnel management a
nd industrial relations. Thus, no specific qualification is prescribed for the p
ost of a personnel manager. However specific educational qualification are presc
ribed for various profession like CA, CS, Medicine, Law etc. The factory act 194
8 prescribed the education qualification for the posts of welfare inspectors but
for personnel manager is not prescribed by the government.
2. National institute of personnel management (NIPM) is a national level as
sociation in order to regulate the personnel management profession. NIPM conduct
s a two-year postgraduate diploma and organizes various training programmes, sem
inars etc. It also publishes a journal called “Personnel today”. However NIPM is not
regulating the number and type of persons entering the profession of Personnel
management like the profession of Personnel Management like the Institute of Cha
rtered Accountants does.
3. Various professions like Medicine, Accountancy, etc have ethical codes.
NIPM have also come out with the code of ethics.
4. As in the case of other professions, personnel managers also make their
knowledge and contributors freely available to others in the profession.
It can be concluded that presently it is not a profession in Indian but the grow
th of MNC Culture and globalization will bring professional status to personnel
Ques. 2. Why is change always resisted in the organization? What measures would
you recommend to minimize resistance?
Ans. Changes have today become a pervasive phenomenon thereby affecting every sp
here of life including the organization life.
Changes can occur in the internal environment of an organization due to any of t
he following factors:
a. Changing expectations of the work-force.
b. Due to the introduction of new technology.
c. Due to increased competition.
d. Need for improvement in productivity and quality.
e. Uncertainties in socio-economic and political environment etc.
f. Due to globalization.
g. Change in the nature of work.
h. Privatization.
To sum up all changes involve transformation and modifications of people’s attitud
e, knowledge and skills etc.
Therefore any changes in the belief system and habits, traits, are likely to be
resisted, as it requires adoption of new untried coping mechanism.
These resistances to change cannot be totally eliminated but certainly by adopti
ng a few measures can be minimized to a certain level. These measures could be a
s follows:
a. The nature of change should be made clear to the people who are going to
be affected by it.
b. Through proper education and communication skills meaning of change and
its purpose should be well defined to the people who would be subsequently affec
ted by the change.
c. The pressure groups resisting change can be co-opted in the decision mak
ing structures, which will thereby absorb their resistance and also would make t
hem a partner I the changing process.
d. People on whom changes have to be imposed on should be encouraged to tak
e active interest and participate in decision making about the nature and direct
ion of change.
e. Changes should not be initiated for any personal benefits or grounds but
for the over-all benefits and objective requirements of the organization.
f. The already set norms, customs and socio-relations of an already existin
g institution should not be ignored but should be incorporated to the maximum ex
tent possible in the change process.
g. Opportunities to facilitate supportive skills for management of change s
uch as counseling, individuals and group therapy and consensus building in group
s should be provided and encourages.
Ques. 3. What is Human Resource Planning? Discuss the purpose and process of HRP
Ans. Human Resource planning (HRP) may be defined as a strategy for the acquisit
ion, utilization, improvement and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources.
It is a process of forecasting developing and controlling human resources to ens
ure that the firm has the right number and right kind o people, which is require
d to work at the right time, adjusting to the requirements and the available sup
ply. It assess manpower requirement in advance keeping the production schedules,
market fluctuations, demand forecasts, etc in the background.
It is the integral part of the overall corporate plan and reflects the broad thi
nking of management about manpower needs in the organizations. Manpower plans ar
e prepared for varying time periods i.e. short term plans covering a time frame
of 2 years and a long term plan encompassing a period of 5 or more years.
Purpose of Human Resource planning:
The basic purpose of having a manpower plan is to have an accurate estimate of t
he number of employees requires, with matching skills requirement to meet organi
zation objectives. More specifically, manpower planning in requires to meet the
following objectives:
A. Forecast personnel requirements: Manpower planning is essential to deter
mine the future manpower needs in an organization. In the absence of such a plan
, it would be difficult to have the services of right kind of people at the righ
t time.
B. Cope with changes: Manpower planning is required to cope with changes in
market conditions, technology, products and government regulations in an effect
ive way. These changes may, often require the services of people having requisit
e technical knowledge and training. In the absence of manpower plan, we may not
be in a position to enlist their services in time.
C. Use existing manpower productively: By keeping an inventory of existing
personnel by skill, level, training, educations qualification, work experience,
it will be possible to utilize the existing resources more usefully in relation
to the job requirements. This will help in decreasing wage and salary cost in th
e long run.
D. HRP spells out the qualifications, skills, expertise, knowledge, experie
nce, physical abilities, occupation groups, etc of personnel required in an orga
E. It gives adequate lead-time for recruitment, selection, training and dev
elopment of personnel.
F. Promote employees in a systematic manner: Manpower planning provides use
ful information on the basis of which management decides on the promotion of eli
gible personnel in the organization. In the absence of manpower plan, it may be
difficult to ensure regular promotions to competent people on a justifiable basi

Processes of Human Resource Planning:

HRP is a multi-step process. Various steps are discussed below:
a. Objectives of HRP:
Most Common Objectives of a HRP are as follows:
• Making correct estimates of manpower requirements.
• Making a sound recruitment and selection policy.
• Making a sound training and development policy.
• Managing the manpower according to the requirement of the organization.
• Maintaining production level.
• Maintaining good human and industrial relations.
• Getting information where existing personnel are deployed.
• Making proper and effective use of existing manpower.
b. Business plan: It is to arrive at the scale of business activity over a
period a time to enable to estimate the structure and size of the organization f
rom time to time. This is done keeping all the factors of internal and external
c. Forecasting future manpower requirements: Future manpower estimates are
made as follows:
• The functional category.
• The number required.
• The levels at which they are required.
The above estimates have to be assessed under the following heads:
• Growth of the establishment
• Turnover- Both predictable and unpredictable
d. Manpower Audit: The primary objective is to know what exist in the stock
and what is needed. It gives indication of the gap that needs to be filled in t
hrough external sources.
e. Job analysis: It provides information about the job description and char
acteristics and qualifications that are desirable in the jobholder.
f. Developing a Human Resource Plan: Work out a plan identifying the source
s of manpower supply. These sources may comprise:

Internal Sources
External Sources.
For higher levels, internal promotions are recommended. However for lower level,
external sources should be tapped. Therefore, a through knowledge and close lai
sioning of labour market is necessary.
Ques. 5. What is “Career” and why is career planning becoming more important in toda
y’s competitive world?
Ans. The term “Career” specifically means a sequence of positions occupied by a pers
on during the course of his lifetime.
Human Force is a very important factor for the growth of an organization and car
eer planning is becoming an important factor in today’s competitive world. The car
eer planning provides a set of tools and techniques for productive resolution of
conflict between the individuals and the organizations.
The process or activities by the organization to individuals to identify streght
s, weakness, specific goals and jobs that the.
Individual would like to reach or occupy is collectively called ‘ Career planning’.
Career planning has become an important aspect for both individuals and organiza
Companies who provide fair and reasonable opportunities for satisfying careers a
re able to attract, retain and motivate committed and industrious work force. To
do so the organization could include the following:
Flexi – working hours.
Special couple / Individual counseling.
Supportive, humane, personnel policies to facilitate swift transfers and relocat
ions etc.
Career planning is a very important factor as it helps the individuals to explor
e, choose and strive to derive satisfaction with one’s career related objectives.

Ques 6. Why are employees often unhappy with the performance appraisal done in t
he organization? Discuss the important errors that can happen during performance
Ans. Performance appraisal is an important component of the information and the
control system.
Performance appraisal is a process by which an employee’s contributor to the organ
ization during a specified period of time is assessed. People are recruited for
specific job requirements in the organization and thereby there is a need to app
raisee them of their performances in the organization.
Performance appraisal is a means to:
• Align employee behaviour with strategic objectives.
• Reinforce the values and culture of the organization.
• Encourage managers to develop subordinates.
• Alignment of appraisals with culture.
• Linking regards and punishments to promotion to motivate better performance.
• Manage according to performance.
• Reinforcing and sustaining performance- feedback, praise and improve.
• Determining career progression goals and training needs.
However, the employees are often unhappy with the performance appraisal done in
the organization on the following accounts:
a. Disbelief and non-trust in the appraisal system of the organization.
b. There relationship with their immediate employer is not cordial.
c. Upheaval led superior – subordinate relationship.
d. When some aspect of the appraisal system is not clear with the employee.
It could be any of the following:
• What is he expected to do?
• He thinks he is not being rewarded appropriately to his performance.
• When he thinks he is not being given enough guidance or counseling for the job t
hat he is expected to do etc.
Proper appreciation of the mutuality and reciprocity in the roles in vital for c
larity about the concept of performance. The organization should be very clear w
ith its aims and outcomes of its appraisal and take responsibility to evolve obj
ective parameters to analyze and review performance.
In the performance appraisal system there can be errors during the appraisal, wh
ich could be of the following nature:
a. Rating Scale Errors
This is very common in subjective performance evaluation. May be intentional or
b. Leniency / Strict rating Errors
This is putting of higher / lower rating s than deserved. This entirely depends
on the standards, values, physical and mental setup of the appraiser.
c. Severity Errors
This is less favourable than performance warrants. The rater could be the apprai
ser, superior, peers, client, manager or a consultant.
d. Central Tendency Errors
Most ratings are at or near mid- point. Rating is average on the central line.
e. Halo Effect Errors
Tendency of raters to bias ratings based on feelings towards individual; high co
rrelation between ratings on various facets of performance. Its evaluation on pe
rceived positive quality of the appraisee.
f. First impression Errors
The rater may perceive of some impression at first go on the quality of the appr
g. Stereotyping Errors
It is the standard mental picture that a person holds for the person to be asses
h. Horn Effect Errors
It is the opposite of the hallo effect which is having perceived a negative noti
on of the appraisee.
i. Latest Behavior effect
Sometimes a very obvious behavior or the incident with the appraise leaves an ef
fect on the appraiser, which thereby results, to biased ratings by the rater.
j. Spillover effect error
This is generally the overall assessment of the employee, last / past performanc
es which is considered to judged his current appraisal report.
k. Unintentional error
Cognitive information processing – in short, there are limitations on the cognitiv
e abilities of raters (e.g. memory limitations, may use schema, prototypes that
are not totally accurate, negative halo)

Assignment B

Ques 1. Discuss the need for training and development. Describe how training nee
ds are assessed?
Training is the act of increasing the skills and knowledge of an employee for do
ing a particular job effectively. It is usually meant for technical and non-mana
gerial personnel.
This term is often viewed as a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (t
raining activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another
threshold of performance. This development often includes a wide variety of met
hods, e.g. orienting about a role, training in wide variety of areas, ongoing tr
aining on the job, coaching, mentoring and forms of self-development. Some view
development as a life-long goal and experience.
Need of training and development:
• Training and development is required to meet the desired expectations and job sp
• It improves job knowledge and skills of employees.
• With proper training of staff the cost of production can be reduced thereby elim
inating or reducing wastage and depreciation.
• The quality of product is also improved if employees are given right training, w
hich leads to lesser wastage and increased productivity. Increased efficiencies
in processes, resulting in financial gains.
• With proper inducement and training of the employee for the job also helps in in
creasing the safety levels on job.
• With proper opportunities of development and training of the employee, it increa
sed his confidence, morale but also leads to job satisfaction and personal growt
h of the employee. This overall motivates the employee.
• With proper development and training, there is reduction of grievances, absentee
ism and rate of labour turnover.
• Training and development of the employee is needed when a performance appraisal
indicates performance improvement is required.
• To “benchmark” the status of improvement so far in the performance improvement effo
• Training induction could also be as a part of succession planning to help and em
ployee is eligible for a planned change in role in the organization.
• To “pilot”, or test, the operation of a new performance management system.
• Training and development programmes help in coping and also increases the capaci
ty to adopt to new technologies and methods required for the job.
Imparting proper knowledge, technical skills, techniques, technology providing t
he right kind of wok attitudes and experience, which is on hands practice of the
job, needs can provide the training.
Training needs assessment:
Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis:

1. Organizational Analysis: It involves a study of the entire organization

in terms of its objective, resources and their utilization along with the intera
ction pattern with environment. The important elements examined are as follows:
• Analysis of objectives – This is the study of short tem and long term objectives a
nd the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives.
• Resource utilization analysis – This is the study of the human, physical and finan
cial organization resource utilization. This is done to find out comparative lab
our costs.
• Environmental scanning – The economic, political, Socio cultural and technological
environment of the organization is examined.
• Organizational climate analysis – The climate of the organization speaks about the
attitudes of members towards work, company policies, supervisors etc. Absenteei
sm, turnover ratios generally reflect the prevailing employee attitudes. These c
an be used to find out whether training efforts have improved the overall climat
e within the company or not.
Task or role analysis
This is a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations
and conditions under which it has to be performed. Questionnaires, interview, re
ports, tests, observation and other methods are generally used to collect job re
lated information from time to time. After this exercise, training programme is
conducted paying attention to:
• Performance standards
• The task employee has to discharge
• The methods they will employ on the job
• How they have learned such methods
Manpower analysis
• It is used to focus on the individual in a given job. Three issue to be solved:
• Find out whether performance is satisfactory or training is required
• Whether employee is capable of getting trained and area in which the training is
• Whether the poor performance on job need to be replaced by those who can do the
Personal observation, performance review, supervisory reports, diagnostic test h
elp in collecting the required information and select particular training option
s that can improve the performance of the individual worker.
Ques 2. What is a salary structure? How is it designed in the private sector?
Ans. In the raw form of its term – salary – simply means a fixed regular payment to
an employee.
There by we can imply, salary is the remuneration (express or implied) capable o
f being expressed in terms of money including all allowances, perquisites, conce
ssions and commissions. In other words, it is the remuneration earned by the emp
loyee for rendering services and is paid in proximate to the prevailing market r
ate and socio – economic scene.
Usually the government or the company draws a salary structure for its employees
, providing numerous grades, specifying upper and lower limits in each grade or
strategies depending on the government and company policies and existing market
There is also the hand of the unions and the competition prevailing on determini
ng the salary structure of the undertaking.
Salary structure in India is broadly categorized into three components:
• Basic Salary
• Dearness Allowance
• Other Allowance and incentives
Basic Salary
It is the base of salary structure. It is fixed according to the pay scale / gra
de given to the employee according to his skill, profession, work – experience etc
Dearness Allowance
It is a type of allowance included in the salary, which primarily suggests to al
lowances paid to the employees in order to enable them to face the increasing de
arness of essential commodities.
Other Allowances and incentives
The other allowances may include:
Medical allowance
House rent allowance
Leave travel allowance
Provident Fund
Conveyance allowance
Telephone allowance etc.
The pay commission appointed by the government decides the salary and its variou
s benefits of those employees who are associated to the government.
• But in case of the private sector / concerns the employer / top management unila
terally decides the wages / salary / compensation package for its employees.
• The private sector / undertaking has no statutory limit for managerial remunerat
• The private undertaking have the full liberty to take or bear the tax burden on
the disallowed portion of the pay. It need not have any government sanction or a
pprovals for it.
• These companies have their own company compensation policies depending on the en
terprise’s wide range of incentives and schemes, allowances and benefits that it w
ants to cover its employees with.
• In the private sector, which wants to retain the talented staff, they have diffe
rent pay packages, which are totally employee tailed pay packages, which the emp
loyer pays to its employee at the competitive market price prevailing in the mar
ket. It may consist of various allowances, other tax benefits to retain the skil
l based labour / human resource in this competitive environment.
• Multinationals operating in the developing nations usually pay much higher than
the indigenous firm in both private and the public sector.
• These multinational companies have formed guild called the multination remunerat
ion club to privately exchange information on remuneration packages for their em
ployees at the regular intervals.
• To compensate the DA which is generally given by the government undertakings to
its employees the private sector generally gives or adds adhoc and lump sum incr
ease in pay package, which is unilaterally announced by the top management.
• A large variety of incentives both monetary and non-monetary are also given to t
he employees in private sector. Merit progression i.e. reward according to perfo
rmance and incentive schemes are also a part of the salary package in the privat
e sector.
Employee satisfaction is a major concern of most of the private organizations wh
o wish to have a motivated work force and a vibrant culture. Thereby these priva
te organizations evolve a competitive compensation structure, which enables them
to eliminate one of the major causes of employee dissatisfaction and retain ski
ll based human resource.
Ques. 3. What are the ideal features of an effective incentive scheme?
Ans. Incentive plans envisage basic rate usually on time basis applicable to all
workers and incentive rates payable to the more efficient among them as extra c
ompensation for their meritorious performance in terms of cost, time, improvemen
t in quality etc. It may be in the form of bonus or premium.
The characteristics of these incentive plans areas follows:
1. Minimum wages are guaranteed to all workers.
2. Incentives by way of bonus, etc are offered to efficient workers for the
time saved.
3. A standard time is fixed and the worker is expected to perform the given
work within the standard time. The standard time is set after making time studi
es for the performance of a specific job.
Ideal features of an effective incentive scheme:
• Guarantee minimum wages –It must guarantee minimum wages irrespective of the perfo
rmance of the worker.
• Simple – It must be simple to operate and easy to understand.
• Equitable – All workers should get an equal opportunity to earn the incentive pay.
Equal pay for equal work should be the rule.
• Economical – The incentive plan should not be a costly affair. The benefits must e
xceed the costs.
• Flexible – It must be reasonably flexible so as to take care of changes in technol
ogy, demand for and supply of skills, competitive rates in the industry etc.
• Support – The incentive plan should take workers and unions into confidence. It sh
ould be implemented after consulting the workers and their union. Generally spea
king, it should be the out come of mutual trust and understanding between manage
ment and workers.
• Motivating – The incentive should be large enough to motivate the worker to superi
or performance. At the same time, there should be checks and balances to ensure
that the worker does not exert himself to painful levels, affecting the quality.
• Prompt – There should be very little gap between performance and payment. As soon
as the job is finished, the worker should get his (incentive) earnings promptly.
Ques 4. Discuss the measures for occupational health and safety at enterprise le
vel and explain the role of top management, unions and the workers in this regar
Ans. Occupational hazards measures call for protecting the workers against which
offer the highest practical degree of protection based on current knowledge as
a minimum, conformity is required with relevant national standards and codes of
practices such as those provided by the National Health and Medical Research Cou
ncil, the code of general principles on occupational safety and health by the go
vernment and its supporting codes of practice and by the standards developed by
national occupational health and safety bodies. Therefore some important measure
s of occupational health and safety at the enterprise level have to be dealt wit

• Preventive Measures
• Curative Measures
• Safety Measures
Preventive Measures
These include
• Pre-employment and periodic medical check and examination
• Removal of health hazards to the extent possible
• Special attention to those who are more vulnerable to risks
• Educating the employees about health and hygiene
• Training in First aid in case of emergencies or an accident
Curative Measures
In this case curing the employee is the key measure here. This can be done by:
Removing of any psychological blocks, which may occur as to detention / disquali
fication from job if detected for illness etc.
This should be dealt with immediately and be removed.
Safety Measures
These measures of safety have to be dealt with very strongly in any organization
. The top management should pay a significant role in dealing with occupational
health and safety of its employees. This can be done by the following ways:
Active interest of Top – Management is sine qua non for promoting safety:
It is the duty of the Top – Management
To ensure and enforce safety rules at its premises
Conduct periodic reviews and inspections and check for the obsolete and redundan
t equipments in its premises and write them off.
Include safety as one of its agenda in its board meetings.
Allot a special fund for the safety measures and related equipments for the well
being of its employees.
Compliance of statutory measures and enforcement of safety rules:
The management should adopt to humane and not merely to the legislative approach
to the safety not merely to the legislative approach to the safety norms for th
e company.

Appointment of a safety officer:

Safety officer should be recruited specifically for the safety norms of the comp
any and for its employee’s well being. The officer in charge for safety should be
well qualified and educated about his functional field.
Education and Training in Safety:
The top management should emphasize on proper education and training in safety f
or its employees.
Apart from the top management there is a very crucial role of the workers and th
e role of union in the safety norms for the benefit and safety of the employees.
There contribution for the safety norms can be in the following nature:
• To ensure that the employees of the enterprise are suitable and well trained and
qualified to handle the job
• That the employees of the enterprise don’t indulge into unethical activities such
as alcoholism and other hazardous activities in the work premises.
• The unions should be strong to get all the safety measures implemented by the ma
nagement for its employees.
• To investigate potential hazards and dangerous occurrences in their designated a
rea of operation and to examine the causes of any health these hazards, dangerou
s occurrences and any accidents that may occur.
• It is one of the roles of the union to make sure that the machinery and the equi
pments on which the employees perform their job are in good working conditions a
nd comply with the safety norms prescribed.
• Union is responsible to monitor that the working hours of the employees are not
stretched to ensure their health and avoid over stressing of its employees at wo
rk as this indirectly leads to the safety and well being of the employees.
• To represent the employee in case of any help monetary, medical, paid leave requ
ired from the management in case of any lapse of safety measures or an accident.
• To have access to all relevant health and safety information concerning products
, materials or processes to be found in the representative’s area.
The Union should be consulted by management prior to all changes in work place,
which may have implications for the health and safety of the staff that they rep
Case Study
Ans. 1. In case of Shivani Exports, the objectives of the performance appraisal
system are not well defined, both to the organization and the employees, which h
as lead to demotivation and frustration to the new management Trainee Mridhula t
hereby jolting all her enthusiasm and zeal which she had joined with, leading to
disinterest and absenteeism from work.
In the Case-Study of Shivani Exports
The new incumbent’s job expectations are not clearly discussed as a result she wit
h the best of efforts and skill is not able to project as a leading Fashion desi
gner and leader.
Mridhula the Management Trainee is not given an appropriate opportunity/opening
to out show her performance, although already acknowledged by her chief buyer Ms
. Radha Shaluja about her good performance verbally.
The Management Trainee is not been given guidance and proper feedback by Ms. Rad
ha and is not clear with the policies of the company, which comes to her as a sh
ock, on being told by her counter friend and senior colleague Mr. Ramesh Gupta.
In this case, in spite of Mridhula initial inhibitions on the job, she has perfo
rmed to the best of her capabilities, working hard and knowing the fabric, its i
ntricacies, fashion forecasting, inventory control etc, she was not rewarded app
ropriately as per her performance or considered for any promotion for the good w
ork she did as verbally acknowledged by Ms. Radha Shaluja.
Mridhula’s job criteria’s benchmark was not marked to rate her performance level an
her past performance was not considered for any of her intrinsic or extrinsic g
The Trainee was not counseled by the appraiser to meet her objectives and goals
and set her future career path.
The above are a few anomalies of the Performance Appraisal System of Shivani Exp
orts, which has lead to the uncalled for proceedings.
Therefore, the Performance Appraisal System of Shivani Exports has to be revampe
d to yield the following results and to meet the aspirations of the employees of
that company.
Any Performance Appraisal system should seek to address itself to the following
five aspects that concern almost any employee in every organization. These, whic
h are:
Tell me what you expect from me.
Give me opportunity to perform
Let me know how well I am getting along
Give me guidance where I need it.
Reward me according to my contribution
The prime objectives of an appraisal system should also consider and take care o
f the following:
1. Define the specific job criteria against which performance will be measu
2. Objectively and accurately measure past job performances.
3. Determine reward based on performance-based system.
4. Develop programmes (including feedback and counseling) to enhance perfor
mance in the current job and prepare and realize the potential for future respon
5. Provision for feedback to subordinate to know where they stand.
6. Counseling, coaching, career planning and motivation of subordinates.
7. Developing positive superior-subordinate relations.
To conclude with, Shalini Exports should develop such a performance appraisal sy
stem that should clearly reflect the
The organizations aims and outcomes of appraisal.
Take responsibility to evolve objective parameters to analyse and review perform
Initiate appropriate follow up action to ensure the performance level of both em
ployee and the organization at whole.
To fully motivate and counsel its employees for their prospective future career
growth and path.

Ans. 2. Due to mal-framed Performance Appraisal System in Shalini Exports, the

first and the foremost thing which Radha as the chief buyer of the organization
should develop a sound Performance Appraisal System to avoid any scope of future
Appraisal of Objectives:
The goal setting is an important factor in Appraisal system, which should be per
iod/time, based and should be determined through the joined discussion of both a
ppraiser and appraisee. This is also termed as Management by Objectives. This he
lps in evaluation and assessment of performance of the appraisee.
Mentor based Counseling:
It is very important that the appraiser to perform the Spilt roles as an evaluat
or as well as a mentor, helper and a counselor to the employee. This helps in im
proving the job performance as well as career growth and development of the appr
The appraisee should firmly believe in the policies, values, beliefs and expecta
tions of the organization, for this proper orientation is required.
Development Approach rather than Judgmental Approach:
The performance appraisal system should be so designed that it is more developme
ntal rather than judgmental. Evaluation should be coupled to deliver growth and
development of the appraisee.
Free Flow Communication Channel and Feedback:
The communication between the appraiser and the appraisee should well establish
to empower growth and development. Also feedback of his past performance should
be easily communicated for further growth.
Generate ambition and confidence and forecast future career paths:
For this proper counseling and career the appraiser should render guidance.
Assurance, Guidance and training to be the employees:
Proper work related guidance and training should be rendered to the employees so
as to achieve his targets.
Rewards to be commensurate with performance:
Incentive schemes should be introduced and rewards and promotions should be dire
ctly linked with performance of the employees, this helps motivating the employe
e and also results to overall growth of both organization and the employee.
Ans. 3. In the above case study of Shalini Exports Ms. Radha and Shalini Exports
made a lot of mistakes regarding the Human Resources Management, which plays a
very significant role in every organization to accomplish any organization’s objec
tives and its overall growth. The anomalies scrutinized in Human Resources Manag
ement department were:
It did not compensate and reward the employee appropriately.
It could not build in team and employee integration in the organization.
It failed to satisfy, motivate and maintain high morale of its employees.
It did not consider the respect factor employed in the organization.
It failed to give proper guidance, career path and development opportunities to
its employees.
It could not communicate properly the feedback, appraisal of its employee.
Thereby Shalini Export’s HRM should deal with the above problems and should ensure
the following:
To acquire right men at the right job, at the right time and number.
To Train and develop the staff adequately.
To compensate and reward appropriately.
To integrate them and form a teamwork.
To motivate, satisfy and maintain high morale of the employee.
To ensure respect of human factor employed in the organization.
Providing t hem with Job-Satisfaction.
Appraising and giving feedback of their performance.
Reducing the rate of high turnover.
To provide with career development opportunities.


Ans.1 Human Skill

Ans. 2 Conceptual Skill
Ans.3. A system, which is self sufficient and self – regulatory
Ans.4 Super ordinate goal
Ans.5 Matrix Organization
Ans.6 It has been reduced to writing
Ans.7 Right man for the right job.
Ans.8 Quality control status of an organization
Ans.9 Strategic planning tool.
Ans.10 Energy created due to motivation
Ans.11 Synergy
Ans.12 Sale
Ans.13 Developing of alternative strategies during planning
Ans.14 Motivating people.
Ans.15 20 percent
Ans.16 50 percent listening
Ans.17 Human Resource Audit
Ans.18 Could be destructive and constructive.
Ans.19 Establishing fair and equitable pay structure.
Ans.20 Recruitment.

Ans.21 Latent Conflict.

Ans.22 Conciliation
Ans.23 Education and Training
Health and Nutrition
Fair Wages
Equality of Opportunity
Ans.24 Rust out stress syndrome
Ans.25 Undertake stress audit
Spread the message of stress awareness
Organize job evaluation
Use scientific input
Ans.26 Authority
Ans.27 Training
Ans.28 All of the above (below)
Reward work done
Focus on areas requiring improvement
Giving appropriate feedback to individuals.
Ans.29 Mutuality
Ans.30 Mentoring
Ans.31 Helping the employee to grow and develop
Ans.32 Organizational culture and climate
Ans.33 Managers with authority to direct operations in there spheres of activit
Ans.34 Internal
Indirect and third party
Ans.35 Average behavior
Ans.36 Allowing past performance to influence how present performance is evalua
Ans.37 KRA’s
Ans.38 Career Path
Ans.39 Training
Ans.40 The payment of wages Act, 1936.