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Chapter I


Nowadays many renewable energy sources are available for use, for example solar and
wind energy and water power. Ironically, we still gain most of our energy from non-renewable
energy sources, commonly known as fossil fuels. The non-renewability of these sources will
probably cause prices to rise up to a point where they are no longer economically feasible.
Fossil fuels come in different forms, may it be crude oil, natural gas, coal, or biodiesel,
but it contributes and is useful mainly in transportation facilities and in the production of energy.
Paints are used to cover and protect a surface. It is also applied to add color for emphasis
and beauty. This study will make use of used engine oil, a non-renewable fossil oil, as pigment in
the formation of paint and linseed oil, a vegetable oil from flax seed as a paint drying oil.

Background of the Study

As more industrial developers construct establishments and concrete buildings, the

demand for paint as protective covering becomes great. But, its high cost keeps the consumers
from buying it.
Cars, jets, other types of vehicles, road, roofs, and much other, use engine oil as a source
of their energy. Once used, this kind of oil is non-renewable and produces a very black color.
Improper disposal of this used engine oil is often a main problem among users, without knowing
this can cause skin cancer. Most fuels contain long chain hydrocarbons, which when exposed to
skin pass right through to the blood stream, which can mean liver damage. Linseed oil is a clear
to yellowish oil obtained from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant. Its special property which is
to polymerize makes it a very good medium as paint binder, in putty, wood finish, linoleum and
use as nutritional supplement. Due to this, the researchers find its characteristics to be of good
use for black paint production.
The success of this study will help people find cheaper substitute for commercial black
Objectives of the Study

This study is intended to find out the feasibility of used engine oil as an alternative
pigment in the production of black paint.
This study specifically aims:
• To test the possibility of making black paint from used engine oil and linseed
• To determine the precise amount of used engine oil and linseed oil needed to
make black paint; and
• To compare the quality of the product made from those that are commercially-


There is a significant effect of using used engine oil and linseed oil in making black paint.

Significance of the Study

This study will be very beneficial especially in auto care center, machine shops, and at
homes who want to make use of their used engine oil economically and for those who cannot
afford to buy commercially-available black paints.

Scope and Limitation

This study will limit only to the effectiveness of used engine oil and linseed oil in
producing black paint. The different set-ups, which contain different concentration of mixtures
that will be applied to different materials such as cement, wood, cloth, and Styrofoam, will
determine the capability of lampblack and linseed oil as a good homemade black paint.
This study will last up to four (4) months from September 2009 to December 2009, which
will be conducted in Ormoc City, Leyte, Philippines.
Chapter II
Review of Related Literature

Fossil Oil
According to Earth Science in Moorland School, fossil fuels were formed from the
fossilized remains of dead plants and animals that once lived millions of years ago. Oil and
natural gas are the products of the deep burial and decomposition of dead plants and animals.
Heat and pressure, in the absence of oxygen, transform the decomposed material into tiny
pockets of gas and crude oil. Crude oil, natural gas and coal are fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are very
precious resources because they are non-renewable.

Engine Oil

Chris Longhurst (1994) stated that the life of the engine depends in no small part on the
quality of the oil put in it - oil is the lifeblood of the car's engine. From the mid 80's for 8 or 9
years there was a veritable revolution in car engine oil. Engine oil's job is primarily to stop all the
metal surfaces in the engine from grinding together and tearing themselves apart from friction
while transferring heat away from the combustion cycle. Engine oil must also be able to hold all
the nasty by-products of combustion, such as silica (silicon oxide) and acids in suspension. It
cleans the engine of these chemicals and build-ups, and keeps the moving parts coated in oil.
Finally, engine oil minimizes the exposure to oxygen and thus oxidation at higher temperatures.
It does all of these things under tremendous heat and pressure. Motor oil, or engine oil, is an oil
used for lubrication of various internal combustion engines. While the main function is to
lubricate moving parts, motor oil also cleans, inhibits corrosion, improves sealing and cools the
engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. Motor oils are derived from petroleum and
non-petroleum synthesized chemical compounds used to make synthetic oil. Motor oils are today
mainly blended by using base oils composed of hydrocarbons (mineral, polyalphaolefins (PAO),
polyinternal ofefins (PIO), thus organic compounds consisting entirely of carbon and hydrogen.
The base oils of some high-performance motor oils contain up to 20 wt.-% of esters.
( Most motor oils are made from a heavier, thicker
petroleum hydrocarbon base stock derived from crude oil, with additives to improve certain
properties. The primary refining technique used to separate hydrocarbons and provide the
ingredients for modern fuels is called fractional distillation. Hydrocarbons of different size and
configuration usually have differences in boiling points that are large enough to use as a method
of separation. By vaporizing them, they tend to float upwards until the hydrocarbons condense,
which is where they are collected. Hydrocarbons as simple as butane and alcohols with few
carbons are sorted along with more complex ones such as aromatics with 9 carbons. The fuels we
commonly use today are a mixture of these hydrocarbons distilled from the petroleum extracted
from the earth.( John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991.) The bulk of typical motor oil consists of
hydrocarbons with between 18 and 34 carbon atoms per molecule. One of the most important
properties of motor oil in maintaining a lubricating film between moving parts is its viscosity.
The viscosity of a liquid can be thought of as its "thickness" or a quantity of resistance to flow.
The viscosity must be high enough to maintain a satisfactory lubricating film, but low enough
that the oil can flow around the engine parts satisfactorily to keep them well coated under all
conditions. The viscosity index is a measure of how much the oil's viscosity changes as
temperature changes. A higher viscosity index indicates the viscosity changes less with
temperature than a lower viscosity index. Motor oil manufacturers often include other additives
such as detergents and dispersants to help keep the engine clean by minimizing sludge buildup,
corrosion inhibitors, and alkaline additives to neutralize acidic oxidation products of the oil.

Flax seed

Flax seeds are the seeds of an annual plant which has been cultivated for thousands of
years for textile fiber and nutrition. The flax plant is an annual plant which grows between 20-40
inches (50-100 centimeters) in height. The plant has a green stalk which terminates in blue to
purple flowers. Flax fiber is extracted from the stalk, which is beaten to loosen the fiber,
allowing it to be spun and woven. Flax fiber is strong, durable, and can be woven into very fine
fabrics. Flax seeds come from the flowers of the plant, and can be found whole, pressed into flax
oil, or ground into flax seed meal for baking. Flax seeds contain a large amount of nutritious
polyunsaturated oil. This healthy oil is high in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, both of which
reduce the risk of coronary disease and cancer. The fatty acids contained in flax seeds also raise
the levels of good cholesterol while lowering high blood pressure. Flax seeds are an excellent
dietary supplement. Like many other healthy fats, flax seed oil is very fragile. It is usually found
refrigerated in the store and should be kept refrigerated and used quickly at home. Although flax
seed oil is not suited to cooking, it can be used in dressings or sprinkled directly onto food. The
flax seeds themselves can be toasted and added to salads, added to baked goods, eaten straight,
or enjoyed in a variety of other culinary settings. (

Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment
suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun,
paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone. Although its
primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration.
( . It is used to decorate or protect surfaces and
is generally applied in thin coats which dry (by evaporation or by oxidation of the vehicle) to an
adhesive film. Industrial finishes are usually applied by spraying or immersion and are often
hardened by baking. Pigments, finely ground, impart color (including black and white) and affect
the consistency, crack resistance, and flow characteristics of paint. They may be manipulated to
produce glossy, satin, or flat finishes.

Oil paints are pigments dispersed in a drying oil such as linseed oil, castor oil, or tung oil. These
oils are diluted with a thinner, usually turpentine; metallic salts that catalyze oxidation of the oil
may be added to increase the rate of drying. Paint was first used as a protective coating by the
Egyptians and Hebrews, who applied pitches and balsams to the exposed wood of their ships.
During the Middle Ages, some inland wood also received protective coatings of paint, but due to
the scarcity of paint, this practice was generally limited to store fronts and signs. Around the
same time, artists began to boil resin with oil to obtain highly miscible (mixable) paints, and
artists of the fifteenth century were the first to add drying oils to paint, thereby hastening
evaporation. They also adopted a new solvent, linseed oil, which remained the most commonly
used solvent until synthetics replaced it during the twentieth century.
In Boston around 1700, Thomas Child built the earliest American paint mill, a granite trough
within which a 1.6 foot (.5 meter) granite ball rolled, grinding the pigment. The first paint patent
was issued for a product that improved whitewash, a water-slaked lime often used during the
early days of the United States. In 1865 D. P. Flinn obtained a patent for a water-based paint that
also contained zinc oxide, potassium hydroxide, resin, milk, and lin-seed oil. The first
commercial paint mills replaced Child's granite ball with a buhrstone wheel, but these mills
continued the practice of grinding only pigment (individual customers would then blend it with a
vehicle at home). It wasn't until 1867 that manufacturers began mixing the vehicle and the
pigment for consumers.

The twentieth century has seen the most changes in paint composition and manufacture. Today,
synthetic pigments and stabilizers are commonly used to mass produce uniform batches of paint.
New synthetic vehicles developed from polymers such as polyurethane and styrene-butadene
emerged during the 1940s. Alkyd resins were synthesized, and they have dominated production
since. Before 1930, pigment was ground with stone mills, and these were later replaced by steel
balls. Today, sand mills and high-speed dispersion mixers are used to grind easily dispersible
pigments. (

Conceptual Framework

Problem: What is the feasibility rate of used fossil oil combined with linseed oil to produce
black paint?

Used crude oil

Black Paint

Linseed Oil
Definition of Terms

Motor oil or engine oil

It is an oil used for lubrication of various internal combustion engines. While the
main function is to lubricate moving parts, motor oil also cleans, inhibit
corrosion, improves sealing and cools the engine by carrying heat away from
moving parts.

Linseed Oil
It is yellowish oil extracted from the seeds of flax and used as a drying oil in
paints and varnishes and in linoleum, printing inks, and synthetic resins.

It is a liquid mixture, usually of a solid pigment in a liquid vehicle, used as a
decorative or protective coating.


It is the small particles of solid material distributed in the paint

is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. With relation
to chemical terminology, aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes, alkanes, alkenes and
alkyne-based compounds composed entirely of carbon or hydrogen are
referred to as "pure" hydrocarbons.

Fractional distillation
The primary refining technique used to separate hydrocarbons and provide the
ingredients for modern fuels. It is the separation of a mixture into its
component parts, by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at
which several fractions of the compound will evaporate.

Chapter III

Collection of Materials

The researchers will collect three hundred twenty five milliliters (325ml) of used crude oil from
car garages, specifically at Linao Purok 6, Ormoc City where the garage of a gas station trucks is
located; four (4) plywood with the same measurements of (7”x 6” inches); four (4) 300 ml
capacity empty clean undamaged tin cans; four (4) identical cement blocks with a dimension of
(8”x8”x16”inches), four pieces (4pcs.) of cotton and denim cloth with a measurement of
(4”x5”inches), and four pieces (4pcs) of styropor with a dimension of (4.72”x2.95”4.25”inches)
will be gathered in the home of one of the researchers at Punta, Ormoc City.

A 500 ml beaker, 50 milliliters graduated cylinder, three (3) stirring rods, and a stopwatch will
be borrowed from the school laboratory. Three hundred fifty one milliliters (351ml) of boiled
linseed oil, one hundred fifty milliliters (150ml) of a commercially produced paint, and three
identical one-inch synthetic brushes will be purchased at hardware stores within the City of


Three (3) set-ups will be prepared labeled as setups A, B, and C each aims to produce a good
black paint. In the first set-up the seventy-five milliliters (75ml) of used crude oil and one
hundred seventeen milliliters (117ml) of linseed oil will be put into a can labeled A. Set-up B
with one hundred milliliters (100ml) of crude oil and one hundred seventeen milliliters (117ml)
of linseed oil will be put into can B. Can C will consist of the one hundred and fifty milliliters
(150ml) of used crude oil and one hundred seventeen milliliters (117ml) of linseed oil. With the
use of the stirring rods, a simultaneous mixing in each can will be done until it forms into a
sticky paste mixture. The mixing process will take an hour or so. After the product is formed,
with a brush, five milliliters (5ml) of each mixture will be coated to the test materials: plywood,
cement blocks, different types of cloth, and styropor three times in a synchronized manner. Each
of the test materials as labeled A, B, and C according to the paint that it tested. After the paint is
applied to the test materials, the researchers will record the time the paint will dry in each test
items with an interval of thirty minutes (30mins). The recorded results will be calculated and will
be applied with the basic statistical technique specifically mean and mode. Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) and T-test will be applied in determining which of the paint dries the fastest. The
thickness of each paint applied will be observed. The researchers will repeat the experiment
thrice for accuracy.

The experimentation will be done in the school’s Physics and Chemistry Laboratories.

Data to be gathered

In this research, the investigators will be able to learn the capabilities of used crude oil and
linseed oil as an alternative for commercially produced black paint. The shade of its pigment of
the paint, the shelf life of the paint and the time for it to dry and stick to different test materials
will be observed that will determine the quality of the product produced.

Time decision

The researchers will need three (3) weeks for the collection of materials. Four (4) weeks will be
allotted in doing the actual experiment and gathering of data. Three (3) weeks will be utilized for
the analysis of data and another four (4) weeks will be used by the researcher in writing and
producing hard copies of the research paper.
The Feasibility of Used Engine Oil and Linseed Oil as Black Paint

A Research Paper Presented to

The Faculty of the Science and Technology Department
New Ormoc City National High School
Ormoc City

Submitted In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements
In Research II

Adaza, Kim Jane Alexis D.

Castro, Nadine L.
Conales, Ian Isabel D.
Magno, Charity Grace
Rosal, Trisha May
Vilbar, Jemina C.

August 2009
Ms. Lengie Dalupan
Research Adviser