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ST.

PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE


COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
VETERANS’ AVENUE, BANTAYAN, DUMAGUETE CITY

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CHAPTER 1
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM & ITS SCOPE

Introduction

"Cutting stalks at noon time


Perspiration drips to the earth
Know you that your bowl of rice
Each grain from hardship comes?"

-(Cheng Chan-Pao, Chinese philosopher)

Rice is the most consumed food on Planet Earth. The seeds of the rice plant
are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain).
At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be
continued, removing the 'bran', i.e., the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby
creating white rice. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice#Preparation_as_food,
January 26, 2010)

There are some countries with high annual rice consumption per capita (up
to 130–180 kg, equal to 55–80 percent of total caloric source) such as
Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam
(Chang 2000). Even in most parts of Africa, rice is a secondary staple food next to
cassava, yams, corn, and millet. However, in the following African countries rice is
consumed as a staple food: Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Madagascar, and part of Nigeria. By comparison with the rice production and
consumption in Asian countries, Latin America is often overlooked. However,
annual rice consumption in the following countries exceeds more than 32 kg per
capita: Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic.

Rice is the best cereal crop in terms of food energy per production area and
is consumed in various forms, including plain rice, noodles, puffed rice, breakfast
cereals, cakes, fermented sweet rice, snack foods, beer, wine and vinegar. Rice
starch is used as a thickener in baby foods, sauces, and desserts or can be made

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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
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into sweet syrup. However, most consumption of rice is as cooked rice served
simultaneously with vegetable, poultry, beef, seafood, and other dishes. Rice as a
comfort food is economical, delicious, nutritious, versatile, easy to prepare, and
bland enough to pair with other foods. Rice is convenient to store on shelves in
cupboards and pantries.

In the Filipino culture just like the other cultures of the world, it is very hard to
exaggerate the importance of rice. To the Filipinos, rice is a symbol of life itself.
There are many sayings that demonstrate the status of rice. Some people
commonly greet each other by asking "Have you had your rice today?" A person
who loses his job is said to have had his rice bowl broken. And when you are a
dinner guest it is considered bad manners not to consume every grain of rice in the
plate or bowl.

The Filipino eats rice at every meal. Mostly it is steamed, each kernel distinct
from the other, with a flavor so mild it compliments almost any dish. But rice is so
valued that other ways of eating it have been devised. It is steamed and then fried,
fried and then sweetened, ground, sweetened and steamed, or used as stuffing for
fowl or vegetables. It is even made into a potent wine for celebrations and rituals.
(Centro Escolar University, 2009).

The people of Negros Oriental have also a culture of their own about rice
being the staple food in every Oriental Negrense family. Rice plantations abound
all over the province apart from sugarcane and coconuts. The place is blessed
with this food since it is rich in water resources which provide irrigation to the rice
farms. White rice is common among the towns while upland rice as the red rice of
the town of Zamboanguita in the south of the province and some other upland
barangays and towns planting the same type of rice.

The methods and practices among Oriental Negrenses might vary from town
to town. The people of each town have their own practices and methods of

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COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
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cooking rice, making it into different delicacies distinctive of the aspirations and
traditions of every town that comprise the province.

This study provides an output of rice recipes distinct of being an Oriental


Negrense. The rice recipes that will be featured at the end of this research work
symbolize the uniqueness of the people of Negros Oriental as one people and as
one community.

Statement of Objectives

This study is expected to achieve the following objectives:

1. To determine the rice cooking practices of the people of Negros


Oriental.

2. To determine the methods used by Oriental Negrenses in cooking


rice.

3. To identify what type of rice recipes are produced out of the


cooking practices and methods used; and,

4. To find out what other ingredients are added in the methods of


preparing rice recipes.

Significance of the Study

This study is important because its findings can be used in promoting the
culture and traditions of the people of Negros Oriental. Specifically, the results of
the study will benefit the following:

The University. Research findings will guide the university in boosting the
Hotel and Restaurant Management program.

Provincial Government. The result of this study will provide impact to the
province’s efforts in strengthening local tourism and provides avenue to implement

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programs related to cultural and community programs and projects particularly on


rice production and rice-recipe promotions.

Provincial/City/Municipal Tourism Office. The result will provide the


officers and staff of the local tourism offices in Negros Oriental the necessary
information about rice cooking practices and methods of the Oriental Negrenses
particularly the methods and practices of their own city or municipality thus
enabling them to make necessary steps to develop them.

The Faculty. Research findings will provide additional inputs to teachers that
will be used to increase students’ learning particularly on any Hotel and Restaurant
Management subjects specifically on Culinary Arts module.

The Researchers. The present study will interest the researchers of this
study to study further the cultures and traditions of the people of Negros Oriental.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The locale of the study comprises the different cities and towns of Negros
Oriental specifically Dumaguete City, Tanjay City, Bais City, Bayawan City,
Guihulngan City, Canlaon City, Sibulan, San Jose, Amlan, Pamplona, Mabinay,
Manjuyod, Bindoy, Ayungon, Tayasan, Jimalalud, La Libertad, Vallehermoso,
Valencia, Bacong, Dauin, Zamboanguita, Siaton, Sta. Catalina and Basay.

The study was undertaken for two (2) semesters of SY 2009-2010 to ensure
that the data gathered on the areas investigated are valid and reliable.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A Brief History

The precise origins of rice are lost to history, but experts believe the plant
probably got its start in India. Certainly, archeological evidence indicates that the

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southeast Asians were the first people to cultivate rice: artifacts imprinted with rice
grains dating back to 4,000 BC have been discovered in Korea.

Rice soon spread outward from southern Asia into China and beyond. It is
thought that the Greeks were introduced to rice when Alexander the Great brought
it home with him from his travels to India in the 4th century BC. The Moors took
rice with them when they invaded Spain, and the Spanish in turn introduced the
Italians to rice in the 1400's. From there it quickly spread through southern Europe.
While rice wasn't one of the staples the Pilgrims packed on the Mayflower, it has
been a staple crop in the United States since the late 1600's.

In the olden times, the domestication of rice triggered the rapid growth of the
Philippines pre-colonial society. Archaeological records show that rice cultivation
took place in our country around 3240 +/- 160 BC. It is slightly older in Thailand
which was dated at about 4000 BC. (Centro Escolar University, 2009).

Speaking of the Mayflower, rice is not the first thing that springs to mind
when you think of British cuisine - or even French cuisine for that matter. The
reason for this probably stems back to medieval times. Malaria was prevalent in
southern Europe in the 1500's and 1600's, and many people believed the swampy
conditions needed for rice production contributed to the spread of the disease.
Needless to say, this meant northern Europeans were less than eager to make
rice a staple in their diet.

Fortunately, the incidence of malaria had no impact on rice's status in China.


There are several references to rice in Buddhist scriptures. (The lack of similar
references to rice in either Jewish scriptures or the Bible add to the case for rice
originating in southern Asia). Today, China is one of the countries that make up
the rice bowl, an area that produces the majority of the world's rice.

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VETERANS’ AVENUE, BANTAYAN, DUMAGUETE CITY

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More Information

Rice is a member of the Graminae family. There are two species of cultivated
rice, Orzya sativa and Orzya glaberrima, with the former being the most common.
There are many local differences within this species. For example, the separation
of Australia from New Guinea when a land bridge disappeared means that
Australian rice has its own unique characteristics. Similarly, Chinese rice is
different from rice grown in South Asia.

When we think of China and rice the image that comes to mind are fields of
rice paddies. In fact, the Chinese were the first to develop the idea of growing rice
in wet areas such as coastal plains and river deltas. The rice seeds are first sown
in beds, and then transplanted to an aquatic environment when they are about 25 -
30 days old. The idea of transplanting seeds is very important to the success of
rice as a crop. Lack of water supply is a frequent problem for Chinese farmers, as
are weeds that compete with the rice plants for the available water supply. The
shorter the period of time the rice seedlings are in this environment, the better their
chances of survival.

A harvested rice kernel contains a bran layer, and is enclosed by a hull.


White rice has had both the bran and hull removed during the milling process. By
contrast, brown rice has had only the hull removed. The result is a much more
nutritious dish, containing protein and several minerals. However, parboiled white
rice has been processed before milling and thus retains most of its nutrients.

Rice Types

The Chinese normally use long grain rice, which produces fluffier rice. If you
are following a recipe that calls for long grain rice, and need to use medium or
short grain rice instead, remember that rice grains have different absorption rates

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and adjust the amount of water accordingly. (In this case you would reduce the
amount of water by 1/4 to 1/2 cup per cup of rice).

In China, glutinous or "sticky" rice is used mainly for snacks and sweets.
However, in other parts of Asia it is used in place of regular rice. For example, a
reader who shared his experience living in Laos and northern Thailand, where
glutinous rice is a staple food, the rice is soaked for at least two hours, and then
steamed. People take the steamed rice and knead it in a ball. It is then dipped in
one of the courses and you use a finger to collect some of the course. (Glutinous
rice is available at most Asian grocery markets).

Two less well-known types of rice are black rice and red rice. Grown
throughout Asia, red rice is a member of the glutinous rice family. It is not
considered to be very edible, but there is a great deal of interest in the potential
health benefits of red rice extract. You'll often find it in health food stores, as it is
believed to help lower cholesterol levels and improve blood circulation.

Grown in China and Thailand, black rice is also a type of sticky rice. A layer
of bran covers the rice grains, giving them a brown or blackish color. Black rice is
used mainly in Chinese, Thai and Filipino desserts. Like red rice, black rice is
considered to have numerous health benefits, particularly the purplish-black
variety. (http://chinesefood.about.com/library/weekly/aa081399.htm. February 12,
2010

Preparation and Consumption

Rice consumption falls into the following three categories: direct food use,
processed foods, and brewer's use. Detailed methods and recipes for rice food
preparations were described by Bor S. Luh (1991), Sri Owen (1993), Jeffrey Alford
and Naomi Duguid (1998), and Bor S. Luh (1999).

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Direct food use. Rice is easy to prepare, has a soft texture for the human palate
and stomach, and has the ability to absorb flavors while retaining its texture.
Therefore, rice has gained popularity as "the pasta of the 1990s" in the West. Both
the short-grain japonica and the long-grain indica rice include non-glutinous and
glutinous types. Non-glutinous rice is somewhat transparent and is less sticky than
glutinous rice when cooked. There are some rice varieties with an attractive
aroma, such as basmati. Parboiled rice was originally produced in Asia, but the
parboiled rice produced in the United States now, such as by the company Uncle
Ben's, is of high quality. Arborio rice has large tan grains with central white dots
and, because of its creamy, chewy texture, can be used to make risotto.

American wild rice is a coarse grass (not a true rice by taxonomy), and now
has become more and more popular in the United States and Canada. It is grown
in shallow waters and has medium to long grains and a nutty flavor.

Rice is cooked by heating (either boiling or steaming) soaked rice for full
gelatinization of the kernels and evaporation of excess water. Generally there are
three rice cooking methods: large-amount-of-water method, absorption method,
and steaming method. The lot-of-water technique is good for arborio, basmati, or
parboiled rice, but not for Thai jasmine or japonica rice with low amylose content,
which should be cooked by steaming. Rice cooking methods also include rinsing,
boiling, baking, roasting, frying, and pressure-cooking. It is customary to wash rice
before cooking to remove dust, husks, insects, and other impurities. American-
grown rice does not require washing or rinsing before cooking because these
"cleaning" processes further remove nutrients, including vitamins and minerals that
were added before packaging by fortification or enrichment.

Juliano (1985) indicated that rice cooking methods vary with different
countries. Either uncooked rice or fully cooked rice combines well with other
protein-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and eggs because rice is
bland in flavor and carries the flavor of the mixed ingredients. People in the Middle

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East lightly fry rice before boiling. Americans often add salt, butter, or margarine to
soaked rice. People in China, Korea, and Japan add extra water to cook rice into
porridge (thick gruel) or congee (thin soup). Rice can be cooked with curries (in
India and Malaysia) or sauce (in the Philippines) or combinations of various
ingredients, including pork, shrimp, chicken, and vegetables (in China) (Boesch
1967). Steamed rice is preferred in some countries because more vitamins and
minerals are retained. Rice can be steamed in a bamboo steamer or, currently, in
an electric metal steamer. Steamed rice can be served plain or mixed with other
ingredients. Mixed steamed rice also varies among countries. For example,
Malaysians steam glutinous rice with mixed meat in a bamboo joint over a fire.
Cambodian kralan is steamed rice mixed with grated coconut and beans. Iranians
steam rice with oil or with butter, and sometimes with yogurt, while rice is cooked
with water and oil in Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Germany, Mexico, and Peru. Some
countries, such as France, Korea, Burma, Thailand, Japan, and the Philippines,
add rice to cold water for cooking. Presoaking is a common practice in India.
Detailed descriptions of recipes from different countries for cooked rice are
provided by Virmani (1991). Rice can be kept as long as five days in the
refrigerator. The leftover rice is good for stir-frying into egg fried rice with chopped
carrots and the like. Rice can also be cooked with certain amounts of water and
meat, seafood, vegetables, or other additions in clay pots or high-pressure metal
pots to make thin or thick congee (or juk) or gruel (okayu, in Japanese).

Parboiled rice: Parboiling is popular in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Brazil, the
United States, and Italy. Parboiling changes rice starch from the crystalline form to
an amorphous form by a series of procedures including cleaning, grading, soaking,
steeping, steaming, drying, tempering, milling, color sorting, and finally packaging.
It involves the treatment of grains in cold water and then hot water with low
pressure. The treated rice can be dried by the steam or sun. Problems of off-color
and offflavor that resulted from conventional parboiling procedures have been
overcome by various inventions, such as the H. R. Conversion and Malek

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Processes (D. H. Grist, 1986). Major advantages of parboiling over ordinary milling
include easier dehulling; less breakage in milling; higher retention of nutrients after
milling, washing, and cooking; and better resistance to insect and fungus
infestation, which makes it possible to store the rice for longer periods of time.
Also, parboiled rice gelatinizes the starch and makes better consistency, greater
hardness, and better vitreousness of the kernel. The main disadvantages of
parboiling include greater rancidity during storage, longer cooking time, greater
difficulty in milling, and additional cost (De Datta, 1987).

Rice-flour products: Rice flour does not contain gluten and therefore its dough
cannot retain gases during baking as wheat flour does. Therefore, rice flour is
widely used in making baby foods, breakfast cereals, unbaked biscuits, snack
foods, pancakes, and waffles. For example, a composite baking flour, made by
adding 10 percent rice flour to wheat flour, is used to make pastry products in Italy.

Rice-flour products are exemplified by the following foods: yuan zi (or tong
yuan) is a popular food in China. It is made from glutinous rice flour and water by
adding sweet or savory fillings to the rice dough. The quality of yuan zi preparation
depends on the amylopectin content, the flour particle size, and the recipe for the
fillings. (The higher the amylopectin content, the softer and more sticky the rice
flour becomes when the same amount of water is added.) Yuan zi is fried with
vegetable oil or thoroughly cooked in boiling water and served with sugar or other
condiments.

Rice bread is a good substitute for other gluten-containing cereal flour, as


some people are allergic to these flours. The medium-and short-grain rice varieties
are preferable to the long-grain type for making rice bread. Formulation is
important in making rice bread by adjusting the levels of sucrose, yeast, water,
nonfat dry milk, and other additives.

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Processed foods. Rice noodles: Rice noodles are called mi fen in Chinese, sen
mee in Thai, and harusame in Japanese. Mi fen is often produced from non-
glutinous rice by soaking, grinding, steaming, kneading, and drying. If dehydrated,
it can be stored up to two years. In Thailand, mung bean is added to rice to make
a special rice noodle called fung-shu (or tong-fun) that is more resistant to texture
changes during reconstitution. In Asia, rice noodles are consumed in soups or as
snacks. Mi fen is served with water, meat or chicken, green vegetables, soy sauce,
and other ingredients.

Rice snacks: Rice snacks have an attractive taste, flavor, texture, and
aroma.They are often made from glutinous rice because of its sticky
characteristics and easy expansion into a porous texture. However, non-glutinous
rice also can be used for making some rice snacks.

The rice cracker is a typical rice snack. The Japanese soft rice cracker made
from glutinous rice is called arare or okaki in comparison with the less popular and
tougher senbei (the rice cracker made from non-glutinous rice). The production
process involves washing, grinding, steaming, kneading, cooling, pounding, drying,
baking, seasoning, cutting, and packing. The production of rice crackers is now
developed as a continual process that takes place within 3–4 hours. To add flavors
and color to rice crackers, the following ingredients are often added: seaweed,
sesame, red peppers, sugar, food pigments, and spices. Moreover, high-quality,
refined oil should be used for oil-fried crackers.

Rice fries can even compete with the French fries made from potatoes
because rice fries have a crisp exterior crust and fluffy interior. To make rice fries,
rice should be fully cooked with butter, salt, and other seasonings.

Rice cakes: Rice cakes are popular in China, Japan, and other Asian countries.
They can be made either from glutinous or non-glutinous rice by soaking and
steaming. Before steaming, various ingredients can be added for more flavor, such

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PAGE 12

as sugar, salt, monosodium glutamate, crushed radish, crushed mung bean (for lu
du gao, a special cake in China), and crushed taro.

Glutinous or waxy rice is very sticky when cooked and is mainly consumed in
northern Burma, northern Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. It is often used to make
rice cakes. However, fermented rice cakes, such as fakau in China and bibingka in
the Philippines, can also be made from non-glutinous rice.

Puffed rice cakes are popular in China and the United States because they
are rich in taste, low in calories, and free from cholesterol. To make puffed rice
cakes, some minor ingredients, such as sesame seed, millet, and salt, should be
added to brown rice.

The Chinese rice cake zong zi, the same as chimaki in Japan, is made from
glutinous rice and soda ash, wrapped in bamboo leaves to form a tetrahedron,
bound with string, and served with honey or sugar. There are two main categories
of zong zi: chien zong and rou zong. The difference between chien zong and rou
zong is that pork or ham and other ingredients are added to rou zong to enrich the
flavor and nutritional value. Other ingredients include mushrooms, soy sauce,
monosodium glutamate, sugar, black pepper, sherry wine, fried garlic, cooking oil,
and shrimp meat.

Neng gao or nian gao (mochi in Japanese) is also a special rice cake for the
celebration of the Chinese Lunar New Year. It is produced either from glutinous
rice or from nonglutinous rice. The main production procedures involve soaking,
steaming, kneading, and packing. For better taste and flavor, neng gao is
sometimes sweetened with sugar or enriched with lard and cinnamon flour.

In Japan, sushi is a rice cake or rolls or cube topped with raw fish or other
delicacies and served with wasabi (Japanese horseradish). Fresh raw fish used in
sushi include tuna, bonito, shrimp, squid, and shellfish. Vegetables such as
cucumber and seasoning gourd also can be put in the middle of the rolls, which

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are then wrapped with seaweed (nori). Sushi usually is served with rice vinegar
and soy sauce (shoyu).

There are many other types of rice cakes made in Asia. For example, biko,
cuchinta (or kutsinta), puto, suman, and other rice cakes are made in the
Philippines.

Rice puddings: Rice can be made into creamy puddings by mixing cooked rice
with milk and sugar. Indian consumers sweeten rice pudding with palm sugar. Rice
puddings were served to the rich during the time of the ancient Romans. Now, rice
pudding has become a popular dish for children. A delicious Chinese pudding is
the Eight Jewel Rice Pudding, prepared from eight different kinds of fruit and
steamed glutinous rice with honey.

Quick-cooking rice: The preparation and cooking of conventional rice takes


about one hour. Now, quick-cooking rice product is popular in developed countries,
such as Japan, the United States, and other Western countries. Completely
precooked rice requires no further cooking. However, quick-cooking rice often
requires five to fifteen minutes for cooking. To produce quick-cooking rice, rice
should be precooked by gelatinizing the rice starch in water and/or steam and then
dried. Quick-cooking rice mainly is produced by the soak-boil-steam-dry, freeze-
thaw-drying, expansion–pre-gelatinization, and gun puffing methods.

Canned and frozen rice: For convenience of consumption, canned and frozen
rice are produced in Japan, Korea, the United States, and other countries. After
precooking, canned rice is sold by wet pack and dry pack. The preparation of
frozen cooked rice includes soaking, draining, steaming, boiling, and freezing. To
serve the frozen cooked rice, microwave heating is a common practice. Frozen
rice also can be made into freeze-dried rice by sublimation under high vacuum.
This rice has a long storage life of one to two years.

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Rice breakfast cereals: Some rice breakfast cereals require cooking before
eating, while others can be eaten directly. They commonly are fortified with
minerals and heat-stable vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. The
ready-to-eat breakfast cereals include oven-puffed, gun-puffed, extruded, and
shredded rice. Oven-puffed rice is made from short-grain rice with sugar and salt
by cooking, drying, tempering, enriching, and packaging. Gun puffing is a
traditional method and is still practiced in some Asian countries, such as China.
The procedure consists of heating, cooking with high pressure in a sealed
chamber or gun, and suddenly releasing the high pressure. Because of the lack of
continuity in processing, gun puffing is less popular in developed countries.
Instead, making extruded rice has high and continuous production rates, great
versatility in product shape, and ease of controlling product density. The
production of extruded rice can be accomplished by extruding superheated and
pressurized doughs. Shredded rice is produced by washing, cooking, drying,
tempering, shredding, fortifying, and packing.

Baby foods: Rice has highly digestible energy, net protein utilization, and low
crude fiber content. Therefore, it is suitable for baby food. Although baby foods can
be in the form of rice flour or granulated rice, precooked infant rice cereal is the
most common use of rice for baby food. The key to making this type of cereal is
ensuring the ease of reconstitution with milk or formula without forming lumps. The
starch is converted from crystalline to amorphous form by the addition of amylase,
which breaks down starch into dextrin and oligosaccharides. Ingredients in this
baby food include rice flour, rice polishings, sugar, dibasic calcium phosphate,
glycerol monostearate (emulsifier), rice oil, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin or
niacinamide. Sometimes, fruit is added to these precooked rice cereals.

Rice-bran products: Rice bran can be sprinkled on a dinner salad or used as a


major ingredient of ready-toeat cereals, baked products, pasta, and other foods.
Like oat bran, rice bran has high-quality protein, laxative properties, and dietary
fiber components. Rice bran can lower serum cholesterol in humans and reduce

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the risk of cardiovascular disease and colon cancer. The bran also contains most
of the vitamins in the rice kernel, including 78 percent of its thiamine, 47 percent of
its riboflavin, and 67 percent of its niacin. The major carbohydrates in the rice bran
are cellulose, hemicelluloses (or pentosans), and starch.

Rice bran has hydrolytic rancidity after milling. Therefore, the following
treatments are necessary before it is processed as a food: indigenous lipase
inactivation by parboiling, or moisture-added or dry extrusion, or other alternative
methods.

Rice bran has 16–32 percent oil, including palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and other
fatty acids. Therefore, rice bran can be processed into rice oil of the highest quality
in terms of cooking quality, shelf life, and fatty acid composition. Oil extraction can
be carried out with a variety of solvents using a hydraulic press or specially
designed extractors before refining by dewaxing, degumming, neutralization,
bleaching, winterization, and deodorization. After these steps, rice bran oil has
greater stability than any other vegetable oil. Rice oil also can be used in
cosmetics and paints.

Brewer's use: Rice alcohols include rice beer and rice wine, which is usually
served at weddings and other annual rituals. Rice wine is distilled spirits having
about 20 percent alcohol content. China has a long history of making rice wine,
such as wang tsiu ("Shao Shing rice wine"). Nepal also has a slightly sweet rice
wine called nigar. Other rice wines include tapuy in the Philippines, mukhuli in
Korea, lao rong in Thailand, and moonshine rice wine and ba-xi de (a glutinous
rice wine) in Vietnam.

In China, tian jiu niang is a popular mixture of rice grains, alcohol, lactic acid,
and sugar. It is made from steamed glutinous rice. Jiu qu, containing Rhizopus,
Mucor, Monilia, Aspergillus, and in some cases, yeast or bacteria, is used to
ferment the steamed rice.

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Sake is a brewed alcoholic beverage having 14–16 percent alcohol content.


The production of sake began in third century Japan. Sake is made from highly-
polished rice, water, koje, and sake's yeast. Koje are microbes similar to those
used in the production of cheese, shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soy bean paste).
Sakamai or shinpakumai rice should be selected for sake production for better
quality because of its high starch content and its large and soft grain. Another
important ingredient is the spring water, which leads to rich flavor.

The processes to make sake can be summarized as the following: (1)


saccharification: conversion of the starch in cooked rice into glucose with koje or
koji; (2) fermentation: conversion of the rice sugar into alcohol by sake's yeast.
Fermentation for 20–25 days (three or four times longer than the fermentation in
normal wine production) produces a balanced taste and fresh flavor from a wide
variety of amino acids and low alcohol content (8–15 percent); and (3) further
steps including filtration, setting, heating, aging, and bottling. Sake should be
preserved in a cool and dark place without any exposure to light and open air.

Nutritive, Health-Related, and Psychopharmacological Value

Rice ranks high among the most nutritious foods available because brown
rice provides high levels of fiber, complex carbohydrates, certain B vitamins,
vitamin E, lysine, calcium, iron, and phosphorus. Furthermore, many fewer people
are allergic to rice than to wheat or other cereals. Rice can be included in a weight-
loss diet because it has no cholesterol, a trace of fat, and about 160 calories per
cooked cup.

Recent studies have indicated that rice hull or bran contains antioxidants
such as isovitexin (a C-glycosyl flavonoid), and it has been demonstrated that rice
bran oil can lower both the total and the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in non-
human primates (Nicolosi et al., 1990). Some health problems, such as beriberi
(thiamin deficiency), growth retardation, marasmus, and vitamin A deficiency, can

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result from consumption of only white rice, from which a portion of the proteins and
most of the fat, vitamins, and minerals are removed. Rice bran (tiki-tiki) is used to
cure beriberi in the Philippines.

Since rice is low in sodium and fat and free of cholesterol, it can help relieve
mental depression. Rice starch can substitute for glucose in an oral rehydration
solution for infants suffering from diarrhea caused by a spleen-pancreas deficiency
(Juliano, 1985). Rice oil is believed to reduce the likelihood of ischemic heart
disease. (http://www.answers.com/topic/rice-as-a-food, February 23, 2010)

Although not scientifically proven, rice is believed to have medicinal uses.


Powdered rice is used to treat certain skin ailments, and boiled rice "greens" are
used as an eye lotion in Malaysia. A thick paste made from rice grains and water is
used in India for massage for curing arthritic pain. The Chinese believe that rice
can increase appetite and cure indigestion. Rice water (a decoction of rice) is
prescribed as an ointment for skin inflammation. Glutinous rice is believed to
strengthen the kidneys, spleen-pancreas, and stomach because of its easier
digestion compared to regular rice. The Chinese also believe that rice mixed with
honey butter and water can build energy and blood and counter emaciation and
other disorders (Wood, 1999).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This part of the study is composed of research method, research


respondents, research instruments, research procedures, data gathering
procedures and statistical treatment of data.

Research Method

This study will use the quantitative survey method. Random sampling is
being done in every town or city.

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Research Respondents

The respondents come from the different towns and cities in the province of
Negros Oriental. Random sampling is used to determine the number of samples to
be surveyed in each town. Ages of respondents vary from as young as 15 years
old to as mature as above 60 years old and above.

Table 1
Distribution of Respondents

N=273
Frequency
Towns %
(f)
Dumaguete City 36 13.19%
Sibulan 8 2.93%
San Jose 8 2.93%
Amlan 8 2.93%
Tanjay City 17 6.23%
Pamplona 8 2.93%
Bais City 17 6.23%
Mabinay 8 2.93%
Manjuyod 8 2.93%
Bindoy 8 2.93%
Ayungon 8 2.93%
Tayasan 8 2.93%
Jimalalud 8 2.93%
La Libertad 8 2.93%
Guihulngan City 17 6.23%
Vallehermoso 8 2.93%
Canlaon City 17 6.23%
Bacong 8 2.93%
Valencia 8 2.93%
Dauin 8 2.93%
Zamboanguita 8 2.93%
Siaton 8 2.93%
Sta. Catalina 8 2.93%
Bayawan City 17 6.23%
Basay 8 2.93%
TOTAL 273 100%

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Research Instrument

This research study used a questionnaire which was made up of two parts:

A. Respondents’ Profile – This section covers the demographic


profile of the respondents including their address, age, sex, occupation
and civil status.
B. Guided Survey Questions – This section covers the questions to
get facts regarding the various methods, practices, common recipes,
usual ingredients and favorite recipes of the respondents. Moreover,
the questions in this section are guided.

Research Procedures

Foremost is to secure a permission to conduct the research study at the


Office of the Research Director thru a written letter requesting permission thereof.

Once approved, the researchers together with some volunteer HRM


students from each town administer the final questionnaire to respondents. Every
question asked in the questionnaire was being translated to vernacular and being
explained to respondents before the researchers would write the respondent’s
answer on the survey sheet.

After accomplishing all the questionnaires, the data is properly arranged,


tallied, tabulated, and is subjected to statistical treatment for presentation, analysis
and interpretation.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data will be treated in relation to what was asked in the specific
objectives. These data will be tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Statistical tools
that will be used are percentage and standard mean. The formulas read as follow:

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Percentage:

( Part / Whole ) x 100

Mean:

X
X =
N

Where:

X = Mean

X = Sum of Cases

N = Number of Cases

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CHAPTER II

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter has two (2) parts which constitutes the presentation, analysis
and interpretation of the data gathered by the researcher. The first part presents
the demographic profile of the respondents while the second part reveals the
methods, practices, common recipes, usual ingredients that are being used by the
respondents in cooking rice.

The following tables present the profiles of respondents in terms of:

A. Age
Table 2
Age of Respondents

N=273
Respondents' Frequency Percentage
Rank
Ages (f) (%)
15-20 70 25.64% 1
21-25 24 8.79% 5.5
26-30 30 10.99% 2.5
31-35 24 8.79% 5.5
36-40 30 10.99% 2.5
41-45 28 10.26% 4
46-50 24 8.79% 7
51-55 8 2.93% 10
56-60 12 4.40% 9
61-above 23 8.42% 8
TOTAL 273 100.00%

Table 2 above presents the ages of the respondents and also reveals that
25.64 percent have ages 15-20 with the rank of 1 followed by almost 11 percent
with ages of 26-30 and 36-40, both with the rank of 2.5 respectively. This proves
that most of the respondents are mostly adolescents which are mostly requested
or trained by parents to cook rice for their family.

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B. Gender

Table 3
Gender of Respondents

N=273
Frequency Percentage
Gender
(f) (%)
Female 209 76.56%
Male 64 23.44%
TOTAL 273 100.00%

Table 3 reveals that majority of the respondents are females with almost 77
percent while male respondents is 23 percent.

C. Civil Status

Table 4
Civil Status of Respondents

N=273
Frequency Percentage
Civil Status
(f) (%)
Single 111 40.66%
Married 139 50.92%
Widow 23 8.42%
TOTAL 273 100.00%

The table above presents the civil status of respondents. Most of the
respondents that the researchers surveyed belong to a family. Hence, Table 4
above reveals that majority of the respondents with 51 percent are married while
almost 41 percent are single and almost 9 percent are widows.

On the succeeding page is Table 5 which presents that data on the different
occupations of the respondents. It reveals that majority of the respondents are
housewives which comprised almost 30 percent of the total respondents or having
a frequency of seventy-seven (77). This is followed by students with the frequency
of fifty-eight (58) or almost 22 percent with the rank of 2.

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D. Occupation of Respondents

Table 5
Occupation of Respondents

N=273
Frequency Percentage
Occupation RANK
(f) (%)
Accountant 1 0.37% 24.5
Bank Teller 1 0.37% 24.5
Bookkeeper 1 0.37% 24.5
Carpenter 3 1.10% 13
Chef Cook 14 5.13% 6
Driver 6 2.20% 9
Entrepreneur/Businessmen 26 9.52% 3
Farmer 3 1.10% 13
Food server 3 1.10% 13
Government Employee 15 5.49% 5
House helper 7 2.56% 7.5
Houseboy 2 0.73% 18.5
Housewife 77 28.21% 1
Husband at home 2 0.73% 18.5
Labandera 3 1.10% 13
Mall Manager 2 0.73% 18.5
Marketing Manager 1 0.37% 24.5
Nurse 3 1.10% 13
Nursing Aid 1 0.37% 24.5
Pensioner/Retired 7 2.56% 7.5
Private Employee 3 1.10% 13
Sales clerk 1 0.37% 24.5
Saleslady 5 1.83% 10
Seaman 2 0.73% 18.5
Secretary 2 0.73% 18.5
Student 58 21.25% 2
Teacher 18 6.59% 4
Teacher Aid 2 0.73% 18.5
Vendor 4 1.47% 10
TOTAL 273 100.00%

In addition, Table 8 above reveals that 9.52 percent of the respondents are
entrepreneurs or businessmen with the frequency of 26 and with the rank of 3. The
occupations of the respondents are well represented in all walks of life.

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The succeeding tables present the second part of this research which is the
guided survey questions. It begins with the best practices that the respondents
apply when cooking rice up to the usual ingredients that are added to their rice
recipes.

Table 6 below presents the practice used by the respondents in terms of the
methods used of measuring the amount of water needed to cook rice. It is very
evident based on the survey that the people of Negros Oriental are using the lines
of their middle fingers as basis for the amount of water to be used in cooking rice
depending on what type of recipe they are cooking.

Table 6
Practices Used in Measuring the Amount of Water needed to Cook Rice

N=273
Using Middle Finger
Cup(s) of Rice 1st line 2nd line 3rd line
% % % TOTAL
(f) (f) (f)
1-2 218 79.85% 55 20.15% 0 0.00% 100.00%
3-4 158 57.88% 112 41.03% 3 1.10% 100.00%
5-6 129 47.25% 114 41.76% 30 10.99% 100.00%
7-above 60 21.98% 180 65.93% 33 12.09% 100.00%

Based on Table 6 above, majority of the respondents with almost 80


percent or a frequency of 218 used the 1st line of their middle fingers as to the
amount of water to be used in cooking 1-2 cups of rice. Some with 20 percent or a
frequency of 55 said that in cooking 1-2 cups of rice they are going to measure the
amount of water up to the second line of their middle fingers.

With 3-4 cups of rice being cooked, majority of the respondents or almost
60 percent said that they are using the first line of their middle finger to indicate the
amount of water while 41 percent put water up to the 2nd line of their middle
fingers. Still the table presents that in 5-6 cups of rice, the first line of the middle
finger served as the basis of measurement as to the amount of water to be used

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with almost 48 percent followed by almost 42 percent of the respondents using the
2nd line of their middle fingers.

However, the table indicates that the 2nd line of the middle finger is used as
basis of the amount of water if there are 7 and above cups of rice with almost 66
percent. The graph further reveals that there are also respondents who are using
up to the 3rd line of their middle fingers as indicated on Table 6 from 3 and above
cups of rice. This suggests that there are respondents who are cooking porridge or
“lugaw” since there is more amount of water.

On the other hand, there are respondents who are using other practices in
measuring the amount of water needed to cook rice apart from the use of the lines
of the middle fingers. Presented below in Table 7 are the other practices used by
the people of Negros Oriental and it reveals that almost 28 percent of the
respondents or with a frequency of 76 are using the 1:1 ratio meaning in every cup
of rice is a cup of water which means for example if there are 3 cups of rice, it
means 3 cups of water and so on and so forth. The table also reveals a very little
percentage of .37 percent or only 1 respondent among the total respondents is
using the 1:2 ratio meaning putting 2 cups of water in a cup of rice.

Table 7
Other Practices Used in Measuring the Amount of Water needed to Cook
Rice

N=273
Other
F %
Practices
1:1 76 27.84%
1:2 1 0.37%

Presented next is a graph which reveals if the respondents would stir the
rice while the water is boiling to aid in fully-cooking the rice. Stirring is a practice
which requires the use of a ladle made up of aluminum or steel or the shell of the
coconut with a bamboo handle called “luwag” in vernacular.

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Graph 1
Number of Respondents who Practiced Stirring in Cooking Rice

33% N=273
YES
NO
67%

Graph 1 above reveals that majority of the respondents said yes when
asked with the question, “Do you stir the rice while the water is boiling to aid in
fully-cooking the rice?” As indicated on the graph above, majority of the
respondents or 67 percent stir the rice while the water is boiling in order to evenly
cook the rice while the rest of the respondents or 33 percent just leave the rice
while the water is boiling until cooked without stirring.

There are situations in which the rice being cooked becomes half-cooked or
uncooked. In this situation, Table 8 presents the practices done by the
respondents or the people of Negros Oriental on how to cook the uncooked rice.

Table 8
Practices made when Rice being cooked is Half-cooked or Uncooked

N=273
Practices to do if the Rice is Half-cooked or Frequency Percentage
Rank
Uncooked (f) (%)
Add hot water 106 38.83% 1
Add tap water 77 28.21% 2
Cook again 4 1.47% 6
Fry it 1 0.37% 10
Put a damp cloth on top of the cover 6 2.20% 5
Put banana leaf on top 2 0.73% 7
Put bondpaper on top of the cover 1 0.37% 10
Put fire on top of the cover 1 0.37% 10
Put plastic on top of the cover 1 0.37% 10
Put salt on top of the cover 60 21.98% 3
Put spoon/fork 1 0.37% 10
Stir it 13 4.76% 4
TOTAL 273 100.00%

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Table 8 on the previous page revealed that majority of the respondents or


38.33 percent add hot water to the uncooked rice with a rank of 1. This is being
followed by the practice of adding tap water to the uncooked rice with almost 30
percent or rank 2. Rank 3 is putting salt on top of the cover which reveals almost
22 percent or a frequency of sixty (60). Putting salt on top of the cover has long
been a practice among the people of Negros Oriental. This practice is a tradition
and has become part of the culture among the Oriental Negrenses. The reason
behind this practice lacks scientific proof but is already considered as a way of life
among the people. It’s a practice that has been passed on from generation to
generation. Ranking 4th or almost 5 percent is the practice on stirring the rice in
order to get into the other portion which is not being cooked. Others practiced by
putting a damp cloth on top of the cover which has a frequency of six (6) or 2.2
percent placing it rank 5. Some folks have to cook again the uncooked rice and
place it over the fire with the frequency of 4 or 1.47 percent.

In addition, other practices indicated on the previous table covering ranks 7


to 10 include putting banana on top of the cover, frying the rice in order to cook it,
putting bond paper on top of the cover, putting plastic on top of the cover, and
putting spoon/fork on the rice while cooking it with moderate fire.

All these practices signify rice cooking culture in the southern part of
Negros. The placing of a piece of paper, plastic and even banana leaf on top of the
cover are unique practices to the Oriental Negrenses.

Presented on Table 9 on the next page are the other practices mentioned
by the respondents. Ranking first or almost 23 percent on the other practices is
putting “pandan” leaves on the rice. This is a common practice to make the rice
smells good and fresh to eat. Placing at the 4th rank which has each a frequency of
three (3) or 7.5 percent include boiling the water before putting the rice, placing
banana leaf inside the kettle, removing cover while boiling, steaming and stirring it
constantly. Ranking 9th with a frequency of two (2) each or 5 percent include

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“tinughong,” reduce the fire when boiling, using firewood, using rice cooker and
using charcoal.

Table 9
Other Practices in Cooking Rice

N=40
Frequency Percentage
Other Practices RANK
(f) (%)
"Sinanduloy" 1 2.50% 14.5
"Taphan" 1 2.50% 14.5
"Tinughong" 2 5.00% 9
Addding magic sarap 1 2.50% 14.5
Boil the water before putting the rice 3 7.50% 4
Bring the water to boil before adding rice 1 2.50% 14.5
Hanging rice 1 2.50% 14.5
Placing banana leaf inside the kettle 3 7.50% 4
Put pandan leaves 9 22.50% 1
Reduce the fire when boiling 2 5.00% 9
Remove cover while boiling 3 7.50% 4
Steaming 3 7.50% 4
Stirring it constantly 3 7.50% 4
Use firewood 2 5.00% 9
Use rice cooker 2 5.00% 9
Use charcoal 2 5.00% 9
Washing rice 1 2.50% 14.5
TOTAL 40 100.00%

The practice of ‘tinughong” is being done when uncooked or cooked rice is


being cooked again with more amount of water and being added with sugar to
taste. “Tinughong” is usually being eaten by farmers early in the morning before
going to the farm. This is a tradition among Negrenses to warm their stomachs on
a very early morning work as a substitute for expensive coffees. Reducing the fire
when boiling on the other hand will prevent overcooking and even undercooking.
This practice is being done to make an even cook among the grains of rice inside
the kettle. The other practice which is the use of firewood in cooking is a common

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practice among people who want to cut costs in electric bills. According to the
respondents, cooking using firewood and even cooking using charcoal yield more
tasty rice as compared to pressurized cooking using rice cooker. According to
them, cooking with firewood or charcoal will produce “dukot” – a cooked rice which
is brownish in color at the bottom of the kettle but it is very tasty especially when
place and mix with a hot soup. Ranking 14.5 with a frequency of one (1) each or
2.5 percent on Table 9 include “sinanduloy,” “taphan,” hanging rice (“puso”),
adding ‘magic sarap,’ placing the water to boil before adding the rice, and washing
the rice thoroughly before cooking.

“Sinanduloy” is a rice cooking practice where vegetables are added on the


rice when cooking especially with leafy vegetables like the saluyot and the
malunggay. These are edible leafy vegetables which contain high percentage of
proteins and other minerals and very good substitutes of meat. ”Taphan” is a
practice to remove the husks of the rice grain and other sediments like small
stones over the rice with the use of a “bilao”. “Bilao” is an oblong-shaped material
made up of rattan or bamboo woven together where the rice is being put. On the
other hand, hanging rice or “puso” is a very common practice among the
respondents. It is a street food and ideal to match with delicious pork ‘tocino’ and
other dishes. “Puso” is a traditional term of hanging rice which is being cooked with
the use of young coconut leaves woven like a shape of a heart or “puso” in
Tagalog pronounced as pu-so where the accent is on the middle of the word pu
but hanging rice is pronounced as puso’ with the accent at the end of the word.
Rice is being placed inside the heart-shaped coconut leaves and being placed
inside a big kettle and allowing the water to boil until the ‘puso’ is being cooked.
Putting stick at the center of the ‘puso’ will determine if the ‘puso’ is already
cooked or not. An experience is needed to determine the cooked ‘puso’ or the
uncooked one which further needs boiling under a small yet continuous fire.
Adding ‘magic sarap’ to the rice is a practice being done lately to add taste to the
rice. “Magic sarap” is a food seasoning which contains ingredients to make the rice
and other recipes taste better. Another significant practice is placing the water to

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boil before adding the rice is commonly being done when cooking with more
amount of rice particularly when there are events like fiesta, and among others.
Finally, washing the rice thoroughly before cooking is a universal practice. This is
to ensure that the rice to be cooked is clean and safe for eating.

Table 10 on the next below presents the various methods used by the
respondents in cooking rice. It reveals that boiling is the number one method used
with the frequency of two-hundred sixty seven (267) or almost 98 percent. Frying
followed next with a frequency of two hundred four (204) or almost 75 percent.
Ranking 3rd with a frequency of one hundred twenty-three (123) or 45.05 percent is
the steaming method. This is being followed by stirring with a frequency of eighty-
three (83) or almost 31 percent.

Table 10
Methods of Cooking Rice

N=273
Frequency Percentage
Methods of Rice Cooking RANK
(f) (%)
Boiling (pabukalan) 267 97.80% 1
Frying (paga-sanlagon) 204 74.73% 2
Steaming (pasingawan) 123 45.05% 3
Stirring (paga-ukayon) 83 30.40% 4
Baking (paga-hurnohon) 32 11.72% 6
Grinding (paga-galingon) 54 19.78% 5
Soaking (paga-huluman) 1 0.37% 7

Other methods include grinding, baking and soaking which correspond to


ranks 5, 6 and 7 respectively. These methods are being used by the respondents
to be able to cook their favorite rice recipes which are being presented on the next
table. Table 11 on the succeeding page presents the common rice recipes being
cooked by the respondents using the different methods mentioned in the previous
table and discussion.

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The table reveals that cooking “champorado” is the most common recipe
being cooked among the respondents. It has a frequency of two hundred fifty-three
(253) or almost 93 percent of the total respondents. “Champorado” is a rice recipe
using either glutinous (pilit) or plain rice with a mixture of a chocolate (tsokolate) or
commonly called “tablia” from cacao seeds or from cocoa seeds with coconut milk,
sugar, vanilla, and evaporated milk. “Tsamporado” is ideal for breakfast and even
during snacks time for the whole family. It is also economical where even one cup
of rice can fill the empty stomach of the whole members of the family.

Furthermore, it is very interesting to note based on the table below that


almost 93 percent of the total respondents are cooking and eating “Tsamporado.”

Table 11
Common Rice Recipes

N=273
Frequency Percentage
Common Rice Recipes RANK
(f) (%)
Ampaw 78 28.57% 13
Aros ala Valenciana 71 26.01% 14
Bibingka 97 35.53% 11
Biko 192 70.33% 6
Bodbod 136 49.82% 9
Dinoldog 220 80.59% 3
Fried rice 235 86.08% 2
Kan-on/Luto 218 79.85% 4
Lugaw 189 69.23% 7
Palitaw 86 31.50% 12
Pospas 215 78.75% 5
Puso 106 38.83% 10
Puto 161 58.97% 8
Sinagaksak 44 16.12% 16
Sinanduloy 52 19.05% 15
Sushi 43 15.75% 17
Tsamporado 253 92.67% 1

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Next with a rank of 2 with a frequency of two hundred thirty-five (235) or


almost 86.08 percent is fried rice. Usually fried rice is being served in the morning
among Filipinos. Filipinos cooked fried rice particularly on the rice which was a
leftover from the previous meals and common ingredients added to fried rice are
also presented later on the next table. The 3rd most common recipe among the
respondents is “dinoldog” with a frequency of two hundred twenty (220) or 80.59
percent. “Dinoldog” is also a favourite delicacy among Negrenses which contain
other ingredients such as banana (saging) particularly the ripe saba (pronounced
sab-a), ube, gabi, sago, other root crops and etc. However, the common plain rice
or “kan-on/luto” in the local dialect is placed only at rank 4 with a frequency of two
hundred eighteen (218) or 79.85 percent. The “kan-on” or “luto” is the staple food
among Filipinos where people usually eat with viands and soups.

Placing fifth on the rank with a frequency of two hundred fifteen (215) or
78.75 percent is “Pospas or Arroz Caldo.” “Pospas” is another porridge food which
is best served when it is hot. Usually it is being cooked with meat bones
particularly the bones of chicken or beef and of course with meat plus other
ingredients which will make the “pospas” very delicious to eat. It’s an ideal recipe
for the whole family.

Filipinos really love sweet food and this craving for sweetness is being
manifested by the local rice recipe known as “biko.” “Biko” has a frequency of one
hundred ninety-two (192) or 70.33 percent with a rank of 6. This rice recipe is
usually being made up using glutinous rice with the use of coconut milk, black
sugar known as ‘mascubado’, ginger or “luy-a,” and some added vanilla extract to
make the ‘biko’ smells good and delicious to eat. This rice recipe is usually present
in most occasions especially on Christmas Eve, New Year and even on birthdays.
The inclusion of ‘biko’ in the set of meals in every important family gathering
becomes a tradition since ‘biko’ is a sticky food; it signifies that the family members
will be closer to each other like ‘biko’ which is not only sweet but very sticky.

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The presence of Chinese in Negros Oriental has contributed to the traditions


and cultures of Negrenses particularly on their favourite food which is “lugaw” or
porridge. Based on Table 11, “lugaw” has a frequency of one hundred eighty-nine
(189) or 69.23 percent with a rank of 7. Commonly babies are being feed with
“lugaw” and even elderly who can hardly chew food. Placing 8th on the rank with a
frequency of one hundred sixty-one (161) or 58.97 percent is “puto.” This rice
recipe is best served with “tsokolate” and even with ripe mango. Almost
everywhere in Negros Oriental we can find ‘puto.” It is being cooked uysing
glutinous rice or also called “pilit” commonly with “pilit puti” or “pilit tapol.” ‘Pilit
tapol’ usually yields a violet-colored ‘puto’ while ‘pilit-puto’ yields a white-colored
‘puto.’ However both yields are very delicious especially during dawn or morning.
Another sticky food made up glutinous rice is bod-bod. ‘Bod-bod’ is being cooked
with a banana leaf. One place in Negros Oriental called Tanjay City put ‘tsokolate’
over the ‘bod-bod’ which makes it very sweet and delicious to eat. This ‘bod-bod’ is
called ‘Bod-bod sa Tanjay.” As their song goes, ‘Bod-bod sa Tanjay,’ lami gayud
kanunay. (‘Bod-bod in Tanjay is forever delicious.’) It is ranked 9th with a frequency
of one hundred thirty-six (136) or 49.82 percent.

The Filipino family culture of being attached with each other and the long-
tradition of ‘pakikisama’ is being manifested with the common recipe known as
‘puso’ or hanging rice. ‘Puso’ has a frequency of one hundred six (106) or 38.83
percent with a rank of ten (10). This rice recipe is commonly being brought over to
picnics and parties because of its being handy. It is being cooked by boiling and as
presented in the earlier discussion that it is being cooked using young coconut
leaves in the form of a heart. Ranks 11 to 16 include bibingka, palitaw, ampaw,
aros de valenciana, sinanduloy, sinagaksak and sushi respectively. These recipes
are indicative of the Negrenses’ creative and innovative cultures. Bibingka and
palitaw are common picnic food and ideal for snacks and every Negrense family
cannot miss in every get together occasion. The ‘ampaw’ or puffed rice is very
popular in Cebu particularly in Car-car but also a recipe in which the people of
Negros Oriental are fond of. Aros de Valencia is quite having expensive

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ingredients but it’s a very delicious delicacy to serve. ‘Sinanduloy’ and ‘sinagaksak’
are native food in which the first is being cooked with the addition of leafy
vegetables and even with young corn while the ‘sinagaksak’ is being cooked with
added camote or ’balonghoy’ and other root crops. These two recipes are common
among towns in the province particularly to those families who are on the average
class and specially those falling below the poverty line.

Finally, sushi, is a rice recipe commonly served only during important


occasions particularly with the affluent families or to those who can afford.

Table 12
Common Ingredients Added to Rice Recipes

N=273
Common Ingredients Added Frequency Percentage
RANK
to Rice Recipes (f) (%)
Ahos (garlic) 231 84.62% 5
Carrots 150 54.95% 17
Chicken 194 71.06% 10
Coconut milk 202 73.99% 8
Ginger 159 58.24% 14
Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap 263 96.34% 1
Greenpeas 108 39.56% 20
Hotdog 160 58.61% 13
Karne (Meat) 168 61.54% 12
Kinagid Lubi 125 45.79% 19
Pepper 151 55.31% 16
Sago 155 56.78% 15
Salag-on 133 48.72% 18
Salt 257 94.14% 2
Sibuyas (onion) 203 74.36% 7
Sibuyas dahon 212 77.66% 6
Sugar 251 91.94% 3
Tsokolate 195 71.43% 9
Vetsin 176 64.47% 11
Water 237 86.81% 4

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Table 12 in the previous page presented the various ingredients needed


while cooking the various recipes presented in Table 11. Based on the table it
reveals the following Top 10 ingredients arranged accordingly:

Rank 1 - Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap with a frequency of 263. This also


reveals that almost 97 percent of the total respondents are using this ingredient
when cooking with rice recipes. Ginisa Mix and Magic Sarap are competing brands
of seasoning which when used produce a very seasoned taste of menu.

Rank 2 – Salt with a frequency of 257. It shows that only 94.14 percent of
the total respondents used salt. This further reveals that not all of the respondents
used salt in their recipes.

Rank 3 – Sugar with a frequency of 251. Based on the total number of


respondents, it reveals that 91.94 percent among them used sugar as an
ingredient. This reflects the fact that ‘tsamporado’ as the number 1 common recipe
requires sugar as main ingredient.

Rank 4 – Water with a frequency of 237. As reflected on its frequency, only


86.51 percent used this ingredient. Thus, it shows that not all rice recipes require
water as main ingredient.

Rank 5 – Ahos (garlic) with a frequency of 231 or 84.62 percent. It shows


that this ingredient reflects with the common recipes mentioned in Table 11 like
fried rice, pospas, aros de Valencia and among others. These mentioned recipes
require the use of garlic to season the menu.

Rank 6 – Sibuyas dahon with a frequency of 212 or 77.66 percent. This is


also being followed by Rank 7 – Sibuyas (onion) with a frequency of 203 or 74.36
percent.

Rank 8 – Coconut Milk with a frequency of 202 or 73.99 percent. It is


commonly used as ingredient of champorado, bodbod, puto, dinoldog, biko and
the like.

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Rank 9 – Tsokolate has a frequency of 195 or 71.43 percent. This


ingredient is very much needed when cooking ‘champorado’ and being a side drink
when eating ‘puto.’

Finally, rank 10 – Chicken with a frequency of 194 or 71.06 percent. This is


the best ingredient when cooking Aros ala Valenciana and pospas or arroz caldo.

Moreover, Table 13 below presents the other ingredients mentioned by the


respondents apart from the ingredients listed in the survey questionnaire as
presented in Table 12.

Table 13
Other Ingredients Added

N=16
Frequency Percentage
Other Ingredients Added
(f) (%)
Chilli 1 6.25%
Gabi 1 6.25%
Jackfruit 1 6.25%
Kalamansi 2 12.50%
Kangkong 1 6.25%
Oil 1 6.25%
Oyster's sauce 1 6.25%
Pandan leves 2 12.50%
Soy sauce 1 6.25%
Star margarine 1 6.25%
Ube 1 6.25%
Vanilla extract 2 12.50%
Young coconut meat 1 6.25%
TOTAL 16 100.00%

Table 13 reveals the use of vanilla extract, pandan leaves and kalamansi
and among other ingredients as presented on the table as secret ingredients to
make the rice recipes more delicious distinct of being an Oriental Negrense
delicacy.

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CHAPTER 3
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings:

This section presents the findings of this research:

1. Majority of the respondents have ages which fall within the bracket of 15-20
years old followed by 26-30 and 36-40 age brackets.

2. Most of the respondents are females.

3. Majority or 51 percent of the respondents are married.

4. Majority of the respondents are housewives with 28 percent followed by


students with 21 percent and entrepreneur or businessmen with almost 10
percent.

5. Majority of the respondents when cooking 1-6 cups of rice used the first
line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used.

6. Most of the respondents when cooking 7 and above cups of rice used the
2nd line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used.

7. There is a significant number of respondents of almost 28 percent who


practiced the 1:1 ratio between cups of rice and amount of water to be
used.

8. 67 percent of the respondents practiced stirring in cooking rice.

9. Majority of the respondents or 38.97 percent added hot water when the rice
being cooked becomes uncooked.

10.Putting pandan leaves on the rice constitutes 22.50 percent of the


respondents as another practice involved in cooking rice.

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11.Boling is the number 1 method used in cooking rice with 97.80 percent
among the respondents is practicing it.

12.Most of the respondents or 92.67 percent have found tsamporado as the


most common rice recipe.

13.Ginisa Mix or Magic sarap is the common ingredient added to rice recipe
with a frequency of 231 or 96.34 percent.

14.There are also other ingredients that respondents added to rice recipes
such as vanilla extract, pandan leaves, kalamansi and among others.

Conclusion:

1. In most families in Negros Oriental usually it’s the housewives who have
more experiences in the kitchen particularly on various rice recipes with the
help of their children most particularly females whose age bracket falls from
15-20 years old and can be relied upon to cook rice recipes.

2. The people of Negros Oriental have distinct practices in terms of rice


cooking such as the use of fingers particularly middle finger in deciding as
to the amount of water to be used versus the number of cups of rice to be
cooked.

3. There are also practical people in Negros Oriental who don’t practice the
use of fingers in measuring the amount of water instead use the 1:1 ratio
between cups of rice and the amount of water to be used.

4. The amount of water to be used depends upon what recipe to cook. There
is more water when cooking porridge food such as “lugaw,” “dinuldog,”
“champorado” and among others.

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5. Stirring is another practice performed by Oriental Negrenses while cooking


rice recipes in order to cook it thoroughly while placing pandan leaves on
the rice to make it tastes better and smells good.

6. Adding hot water to the uncooked rice is a common practice among the
people of Negros Oriental in order to cook the remaining uncooked grains
of rice.

7. People of Negros Oriental are used to the method of boiling when cooking
rice recipes.

8. Tsamporado is the best rice recipe that can be found in almost all homes in
Negros Oriental.

9. Most homes in Negros Oriental when cooking rice recipes used the
synthetic seasoning such as Magic Sarap and Ginisa Mix. This tradition is
a new practice which clearly manifests the innovativeness of tastes among
Oriental Negrenses.

10.Each town and city of the province of Negros Oriental has a distinct
practice of its own especially on adding other ingredients to their rice
recipes. It only means that the varying taste of rice recipe among the
various places in Negros Oriental proves the uniqueness of the people
living in one area within the province.

11.The province has unique rice cooking methods, practices and recipes
worthy of preservation and recognition.

Recommendations:
1. Schools, colleges and universities like St. Paul University Dumaguete shall
conduct community extension trainings to housewives and out-of-school
youth on how to cook various rice recipes which can be a great source of
livelihood and additional income for their families.

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2. A different study shall be conducted on the implication of the use of fingers


as a measuring tool for the amount of water to be used necessary to cook
certain cup(s) of rice.

3. A rice recipe book shall be produced showcasing the various rice recipes
made by the people of Negros Oriental.

4. Showcase and promote the rice recipe pride of Negros Oriental which is
“Tsamporado” in various food fairs locally, nationally and globally.

5. Conduct further study on the use of commercial seasonings like Ginisa Mix
and Magic Sarap as to health issues and life span among the people of
Negros Oriental compared to the traditional ways of seasoning rice recipes
in the olden days.

6. A separate study shall be conducted finding out the unique rice recipe per
town or city within the province.

7. The Tourism Office of each town and city with the guidance of the
Provincial Tourism Office shall conduct promotional activities showcasing
the local rice recipes produced and shall include the same in the list of
activities during the Buglasan Festival.

8. It is recommended that the Sidlakang Negros Village management shall


install at least one stall selling different rice recipes produced by the people
of this province.

9. Schools, colleges and universities shall help promote the methods and
practices of rice cooking by sponsoring various competitions which will use
rice as the main ingredient.

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OUTPUT OF THE STUDY

Name of Recipe: TSAMPORADO


Ingredients:
6 pcs Tabliya
1 cup coconut milk
½ cup sugar
1 small can evaporated milk
1 cup rice
6 cups water
Procedures:
1. Wash the cup of rice and bring to boil.
2. While boiling add the 6 pieces of Tabliya.
3. Add the coconut milk and sugar to taste.
4. Add the evaporated milk to make it creamy; and
5. Serve wile it is hot.

Name of Recipe: FRIED RICE


Ingredients:
2 pcs medium size eggs
4 cloves garlic
1 bulb onion
Cooked rice
4 pcs hot dog
1/2/ cup green peas
2 tbsp cooking oil
Pinch of salt
Procedures:
1. In a large sauté pan/wok add 2 tbsp of cooking oil.
2. Add the minced garlic and finely chopped onions into the pan/wok and
sauté for about 30 seconds.

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3. Add the cooked rice and sauté for one minute.


4. Add the slice hotdog and green peas.
5. Add salt to taste and serve while it is hot.

Name of Recipe: SUSHI


Ingredients:
Nori sheet
2 cups Japanese rice
Sake wine
Peeled shrimps
Chopped carrots
1 pc cucumber
Sliced onion
(bamboo mat) material
2 tbsp olive oil
Procedures:
1. Wash and soaked the Japanese rice for 30 minutes.
2. Cook the rice with sake wine.
3. In a sauté pan, put oil, then sliced onions, peeled and devein shrimps,
finely chopped carrots, and strips of cucumber and wait until vegetables
are tender but not overcooked.
4. Prepare the bamboo mat, put nori sheet on top and add enough amount
of Japanese rice with the shrimps and vegetables arranged in a straight
line.
5. Together with the nori rolled the Japanese rice with the shrimps and
vegetables.
6. Best served with a sauce/dip to taste.

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Name of Recipe: PALITAW


Ingredients:
ground pilit rice
sesame seeds
grated coconut
white sugar
Procedures:
1. Soaked the rice overnight (pilit/malagkit) and drain the water after
soaking.
2. Grind the pilit.
3. Using the palm of your hands, roll the pilit in a form of small rice balls and
after a while flatten the rice balls and set aside.
4. In a regular stock pot, bring water to a rolling boil.
5. Put the flattened rice balls into the boiling water and wait until it will settle
at the top. Once it settles at the top it means it is already done.
6. Remove the flattened rice and roll it over in the grated coconut.
7. Put sesame seeds and a teaspoon of sugar on top before serving.
8. Serve it cold.

Name of Recipe: CONGEE (POSPAS)


Ingredients:
1/4 kilo flakes chicken breast
1 ½ cup of rice
thinly-sliced ginger
salt to taste
Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap
chopped onion leaves
Procedures:
1. Wash the rice and with enough amount of water bring it to boil.

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2. When boiling, add ginger, chicken while stirring occasionally until the rice
becomes tender.
3. Add salt and Ginisa Mix/Magic sarap to taste.
4. Add the sliced onions and serve hot.

Name of Recipe: PUTO


Ingredients:
rice (pilit)
coconut milk
ginger
salt to taste
Procedures:
1. Wash the rice with water and then drain it.
2. In a casserole/steamer, put rice and sprinkle coconut seasoned with milk
occasionally.
3. Once in a while, while boiling stir it and then again sprinkle with coconut
milk.
4. Continue boiling until the rice is cooked.
5. Serve it hot with tsokolate.

Name of Recipe: ESPASOL


Ingredients:
1 ½ cup ground cooked “pilit” rice
2 ½ cups sugar
2 ½ cups powdered toasted malagkit
1 cup coconut milk
Procedures:
1. Make syrup out of the coconut milk.
2. When the syrup becomes quite thick, add slowly the ground cooked pilit
rice in a pan.

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3. Then slowly add the powdered toasted “pilit” rice until mixture is dry
enough to roll.
4. Then transfer it to a board sprinkled evenly with the powdered ‘pilit’ rice.
5. Roll with a rolling pin and cut into rounds or any desired shape.
6. Sprinkle with the remaining powdered “pilit” rice to keep from sticking.

Name of Recipe: KALAMAYHATI


Ingredients:
2 cups ground rice (pilit)
2 cups coconut milk
2 cups brown sugar
2 teaspoon vanilla extract
Dash of salt
Procedures:
1. Soak ground rice (pilit) for two (2) hours or overnight.
2. In a deep fry pan, boil coconut milk for at least 30 minutes or until “latik”
is produced. Stir occasionally.
3. Add brown sugar, stirring constantly then add vanilla extract.
4. When brown sugar is dissolved, add soaked rice and stirring constantly
until it thickens and holds the spoon.

Name of Recipe: CINNAMON RICE


Ingredients:
2 cups cooked rice
1 cup evaporated milk
Sugar to taste
½ teaspoon cinnamon
2 tablespoons of butter or margarine
Procedures:
1. Put rice, milk and sugar into a pan and place it over a low heat.

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2. Then, add slowly the butter and cinnamon while stirring occasionally until
all the ingredients have combined.
3. Serve hot and with a cream.

Name of Recipe: BIKO


Ingredients:
3 cups of rice (pilit)
3 cups of coconut milk
3 cups of water
salt to taste
3 cups of black sugar (maskubado)
Crushed ginger
1 teaspoon of vanilla extract
Procedures:
1. Cook first the “pilit” rice with water over a low fire.
2. After cooking, set aside while putting coconut milk over a pan in a low
fire. When the coconut milk is already in a running boil, put sugar and stir
occasionally.
3. Add crushed ginger with vanilla extract.
4. When the mixture of coconut milk and sugar becomes a little sticky, add
gradually the cooked pilit rice then stir occasionally until the rice
becomes coated with the syrup.
5. Serve hot over a banana leaf.

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