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Chapter 27—West and Central Africa

• Harambee: A policy of cooperation adopted in Kenya after independence to encourage economic growth
• Pyrethrum: A pesticide produced from certain flowers
• Malnutrition: disease caused by lack of food/an unbalanced diet
• strategic value: importance of a place or thing for nations planning military actions
• ethnocracy: a system of gov. in which 1 ethnic group rules over others
• apartheid: formerly in the Republic of S. Africa, the policy of strict racial segregation
• segregation: the separation of the races
• sanction: an action taken by the international community to punish a country for unacceptable behaviors
• enclave: a country completely surrounded by another country
• white flight: the departure of white people from a region
• land redistribution: a policy by which land is taken from those who own large amounts and redistributed to those who
have little/none

1. What are the physical characteristics of Kenya?


• Located on e. coast
• Extends deep into interior
• Equator runs through country—some parts are steamy heat
• Great Rift Valley slices through highlands—makes climate cooler
• Fertile highlands in s.w. region
• Droughts in n. region
• Plateau in c. of country rises toward the west—driest part
• Highlands receive adequate rainfall
• Forests + grasslands cover much area
• W.most corner—Lake Victoria, largest lake in Africa
2. In the past, how did British rule affect patterns of settlement in Kenya?
• The Railroad Arrives
o British decided to build railroad from coast to L. Victoria to increase economic dev.—cost 1000’s of lives +
mil.s of $
o Phys. Environment created a lot of obstacles
o White settlers from S. Africa were eager to move into the cool climate of highlands
o New town built on railroad line—Nairobi—grew very rapidly
• Kenyans Challenge the British
o White settlers took land settled by Kikuyu—many forced to work on farms run by settlers
o Mau Mau Rebellion—1950s, Kukuyu vs. British settlerslost, but under president Jomo Kenyatta the
Kikuyu regained some farms in c. highlands
3. How has the growth of cash crop agriculture affected Kenyans?
• Working Together
o Kenyatta encouraged farmers to raise cash crops—coffee + tea—many gov. officials were Kukuya, and
they grew wealthy from their own farming
• Not Enough Food
o Rather than growing food, gov. concentrated on growing cash crops—flowers, coffee, + tea
o Many suffer from malnutrition b.cus country has to import much of its food
4. Which countries border Lake Victoria?
• Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania
5. Why has Kenya been unstable since the 1980s?
• Fastly growing pop.—unable to support w/enough jobs/food
• Social + political unrest dev., ethnic groups began to clash
• Political Reforms
o Many blamed the president, Daniel arap Moi for corruption and mismanagement of the country—refused
multiparty elections, threw critics in jail, punished independent judges, threw critics in jail, and closed
down newspapers
• Search for Peace
o Ethnic conflicts have forced farmers off land—hurts food production
o Hopeful of peace through symbols of nations—black, red, greenpeople, struggle for independence,
agriculture
6. In what ways are countries on the Horn of Africa strategically located, and what are the countries?
• Lie both near oil supplies of middle east + shipping lanes of Red Sea + Gulf of Adean + midpoint between Europe
+ S.e. Asia
• Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia
• Djibouti
o Link between Ethiopia’s capital + sea—earns most income from strategic portsFrance pays large fees
for right to maintain military base
7. Describe the divisions within Sudan.
• Physical—largely desert + sand dunes, to the south are clay plains + swamp area called the Sudd—means “the
Barrier”
• Religious—Muslim Arabs live in n., diff. ethnic groups in s.—practice animism/Christianity
8. Describe two conflicts that occurred due to ethnocracies.
• Uganda
o After gaining independence form Britain in 162, civil war broke out between n.—had most military power +
s.—had most economic power
o Under dictator Idi Amin 200,000 Ugandans died in violence
• Rwanda + Burundi
o Rwanda
 80% of pop. is Hutu, + rest Tutsi
 Hutu remained in power for 35 years after successfully overthrowing Tutsi-controlled gov., killed
100,000 of minority
 1994—100s of 1000s of Tutsi murdered + 2 mil. Rwandans sent home in civil war
o Burundi
 Tutsi, minority 14%, are in power—control army + maintain power through it
 1993—1st free elections, people chose Hutu president, army overthrew him
 10s of 1000s Tutsis + Hutus massacred since independence in 1962
9. How has Tanzania’s economy changed?
• Poor dev.—rural people subjected to villagization through an experiment w/socialism
• Economy hit a ground halt
10. How was South Africa a country divided by race?
• White minority ruled for over a century, whites 14% of pop.
• Minority Rule
o Whites controlled gov., jobs, farmland, industries, all wealth
• Migration Into African Lands
o Europeans came during 1600s—pushed native Africans inland, claming land by treaty + force
o British came + moved Afrikaners inland
o Boer War—British vs. Afrikaners, British won + drove pop. onto reserves or to work on plantations/in
factories owned by whites + Asians
11. How did the South African government attempt to control black South Africans?
• Created arbitrary regions called homelands—75% of pop., blacks, where forced to live on 14% of country’s land
• Every African assigned to homeland + stay in it unless used a pass
• Created apartheid—nonwhite South Africans were segregated/forced to live apart from whites
• Blacks required to use separate public facilities—never in as good condition as whites
12. Describe the international backlash against the South African government.
• 1986—Europe + US placed economic sanctions against S. Africa—punish a country for behavior of which the
international community doesn’t approve
• Imports from S. Africa fell 40% in first 9 months—costing 2 bil. $ a year
• Towns kept up pressure/protests
• Finally whites began to admit changes had to take place
13. Which African country has the healthiest economy, and why?
• South Africa—trade balance is positive—2, highest export #—8 bil. of $
14. What governmental changes took place after F. W. de Klerk became South Africa’s president?
• Release of Nelson Mandela from prison
• Apartheid + laws that supported it were repealed
• Gradual transition of power to majority
• 1994—first truly free elections, both races could vote
• 1996—new constitution certified by Constitutional Court
15. Compare Botswana and Malawi.
• Botswana
o Less dependent on S. Africa than Malawi because it’s wealthier
o Arid countryless pop.
o Profits from diamonds, copper, coal, + beef cattle
• Malawi
o Crowded nation on w. shore of L. Nyasa in the Great Rift Valley
o Migrant workers under labor contracts in S. Africa
o Fertile land + excellent water supplyattracted a large popresources must stretch the needs of more
people
• Both
o Landlocked—worked to keep friendly relations w/ S. Africa for economic opportunities
16. How has colonialism affected Angola and Mozambique in the past?
• Both won independence in 1975 after fighting wars w/Portugal
• White flight—made task of new gov. doubly difficult
• Conflict
o Both countries declared communist—angered capitalist S. Africawaged war against new gov.
o 100s of 1000s of people died in fighting
o Terrible living conditions, economies fell apart, disease + malnutrition widespread
17. Why did agriculture fail to develop in Zambia?
• Gov. certain that copper reserves provide the nation w/$ to buy foodallowed agricultural economy to decline
• World copper prices plunged—economy devastated
18. Describe agriculture in Zimbabwe, and the impact of land redistribution.
• New leaders, Robert Mugabe, pursued a policy of land redistribution
• Land redistribution took slowly—gave gov. more time to dev. infrastructure2000—Mugabe announced seize of
1000s of white owned farms to the black Zimbabweans—refused to compensate
• When people began to criticize Mugabe, he broke down 2 pillars of democracy—freedom of speech + press