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Marina Spiazzi Marina Tavella

Only Connect... 2
New Directions
Edizione blu
multimediale
From the Victorian Age
to the Present Age
Terza edizione
Marina Spiazzi Marina Tavella
Only Connect... 2
New Directions
Edizione blu From the Victorian Age
to the Present Age
Terza edizione

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Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011 Zanichelli editore S.p.A., Bologna [6661der] Prima edizione: 1997
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Terza edizione: settembre 2009, gennaio 2010
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La strutturazione e l’organizzazione generale dell’opera sono frutto


di un lavoro di ricerca e di riflessione comune, del quale le autrici si
assumono congiuntamente la responsabilità scientifica e didattica.
La stesura dei testi è stata curata come segue:
– Marina Spiazzi: Charles Dickens, William M. Thackeray, Lewis Carroll,
Robert L. Stevenson, Robert Browning, Oscar Wilde, George B. Shaw,
Thomas S. Eliot, David H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Aldous Huxley,
Ernest Hemingway, Philip Larkin, Ted Hughes, Samuel Beckett,
John Osborne, Jack Kerouac, Paul Auster.
– Marina Tavella: The Brontë Sisters, Elisabeth Gaskell, Thomas Hardy,
Arthur C. Doyle, Herman Melville, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson,
William B. Yeats, The War Poets, Wystan H. Auden, Joseph Conrad,
Edward M. Forster, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, Francis S. Fitzgerald,
John Steinbeck, Seamus Heaney, Doris Lessing, Bruce Chatwin,
Ian McEwan, Nadine Gordimer, Harold Pinter, Don DeLillo.

Le autrici ringraziano il Prof. Vittorio Pesce per i preziosi suggerimenti


sulla scelta dei testi.

Realizzazione editoriale:
– Redazione: Sara Chiappara, Lindy Russell
– Progetto grafico e impaginazione: Dario e Fabio Zannier
– Ricerca iconografica: Orsola Mattioli
– Indice analitico: Sara Chiappara
– Correzione bozze: Catherine Vaughan Dawson

Contributi:
– Christine Jones ha curato la revisione della sezione The Historical
and Social Context

CD-ROM
Realizzazione editoriale:
– Redazione: Sara Chiappara, Lindy Russell
– Realizzazione multimediale: progettazione esecutiva, sviluppo software
e interfaccia grafica: Zucca & Zafferano, Reggio Emilia

Copertina:
– Progetto grafico: Miguel Sal & C., Bologna
– Realizzazione: Roberto Marchetti
– Immagine di copertina: Artwork Miguel Sal & C., Bologna
5 The Victorian Age
Introduction
The Victorian Age
; Key points
E2
E3
The Historical and Social Context
5.1 The early Victorian Age E4 12
5.2 The later years of Queen Victoria’s reign E6 Empire and the
Victorian novel
Dossier
Life in Victorian Britain E9
The Historical and Social Context
5.3 The American Civil War and the settlement of the West E11
The World Picture
5.4 The Victorian compromise E13 13
Text bank 39: Man’s Origin by Charles Darwin Women in the
19th Century
The Literary Context
5.5 The Victorian novel E16
Text bank 40: The detective story – Arthur C. Doyle
5.6 Types of novels E18
Text bank 41: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
by Lewis Carroll
Fiction 4: The cinematic technique E20
5.7 Victorian poetry and the dramatic monologue E22 14
My last duchess by Robert Browning The Pre-Raphaelites
5.8 Aestheticism and Decadence E25
5.9 Victorian drama E27
Text bank 42: The comedy of ideas – George B. Shaw III
5.10 American Renaissance E28
Text bank 43-45: Moby Dick by Herman Melville
Text bank 46: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
by Mark Twain
Authors and texts
5.11 Charles Dickens E29
Oliver Twist E31
t54 Oliver wants some more E32
Hard Times E34
t55 Nothing but Facts E35
t56 Coketown E36
Text bank 47-48: David Copperfield
5.12 Emily Brontë E39
Wuthering Heights E39
t57 Catherine’s ghost E42 13
t58 Catherine’s resolution E44 Women in the
Text bank 49: Wuthering Heights 19th Century
5.13 Thomas Hardy E49
Tess of the D’Urbervilles E51
t59 Alec and Tess in The Chase E52
t60 Angel and Tess in the garden E56
Text bank 50-51: Jude the Obscure
5.14 Robert Louis Stevenson E60
The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde E60 7
t61 Jekyll’s experiment E62 The development
5.15 Oscar Wilde E65 of Gothic fiction

Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella Only Connect... new directions 2 © Zanichelli 2011 Terza edizione
The Picture of Dorian Gray E67
t62 Basil Hallward E68
t63 Dorian’s hedonism E70
t64 Dorian’s Death E73
Text bank 52-53: The Picture of Dorian Gray
The Importance of Being Earnest E77
t65 Mother’s worries E78
Text bank 54: The Importance of Being Earnest
5.16 Alfred, Lord Tennyson E81
Ulysses E82
t66 Ulysses E82
5.17 Nathaniel Hawthorne E85
The Scarlet Letter E85
t67 Public shame E87
Text bank 55: The Scarlet Letter
5.18 Walt Whitman E91
t68 I hear America singing E93
t69 O Captain, my Captain! E94
Text bank 56: Song of Myself
Text bank 57: Song of the Open Road
5.19 Emily Dickinson E96
t70 Hope is the thing E98
t71 There’s a certain slant of light E99
t72 As If The Sea Should Part / Time Feels So Vast E100
Text bank 58: I heard a Fly buzz – when I died –
Text bank 59: Wild Nights – Wild Nights
A Modern Perspective
IV Best-sellers E102
The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini E105
MP8 Getting ready for the battle E105

The Modern Age


6 Introduction
The Modern Age
; Key Points
F2
F3

The Historical and Social Context


6.1 The Edwardian Age F4 15
6.2 Britain and World War I F6 Man at war
6.3 The twenties and the thirties F8
6.4 The Second World War F9
6.5 The United States between the World Wars F10

Dossier
The Great Depression F12

The World Picture


6.6 The age of anxiety F14 17
Two modern visions
The Literary Context of the human
6.7 Modernism F17 condition
6.8 Modern poetry F19
Text bank 60: The Force That through the Green Fuse 4
Drives the Flower by Dylan Thomas Carpe diem

Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella Only Connect... new directions 2 © Zanichelli 2011 Terza edizione
Poetry 5: Free verse F21
6.9 The modern novel F23
6.10 The interior monologue F25
Inside Bloom’s mouth from Ulysses by James Joyce
Molly’s monologue from Ulysses by James Joyce
6.11 A new generation of American writers F27
Text bank 61-62: The Negro Speaks of Rivers and
The Weary Blues by Langston Hughes
Text bank 63: The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

Authors and texts


6.12 William Butler Yeats F29
t73 The Lake Isle of Innisfree F33
t74 Easter 1916 F34
Text bank 64: The Second Coming
Text bank 65: Sailing to Byzantium
6.13 The War Poets F37
t75 The Soldier by R. Brooke F40
15
t76 Dulce et Decorum Est by W. Owen F41 Man at war
t77 Suicide in the trenches by S. Sassoon F42
Text bank 66: Glory of Women by S. Sassoon
Text bank 67: Break of day in the trenches
by I. Rosenberg
6.14 Thomas Stearns Eliot F44
The Waste Land F46
t78 The Burial of the Dead F48
t79 The Fire Sermon F50
Text bank 68: The Hollow Men
6.15 Wystan Hugh Auden F52 V
t80 Funeral Blues F54
t81 The Unknown Citizen F56
Text bank 69: Refugee Blues
6.16 Joseph Conrad F58 12
Heart of Darkness F60 Empire and the
t82 The chain-gang F62 Victorian novel
Text bank 70-71: Heart of Darkness
6.17 David Herbert Lawrence F66
Sons and Lovers F68
t83 The wind-swept ash-tree F69
t84 The rose-bush F71
Text bank 72-73: Lady Chatterley’s Lover
6.18 Edward Morgan Forster F74
A Passage to India F75
t85 Chandrapore F77
12
t86 Aziz and Mrs Moore F79 Empire and the
Text bank 74-76: A Room with a View Victorian novel
6.19 James Joyce F85
Dubliners F87
t87 Eveline F89
t88 She was fast asleep F93
Text bank 77: The Sisters
Text bank 78: Araby
Ulysses F95
t89 At the funeral F97
6.20 Virginia Woolf F99

Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella Only Connect... new directions 2 © Zanichelli 2011 Terza edizione
To the Lighthouse F101
t90 My dear, stand still F104
t91 Lily Briscoe F106
Text bank 79: Mrs Dalloway
Text bank 80: A Room of One’s Own
6.21 George Orwell F109
Animal Farm F111
t92 Old Major’s speech F112
Nineteen Eighty-Four F115 16
t93 Newspeak F117 Dystopia, the
Text bank 81: Nineteen Eighty-Four shadow of Utopia
6.22 Francis Scott Fitzgerald F121
The Great Gatsby F122
t94 Nick meets Gatsby F123
6.23 Ernest Hemingway F127
A Farewell to Arms F129 15
t95 We should get the war over F130
Man at war

A Modern Perspective
Modernism to postmodernism F133
MP9 Alone in the dark from Man in the Dark
by Paul Auster F136

VI

7 The Present Age


Introduction
The Present Age
; Key Points
G2
G3
The Historical and Social Context
7.1 The welfare state G4 16
7.2 Paths to freedom G6 Dystopia, the
7.3 The time of troubles G7 shadow of Utopia
7.4 The Thatcher years G8
7.5 From Blair to the present day G10 18
7.6 The United States after the Second World War G11 Racism and
The World Picture discrimination
7.7 The cultural revolution G14
19
Dossier Uneasiness and
Youth culture in Britain G17 rebellion
The Literary Context
7.8 New trends in poetry G20
Poetry 6: Confessional poetry G22
Text bank 82: Lady Lazarus by Sylvia Plath
7.9 The contemporary novel G23
20
Text bank 83: The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien Commonwealth
Text bank 84: The Bloody Chamber by Angela Carter writers
7.10 Post-war drama G24
7.11 American Literature after the war G26 21
Text bank 85: The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Contemporary art

Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella Only Connect... new directions 2 © Zanichelli 2011 Terza edizione
Authors and texts
7.12 Philip Larkin G28
t96 Annus Mirabilis G29
7.13 Ted Hughes G30
t97 Hawk Roosting G31
Text bank 86: 118, Rugby Street
7.14 Seamus Heaney G32
t98 Digging G35
Text bank 87: The Tollund man
7.15 Doris Lessing G37
The Sweetest Dream G39 20
t99 AIDS, a curse on us G40 Commonwealth
Text bank 88: The Grass is Singing writers
7.16 Bruce Chatwin G45
In Patagonia G47
t100 Chilean trucks and Chilenos G48
Text bank 89: The Songlines
7.17 Ian McEwan G51
Black Dogs G52
t101 A racy attack G54
Text bank 90: Black Dogs
7.18 Nadine Gordimer G57
The Pick Up G58 20
t102 Back home G60 Commonwealth
Text bank 91: Burger’s Daughter writers
7.19 Samuel Beckett G65
Waiting for Godot G66
t103 We’ll come back tomorrow G68
7.20 Harold Pinter G71 VII
The Caretaker G73
t104 Looking for a room G75
Text bank 92: A Slight Ache
7.21 John Osborne G80
Look Back in Anger G81 19
t105 Boring Sundays! G83 Uneasiness and
7.22 Jack Kerouac G87 rebellion
On the Road G89
t106 We moved! G90
Text bank 93: On the Road
7.23 Don DeLillo G92
Underworld G92
t107 The cosmology of waste G93
Text bank 94: Underworld G94

A Modern Perspective
The art of persuasion G96
MP10 Winston Churchill, We shall fight them on
the beaches G96
MP11 Martin Luther King, I have a dream G97
MP12 Barack Obama, Change has come G99

Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella Only Connect... new directions 2 © Zanichelli 2011 Terza edizione
Le novità di Only Connect… New Directions
Dossier
Che cos’è? The Modern Age

Dossier The Great Depression of the 1930s stock market speculation that took place during the latter part of that same decade. Money was
distributed unequally between the rich and the middle class, between industry and agriculture

Il Dossier si compone di 2-3 pagine per capitolo in


within the United States, and between the USA and Europe. [3] The excessive
in the USA speculation in the late 1920s kept the stock market artificially high, and it eventually led to large
market crashes. A major reason for this large and growing gap between the rich and the
working-class people was the increased manufacturing output throughout this period. Therefore
wages increased at a lower rate than productivity.
World War I left Europe’s economy weakened while the United States turned out to be The total demand must equal total supply for an economy to function properly. In the 1920s

cui lo studente lavora sulla lingua applicata alla the most powerful country in the world from an economic point of view. The roaring
1920s were characterised by the American myths of individualism, money and success.
However, the dominant atmosphere of optimism was undermined by the Wall Street
Crash of 1929 which started the longest and hardest economic crisis in contemporary
history known as the Great Depression.
The compassionate photographs of Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) and Margaret
there was an oversupply of goods. [4] One obvious solution to the problem of the vast
majority of the population not having enough money to satisfy all their needs was to allow credit
sales. The concept of buying now and paying later became popular. This strategy created
artificial demand for products which people could not ordinarily afford.
While the car and the radio industries were booming in the 1920s, some industries,

letteratura mediante attività orientate alle


agriculture in particular, were declining steadily. [5] The fundamental problem with the
Bourke-White (1906-71) have had a deep influence on the development of modern automobile and radio industries was that they could not expand any longer because people
documentary photography. could not afford to buy cars and radios.
At the end of the decade the rich stopped spending on luxury items, and slowed
Speaking 1. Compare and contrast the two photographs for a minute. What can you learn from the investments; the middle class and poor stopped buying things with credit for fear of losing their
photographs below? jobs, and not being able to pay the interest. [6] . To protect the nation’s businesses the

certificazioni. USA imposed higher trade taxes, and foreigners stopped buying American products. Jobs were
lost, stores were closed, banks went under, and factories closed. Unemployment grew to five
million in 1930, and up to thirteen million in 1932. [7] The Great Depression had begun.

A. There was too much bread, too much wheat and corn, meat and oil and almost every other
commodity required by man for this subsistence and material happiness.
B. This imbalance of wealth created an unstable economy.

Dove si trova?
C. The country reached a catastrophe.
F12 D. Several factors had caused the prosperity in these two industries: first, during World War I F13
both the automobile and the radio had been significantly improved. If those two industries
were to slow down or stop, so would the entire economy.
E. They were usually preceded by speculation and inflation.
F. Therefore agriculture was ignored.

In ogni capitolo del libro nella parte del Contesto.


G. The European economy, still recovering from the trauma of the war and its aftermath, was
too weak to face this crisis.
H. As a result industrial production fell by more than 9% between the market crashes in
October and December 1929.

Listening FCE 3. Listen to a lecture about Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. For questions 1-10,

A che cosa serve?


X Dorothea Lange, X Margaret Bourke-White, complete the sentences.
Migrant Mother, 1936, Bread Line during the 1.8 1. Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt became President in [1] .
Private Collection, Nipomo, Louisville flood, Kentucky,
California. 1937. New York, Whitney 2. He promised [2] and [3] to the poor and unemployed.
Museum of American Art.
3. The election was a [4] victory for Roosevelt with a 7 million majority.
4. In his inaugural speech he stated that [5] had to be avoided.

A consolidare il lavoro sulla lingua e prepararsi agli Reading FCE 2. Read the text about the Great Depression of the 1930s. Seven sentences have been removed. 5. He was able to [6] in the financial markets.
Choose from sentences A-H the one which fits each gap 1-7. There is one extra sentence
6. He used all [7] to create the New Deal programme.
which you do not need to use.
7. When all the banks were shut for a ‘four-day holiday’ in 1933, their books .
D7
[8]
The Great Depression of the 1930s was the worst economic slump in American history. It was
not a novelty, because previous economic declines had afflicted the world. [1] Between
8. Then the government decided which banks [9] to re-open.
1924 and 1930 both the USA and most parts of Europe enjoyed favourable economic 9. This restored confidence among the people and money [10] into banks again.

esami di certificazione anche durante le ore di conditions; but it turned out that this prosperity depended on American loans and American
markets, which almost vanished in late 1929. [2]
Many factors brought about the Great Depression; however, the main cause was the
combination of the unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920s, and the extensive
Writing
10. However the New Deal did not touch [11]

4. Examine the causes, the consequences and the cures of the Great Depression. Then collect
your data in a table and write an essay (200 words) about this American economic event.
.

letteratura.

Best-sellers
A Modern Perspective
Publishing forms

h The legendary
Remington typewriter,
invented around 1870
When words moved to market
The monthly pamphlet, the 20-instalment novel, the
inexpensive chapbook (usually printed on a single sheet
folded into books of 8, 12, 16 and 24 pages), the
‘yellowbacks’ with their cheap sensational stories, the
‘penny dreadfuls’ (serial stories involving violence and
Che cos’è?
A Modern Perspective è la sezione che chiude ogni capitolo del libro,
by C.L. Sholes. appearing in parts over a number of weeks, each part
Most people may think of the best-
seller as a relatively recent development costing a penny) – these were the forms that became a
generated by modern mass marketing. literary reality in the 19th century to suit the changing
However, many of the literary formulas marketplace. The standard for much 19th-century
and publishing techniques of the best- publishing was the ‘three-decker’, a three-volume edition
that would be purchased by circulating libraries, but was

composta da 2-5 pagine.


seller actually date from the 19th
century when there were enormous generally too expensive for most private readers.
changes in the world of books. The rise Publications of all kinds were often read aloud to
of a mass readership, the invention of groups, a practice shared by different social classes. The
machine-driven technologies, new reproduction methods, and an astonishing variation power of books grew as technological advances brought
in literature, authorship, publishing, periodicals, printing, typography, illustration, down the price of paper, literacy increased with
marketing, taste, and design contributed to an era of intense complexity and compulsory schooling, and distribution networks
The Victorian Age

The Victorian Age

g Illustration of Uncle

Dove si trova?
development. expanded with railway lines. Resourceful publishers could Tom’s Cabin.
Apart from the Bible’s privileged monopoly as a must-read, 19th-century best-sellers sell more than a hundred thousand copies of a thriller in
were among the first cultural products for a broad public, breaking down the just a few months. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) stirred up so
boundaries of class and caste; they also created new audiences and extravagant much excitement that it could not be printed fast enough – it went back to press
commercial enterprise. repeatedly in America and England, where ten different editions appeared in two
E102 weeks. E103

The most important best-selling authors

The most important example of a best-selling ling


Best-seller lists

The practice of systematically identifying and


The
A conclusione di ogni capitolo del libro.
author was Sir Walter Scott (; 4.11), whose ose listing
listi certain books as noteworthy for the speed

A che cosa serve?


novel Ivanhoe (1819) sold 10,000 copies in n and
and volume of their sales began in the USA in
two weeks. Some of these best-sellers are n nowow 1895.
189 In 1912 the American trade magazine
barely known, others remain literary Publisher’s
Pu Weekly began issuing a best-seller list,
landmarks. After Charles Dickens’s (; 5.11 1) which
wh has been authoritative ever since. The first
Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club example
ex of a blockbuster was Margaret Mitchell’s
began appearing in monthly instalments in n novel
no Gone With the Wind (1936), which sold a

A creare un ponte tra passato e presente per ragionare su sviluppi e


March 1836, its press run increased from million
m copies in a year.
1,000 copies for the first part to 40,000 forr The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini was the
the finale in October 1837. By 1879 the full ll first
fi best-seller for 2005 in the United States and
novel had sold 800,000 copies and had was
w made into a successful film in 2008.
transformed British publishing.

h Frontispiece to the first g Poster for the film


ripercussioni in campo storico e lettererario.
volume of The Pickwick version of Gone with the
Papers by Charles Dickens. Wind, 1939.

L’analisi visiva in Only Connect… New Directions


Che cos’è?
È un metodo di lavoro che rende più interessante e coinvolgente l’analisi dei testi letterari.
Partendo dalla loro esperienza in classe, le autrici hanno osservato come gli studenti, al momento
VIII dell’analisi dei testi, si servano di evidenziazioni e sottolineature e hanno pensato di servirsi delle
stesse modalità per ottenere una maggiore motivazione nello studio della letteratura.

Dove si trova? Come si usa? The Literary Context

5 7 Victorian poetry and

Nel libro…. the dramatic monologue


During Victoria’s reign poetry
became more concerned with
Information store
inference and imagination. The poem
usually reveals the speaker’s crucial
of a unique truth was the exact opposite of
the Victorian love for certainties and paved
social reality and was expected moment of crisis thus showing great the way for new possibilities for the best
Narrative poem
to express the intellectual and interest in human psychology. There is the poetry of the Modern Age, bringing verse
moral debate of the age; this Argumentative tone presence of different points of view since closely in touch with the often

1) nel Literary Context (v. ad es. pag. E22-23): meant the creation, on the one The speaker is different from the speaker must be judged only on his unpredictable movements of the human
hand, of a monumental poetry the poet himself own words. This suggestion of the absence mind.
linked to the myth and belief in
A silent listener
Dramatic
the greatness of England, and,
on the other, of a poetry of anti- The character is caught in
monologue
myth and disbelief which had to a moment of crisis
My last duchess

rafforza lo studio delle caratteristiche di ciascun solve the ethical problems


raised by the contrast between
science and progress.
Interest in human psychology
Different points of view
Robert Browning
From Dramatic Lyrics (1842)
The Victorian Age

The Victorian Age


13 The new figure of the poet The Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso II of the Estes family, is arranging his
Women in the was that of a ‘prophet’ and a ‘philosopher’: of characters in his best ‘dramatic A speaker different from the poet
marriage with the niece of the Count of Tyrol. On the staircase the

genere letterario, che dopo essere state esposte


19th Century people expected a poet to reconcile faith himself. In the poem the Duke is speaking.
monologues’; Elizabeth Barrett Browning Duke lets the Count look at a portrait of his previous wife who was
and progress and to throw a colouring of (1806-61), who wrote beautiful love probably murdered on his orders. The Duchess of this monologue is A silent listener
romance over the unromantic materialism sonnets; Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844- the Duke’s ‘last’ wife in the sense of the ‘most recent’ and not ‘final’. A character caught in a moment of crisis
E22 14 of modern life. Optimists believed that 89), noted in particular for his ‘sprung Argumentative tone E23
The Pre-Raphaelites the benefits of progress could be reached rhythm’ which broke with conventional Ferrara1 Interest in the character’s psychology

discorsivamente e riassunte nell’Information store,


without altering traditional social rules; Matthew Arnold (1822-88), who That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,
organisation or destroying the beauty of used poetry to express his dissatisfaction analys
Looking as if she were alive. I call
the countryside; they wanted to find a with the state of things. sh tex
corresponding attitude in their poets and In the middle years of the century a That piece2 a wonder, now: Frà Pandolf3’s hands
to be told that modern life was as group of young poets and painters who Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
susceptible to romantic behaviour as the called themselves ‘Pre-Raphaelites’ tried to 5 Will’t4 please you sit and look at her? I said

vengono visualizzate in un testo esemplificativo. In 1. Read the first two paragraphs. Then
say whether the following are true or
false. Correct the false ones.
remote legends of

Tennyson) or the
Italian Renaissance
react against a society which destroyed the
King Arthur (a theme beauty of nature. They tended to see
exploited by poetry and material progress as opposites,
and they did not try to reach a
compromise between the two; they
“Frà Pandolf ’’ by design, for never read5
Strangers like you that pictured countenance6,
The depth and passion of its earnest7 glance,
But to myself they turned (since none puts by
The curtain I have drawn for you, but I8)
1. Ferrara. La poesia è
ambientata nella città
rinascimentale di Ferrara
governata dalla casa
d’Este.
2. piece. Quadro.
3. Frà Pandolf. Pittore

questo caso lo studente deve solo leggere con attenzione.


1. Poetry was detached from (which was the achieved more satisfactory results in the 10 immaginario.
reality. background to many visual arts than in poetry. This group of 4. Will’t. Will it.
And seemed as they would ask me, if they durst9, 5. read. Qui: videro.
2. People expected the poet to poems by Browning). poets paved the way to the ‘Aesthetic How such a glance came there10; so, not the first 6. countenance. Viso.
reconcile Romanticism with The major poets Movement’ with its creed of ‘Art for Art’s 7. earnest. Serio.
materialism.
Are you to turn and ask thus. Sir, ’twas not
of the age were: Sake’ (; 5.8). 8. since … but I. Poiché
3. Optimists wanted to find a Alfred Tennyson (; Her husband’s presence only, called that spot nessuno può togliere la
tenda che io ho aperto
corresponding attitude in their 5.16), who was The dramatic monologue 15 Of joy into the Duchess’ cheek: perhaps per voi, ad eccezione di
poets. me stesso.
appointed Poet In order to be a dramatic monologue, a Frà Pandolf chanced11 to say “Her mantle laps 9. durst. Forma arcaica di
Laureate by Queen poem must be a narrative poem with a Over12 my lady’s wrist13 too much,” or “paint ‘dared’: Osassero; qui:
2. State the main features of the two Victoria after speaker – the first person singular ‘I’ which avessero osato.
kinds of poetry which emerged in the Must never hope to reproduce the faint 10. there. Là, nel dipinto.
Wordsworth (; stands for a single character different from
Victorian Age. 4.14); Robert the poet himself – and a silent listener, that Half-flush14 that dies along her throat”: such stuff15 11. chanced. Capitò.
12. laps / Over. Copre.
Browning (1812-89), is, the reader. The speaker uses an 20 Was courtesy, she thought, and cause enough 13. wrist. Polso.
3. List the most important poets of the
who is remembered argumentative tone and the reader usually For calling up that spot of joy. She had 14. Half-flush. Mezzo
era, specifying their main features. rossore.
as an original creator completes the dramatic scene by using A heart – how shall I say? – too soon made glad, 15. stuff. Sostanza.

Nothing but Facts 55


Charles Dickens
Hard Times, Book 1, Chapter 1 (1854)

2) nella sezione Authors and Texts (v. ad es. pag. E35):


The scene takes place in a classroom where Mr Gradgrind stands before a group of young LT
students affirming his belief in ‘Facts’, as the sole measure of reality.

“Now, what I want is, Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. 1. Plant nothing else. Non
piantate nient’altro.
Facts alone are wanted in life. Plant nothing else1, and root out2 2. root out. Sradicate.

il testo viene presentato con l’analisi visiva svolta e lo studente deve completare la legenda-colore,
everything else. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon 3. Stick to Facts. Attenetevi
ai fatti.
Facts: nothing else will ever be of any service to them. This is the principle 4. vault. Sotterraneo.
5. forefinger. Indice.
5 on which I bring up my own children, and this is the principle on which I 6. square wall of a
bring up these children. Stick to Facts3, sir!” forehead. Il muro
quadrato della sua
The scene was a plain, bare, monotonous vault4 of a schoolroom, and

specificando quale caratteristica stilistica o contenutistica viene evidenziata dai diversi colori.
fronte.
the speaker’s square forefinger5 emphasized his observations by 7. commodious cellarage.
Comodo spazio.
underscoring every sentence with a line on the schoolmaster’s sleeve. The 8. hard set. Dura.
The Victorian Age

9. bristled on the skirts.


10 emphasis was helped by the speaker’s square wall of a forehead6, which Erano ritti come setole
had his eyebrows for its base, while his eyes found commodious cellarage7 sui lati.
10. firs. Abeti.
in two dark caves, overshadowed by the wall. The emphasis was helped by 11. to keep ... surface. Per
the speaker’s mouth, which was wide, thin, and hard set8. The emphasis tenere la sua lucida
superficie al riparo dal
was helped by the speaker’s voice, which was inflexible, dry, and vento.
15 dictatorial. The emphasis was helped by the speaker’s hair, which bristled 12. knobs. Bernoccoli. E35
on the skirts9 of his bald head, a plantation of firs10 to keep the wind from
its shining surface11, all covered with knobs12, like the crust of a plum pie,

visual analysis
1. The passage can be divided into three parts. Write a caption to 3. Discuss the following questions in pairs.
describe the content of each section. 1. What is the function of the similes
Part 1 (lines ………………) .......................................................... used in the speaker’s physical
description?
Part 2 (lines ………………) ..........................................................
2. Which aspects of the speaker’s
Part 3 (lines ………………) .......................................................... personality are highlighted in this text?
3. Which tense ironically underlines the
2. Look at the visual analysis of the text and write down what each speaker’s concept of education?
colour or mark represents. 4. What is the speaker’s idea of
..................................... education?
.....................................
4. Gather and re-order the information
..................................... Which overall impression do these details highlighted in the text. Write eight to
create? ten lines to explain the features and
..................................... Who uses these words? What are these meaning of the passage.
words related to?

… e nel CD-ROM per lo studente


Writing NES
line .....................................
..................................... 5. Write a paragraph summarizing
Dickens’s attitude to education.
Facts ..................................... What does it underline?

Nelle Routes alcuni dei brani proposti presentano la


possibilità per lo studente di svolgere l’analisi visiva
evidenziando parti di testo con colori diversi. Il
risultato poi può essere stampato e presentato
all’insegnante come verifica svolta.

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The Victorian Age
5
The Historical and Social Context

1789-1830 From the Napoleonic Wars 5 2


1830-1901 to the Regency

The Victorian Age


E1

T The home – now a


museum – of Edward
Linley Sambourne
(1845-1910) – Sambourne
House, London – an artist
and contributor to “Punch”
magazine. It is an example
of a typical Victorian interior
– overloaded and crowded
yet intimate.

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Introduction

The Victorian Age 1830-1901

TIMELINE
1837
Accession of Queen
Victoria

1840
Prince Albert marries
Victoria
The Victorian Age

1842
Hong Kong and other
E2 Chinese ports gained by the
British after the Opium
Wars

1845-7
The Irish Potato Famine

1846
Repeal of the ‘Corn Laws’
U British Empire
1847 throughout the World,
10 Hours’ Act further 19th century, Private
reduces the hours of Collection.
factory workers

1848
California Gold Rush

1851
The Great Exhibition

1854-56
The Crimean War

1857
The Indian Mutiny

1859
Charles Darwin’s On the
Origin of Species published
T Northern Union
1861-65 Pacific poster.
The American Civil War
h Indian soldiers
faithful to the British
1865
commanded by the British
Assassination of President
major William Hodson.
Lincoln

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T Clark Gable and Vivien

Key points ; Leigh in Gone with the


Wind (1939) by Victor
Fleming. The film, adapted
from Margaret Mitchell’s
1936 novel of the same
name, tells a story of the
American Civil War and its
aftermath from a white
Southern viewpoint.
• The accession of Queen Victoria gave the
monarchy a new image of duty. National
pride was celebrated at the Great
Exhibition and the Queen’s Jubilees.
1865-70s
Activity of the Ku Klux Klan
• This was an age of increasing
information and knowledge. It seemed that, with knowledge, solutions could be
found to almost any problem. This gave rise to an optimistic belief in progress.

• The rest of Europe experienced revolutions in 1830 or 1848. There was serious
discontent in Britain, but the government was able to avoid revolution by
compromise. The reforms of the 1830s and 1860s appeased the middle classes but the
working class was still without a voice and turned to Chartism and trades unions.
(; 5.1)

The Victorian Age


• The building of a network of railways over the whole country not only distributed
goods but also transported people and united the nation.
1869
The Suez Canal opened
• Steamships expanded this network to all parts of the extensive British Empire, and the Union Pacific
bringing raw materials and taking civil servants, convicts and immigrants to new lives. Railroad connected the East E3
The British believed that they had the best way of life and that they were spreading it and West Coasts of the
as a gift to the rest of the world. USA

1870
• British foreign policy was based on free trade, and liberalism only if it did not upset The first Education Act
the balance of power. China was forced to open to British trade and the Crimean War makes primary education
compulsory
was fought to keep Russia out of the Ottoman Empire and India. (; 5.2)
1877
• Reading both fact and fiction was a national leisure pursuit. Industrialisation had Victoria becomes ‘Empress
of India’
made literacy a necessity and a national education system provided it. (; 5.5)

• In the USA the difference between the industrial North and the agricultural South was
exacerbated as settlers moved west and the question of slave owning split the nation in the
Civil War. The Confederate South was defeated by the Unionist North and slaves were
freed. (; 5.3)
• The movement westwards 1897
was completed and the Queen Victoria’s Diamond
whole continent settled. Jubilee
Though free, black 1899-1902
Americans faced poverty The Boer War: the British
and discrimination. against the Dutch
Immigrants from Europe Afrikaaners in South Africa

arrived, either to get a farm 1901


or to labour in industry. Queen Victoria dies

T Slaves planting sweet


potatoes, South Carolina,
1862.

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The Historical and Social Context

5 1 The early Victorian Age 1830-1860

Queen Victoria came to the throne in work more than 69 hours a week. The latter
1837. She was just 18 years old and was satisfied religious philanthropists by limiting
guided by her statesmen. Her own sense of the working hours to ten a day for all
duty made her the ideal constitutional workers. Workhouses were established by
monarch, remaining apart from politics the Poor Law Amendment Act (1834). There
and yet providing stability. In 1840 she the poor had to give up their family life in
married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg- return for basic support in these institutions.
Gotha. They had nine children and their The idea was that workhouses were
modest family life provided a model of deliberately unpleasant so that the poor
respectability. would try to do better, helping themselves
The aristocratic Whig politicians in the instead of relying upon welfare. Self-help
1830s had succeeded in making laws which was considered very important and it was
kept them in power and avoided political a matter of pride to be a ‘self-made man’.
revolution. They gave the vote to the middle This apparent hard line was due in part to
The Victorian Age

class in the first Reform Act (1832). They a belief in the power of progress and the
reformed social and economic conditions in Puritan virtues of hard work, thrift and
the Factory Act (1833) and Ten Hours’ Act duty, which would be rewarded. Religion
(1847). The former prevented children from was a strong force in this period. In
being employed more than 48 hours a week industrial areas the non-conformist
E4 and said no person under eighteen could churches, such as the Methodists,
remained strongest and encouraged study
h The Royal
family at and abstinence from alcohol.
Osborne, Although Britain avoided revolution in
26 May 1857. 1830 and 1848, there were still political
crises. The middle-class industrialists
resented the continued dominance of land
and agriculture in government and wanted
more free trade. The ‘Corn Law’ movement
was eventually successful when Prime
Minister Robert Peel was forced to free the
price of corn in 1846 because of the Irish
potato famine (1845).
h Dinnertime The working classes tried to improve
in St Pancras their lives by both political and economic
Workhouse.
means. The Chartist movement (1838-48)
was so called because of the People’s
Charter (1838), a document which
demanded, amongst other things, the vote
for all adult males, election by secret ballot
and payment of MPs. No one in power was
ready for such democracy and the
movement failed. The absence of political
violence resulted in the second Reform Act
(1867), which gave the vote to skilled
working men.
One of the reasons why revolution was
avoided was that, after the ‘Hungry

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Forties’, most people’s lives were more g Interior of the Crystal
Palace, the cast-iron and
comfortable. They were no longer self- glass building designed by
sufficient but could buy many cheap, Joseph Paxton was originally
mass-produced, manufactured goods. The erected in Hyde Park,
London, England, to house
building of the London Underground the Great Exhibition of 1851.
began in 1854 and the railways started to The exhibition space
transform the landscape and people’s lives. displayed examples of the
latest technology developed
They transported large quantities of raw in the Industrial Revolution.
materials and products quickly and
cheaply; people were able to travel for
work and leisure and the middle classes
f Florence Nightingale.
could live in the suburbs instead of the
crowded town centres. like Italian independence from
Steel steam ships expanded the the Austrians, but never to the

The Victorian Age


Victorians’ world even further. The most point of disturbing the balance
lucrative colony of the British Empire was of power. She forced China to
India. British rule there was shocked by the open to British commerce by
Indian Mutiny (1857), after which the insisting on the opium trade.
native population were given less When Russia became too
responsibility. Nearly half of the world’s powerful against the weak E5
trade was carried in British ships. British Turkish Empire, the Crimean
people were accustomed to global products War (1853-56) was fought. Like
and had a huge market in which to sell the American Civil War, this was
their manufactured goods. The Great a conflict followed by the people
Exhibition in the Crystal Palace in 1851 in the newspapers. The real hero
proudly demonstrated this situation. of the war was Florence
Transport, coal, iron and steel formed the Nightingale (1820-1910), known
basis of a thriving economy. Britain also as ‘the Lady with the Lamp’, who
exported people; civil servants and soldiers volunteered to lead the nursing team at
to administer the Empire, experts such as Scutari Base Hospital. Once back in
engineers and doctors, even prisoners (sent England she formed an institution for the
to Australia), as well as poor emigrants. training of nurses and spent several years
Britain supported some liberal causes, working on army sanitary.

1. Go to page E8 and start to fill in the time arrow with information about the reforms of the early Victorian reign.

2. Explain the idea behind the workhouses.

3. State why Britain succeeded in avoiding the storm of revolution which swept over Europe in 1848.

4. Name the issues with which the supporters of Chartism were especially concerned.

5. How did the development of transport affect the early years of Victoria’s reign?

6. What did Britain export?

7. Why was Florence Nightingale regarded as the real hero of the Crimean War?

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The Historical and Social Context

5 2 The later years 1861-1901

of Queen Victoria’s reign


different policies towards the massive
amount of government activity which was
both in domestic and foreign affairs. The
two parties both won elections under their
leaders, William Gladstone (1809-98) and
Benjamin Disraeli (1804-81), and tried to
solve problems as various as urban health,
the rights of the trade unions, and state
education. They had relationships both
with the old Ottoman and Austrian
Empires and the new nations of Germany
and Italy. This nationalism had yet to affect
most of the British Empire, but did affect
Ireland. In the late 19th century, many
The Victorian Age

Protestant and Catholic Irish wanted self-


government (which was called ‘Home
Rule’). Gladstone tried to get Parliament
to pass Home Rule three times; but an
Irish Government was granted only after
E6 World War I.
Britain competed with the other
European countries to divide up the
African continent, extending her Empire
yet further, through explorers like Dr
Livingstone and adventurers like Cecil
Rhodes. In South Africa, the British
eventually won a bitter struggle against the
Dutch settlers, the Boers (1899-1902). In
1877 Queen Victoria obtained the title of
‘Empress of India’. On the walls of the
state elementary schools there was a world
map with the colonies coloured in red
where ‘the sun never set’ in 24 hours on
British soil. However, the Empire was
becoming more difficult to control. There
t Lady Abercromby, Prince Albert died from typhoid in 1861. was a growing sense of the ‘white man’s
Queen Victoria, 1883, Queen Victoria, now a widow and mother- burden’; this phrase shows that the British
London, National Portrait
Gallery. in-law to most of the crowned heads in felt a responsibility to spread their superior
Europe (Denmark, Russia, Prussia and the way of life (and the English language) to
German Empire), withdrew more from the uncivilised, but at the same time they
society, but still had an important role as were perplexed and concerned that this
12 figurehead; her Golden and Diamond was unwelcome.
Empire and the Jubilees (1887, 1897) were occasions of The third Reform Act (1884) granted the
Victorian novel
national celebration and pride. right to vote to all male householders. The
The political parties had regrouped secret ballot and payment of MPs stopped
themselves; the Liberals (ex-Whigs) and corruption and opened a career in politics
the Conservatives (ex-Tories) represented to less privileged men. Working men

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turned to trade unions, which were A large proportion of lower middle-class
legalized with the Trade Union Act of 1871. men did clerical work in banks, insurance
They not only campaigned for wages and and commerce. However social mobility
welfare, but also helped to educate their was more difficult as class differences
members. Some trade unions had became more rigid. Middle-class women
successful strikes despite the employers’ got more rights to their property but were
power and legal opposition. Gradually the still restricted to a domestic life. New job
idea of socialism spread amongst radical opportunities became available with the
intellectuals in the Fabian Society. A telephone, telegraph and the typewriter,
socialist branch of the Liberal Party and office work became respectable.
eventually became the Independent Labour The mechanisation of printing made
Party (1906). Some men even believed that books and magazines cheap and plentiful.
women might vote and organisations for The railways distributed printed materials
voting rights for women were set up. The everywhere and advertising helped to pay

The Victorian Age


activities of the suffragette movement for much that was in print. Reading
gained much publicity, but their violence became a national leisure pursuit. With
also obstructed the cause of women’s rights. such a large and varied readership (; 5.5),
By this time Britain was primarily an different genres flourished from poetry
urban society. Even agriculture began to be (; 5.7) to detective novels, from music
mechanised. Most of the population was hall songs to political tracts. E7
employed in manufacturing or domestic However, intellectuals were facing
service. After the epidemics of cholera and conflict between religious faith and
typhoid, the municipal authorities became scientific discoveries (; 5.4). The
organised to provide clean water and Victorians remained confident, but a sense
sanitation (Public Health Act, 1875). of decline or decadence, of melancholy
Victorian cities had gas lighting and and disillusionment set in at the turn of
rubbish collection; there were many public the century.
buildings, such as town halls, railway
stations, libraries and museums, music build up your language Victorian buildings
halls, boarding schools and hospitals, police
stations and prisons. This was a period of a 1. Explain the link each of the following words has with Victorian
private retail boom – many new shops, society.
public houses, theatres. Although disease
1. town halls .......................................................................................
could be prevented, it could not be cured,
so health remained, along with law and 2. railway stations .......................................................................................
order, the main social concern. 3. libraries .......................................................................................
Although Britain still considered itself
4. museums .......................................................................................
to be ‘the workshop of the world’, new
materials were being developed, such as 5. music halls .......................................................................................
rubber, aluminium, petroleum and 6. boarding schools .......................................................................................
celluloid, in which they would not be the
7. hospitals .......................................................................................
world leaders. The United States and
Germany were starting to provide 8. police stations .......................................................................................
competition. Industrialization had made 9. prisons .......................................................................................
literacy an economic necessity and the
10. shops .......................................................................................
state education system provided this with
the Elementary Education Act of 1870. 11. public houses .......................................................................................

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2. After reading 5.1 and 5.2, complete the time arrow with information about Victorian
reforms.

Year Act Reform


The Victorian Age

E8

Writing NES
3. Now use the information you have collected in the time arrow and, in not more than ten
lines, explain why the Victorian Age can be defined as ‘an age of reforms’.

4. Read the following phrases and explain what they referred to:
1. Home Rule in Ireland;
2. the white man’s burden;
3. workshop of the world.

5. Complete each of the following statements with the qualifying negative situation.
1. The British Empire extended further than ever before, but…
2. Towns had many new buildings and better public health, nevertheless…
3. Working-class people had education and could improve their economic position;
however…

6. Provide examples of how literacy and reading were changing people’s lives. Think of jobs
and work, leisure, life in towns, being informed and politics.

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The Victorian Age

Life in Victorian Britain Dossier

Dynamic, self-confident, enterprising – Victorian Britain was a society undergoing rapid


change in many fields. Increasing numbers of Victorians found opportunities to seek
recreation and enjoy themselves. Football, which had existed in rudimentary forms, was
adopted and refined by the Victorian middle classes.

Listening FCE 1. Listen to this extract about the Rule Book of Association Football. For gaps 1-10 complete
the sentences.
1.7 a. The Rule Book of Association Football was written at Cambridge University in [1] .
b. Public School headmasters regarded football as a way to teach [2] .
c. In this way upper-class boys were prepared for their [3] .
d. Football began to spread also in the [4] .
e. Clearly, working people would benefit from this new [5] .
f. Textile workers in [6] began to practice the game during their Saturday afternoon off.

g. The new [7] also encouraged enthusiasm for a new sport.


h. The time provided for football became an incentive [8] .
i. A lot of [9] were created all over Britain.

j. Players were rewarded with [10] .


E9
Speaking 2. Football is still today seen as having a role to help people in society. Is our thinking similar to
or different from the Victorians’?

Reading D6 The Victorians and food


Abridged from Reay Tannahill, Food in History, Penguin, 1988.

For almost the first time in history massive urban poverty could be observed by anyone
who cared to see. Conditions in the industrial towns were shocking, the adult factory
labourer rarely died of simple starvation, but bad housing, worse food and non-existent
sanitation took an appalling toll. The staple diet was bread or potatoes; if there was
enough money then tea and bacon could be added. Even the better-off had problems
getting fresh food in the town.
Once the scale of the challenge had been recognised many resources were mobilised
to meet it. The railways had the first and most radical influence on both the quality and
quantity of food available in the cities. Previously, supplies had been limited by factors
such as the size of the load that could be hauled by horse or oxen over narrow pitted
roads. Bulky goods had to go by sea, river or canal. But the railway changed everything.
Its bulk carrying capacity was the railway’s most immediate recommendation, but its
speed was also to prove of benefit.
Instead of being brought into the city “on the hoof ”, meat could be butchered and
transported from a long way away. Aberdeen in Scotland transported fresh meat to
London. Before the 1860s town milk was supplied by local cow men who kept their
animals in the parks and open spaces but as more houses were built, the poor sickly
cows were kept in the streets. At first the milk transported into the towns arrived
curdled, more like cheese. However, by the end of the 1860s a kind of mechanical
cooler had been developed and metal churns full of quick cooled milk soon brought a

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Dossier Life in Victorian Britain
g William Powell Frith, The
Railway Station, 1863.
London, Royal Holloway
College.

marked improvement in the city’s milk


supplies.
Another influence on 19th-century
food was the cookery book. There was
nothing new about the genre. What was
new was that, because of the spread of literacy, far more women were now able to read it.
One of the best English cookery books, Modern Cookery for Private Families by Eliza
Acton (1845), was written by a lady who really wanted to be a poet, but her publisher
said there was no market for poems by maiden ladies and told her that what she ought to
write was a good sensible cookery book. She did, and the result was an enduring best-
seller. The best-known English cookery book was written by a young woman journalist,
Isabella Beeton. Her Book of Household Management (1861) was encyclopaedic in scope
and Mrs Beeton was the first writer to make a serious attempt to include estimates of
costs, quantities and preparation times.
It was a sad fact that no cookery book, however economical, could supply the
working wife with the time, equipment or fuel. Until well into the 20th century, the local
tripe shop or pork butcher, the street oyster seller, the muffin man and, above all, the fish
and chip shop did more for the industrial workers’ diet than any cookery book.

3. Read the text and do the following activities.


E10
1. What was the factory worker more likely to die of: disease or infection, starvation, or accident?
Give reasons for your choice.
2. Why did it take longer to improve the supply of milk than the supply of meat?
3. Cookery books became more popular among the middle classes for various reasons; middle-
class women could not always afford to hire a cook and there were technological improvements
on the stove on which people could cook at home. What is the 3rd reason?
4. Poor people did not cook at home. Why not? And what was the Victorian equivalent of ‘fast
food’?

Speaking FCE 4. How is the transport revolution of the Victorian Age represented in the picture above and
below?
Compared to the hard life in the fields, the growing cities of the 19th century were
thought to embody the highest achievements of civilization. The railway station, which was
acknowledged as one of the most important buildings introduced by the Industrial Revolution,
had a rich iconography emanating
from the Victorian painter William
Powell Frith (1819-1909). He
painted large contemporary
scenes with numerous figures
and incidental details. By the late
1880s William Kennedy (1859-
1918), based at Stirling in Scotland,
replaced his early commitment to
the representation of peasants with
h William Kennedy, the rendering of modern subject
Stirling Station, 1888, matter.
Private Collection.

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The Historical and Social Context

1861-1901 The American Civil War and 5 3


the settlement of the West
The middle of the 19th century in America Republican Party, which
coincided with a period of economic demanded that slavery
expansion, social change, impulse towards should be excluded from all
scientific discovery and inventions, and an territories of the Union. In
extraordinary moment of literary 1860 the Republican
expression. candidate, Abraham Lincoln
The political situation was tense (1809-65), won the
because of the growing split between the presidential election. Soon
North and the South. While the North was after, eleven Southern States
undergoing steady industrialization, the seceded and formed the
economy of the South was still based on Confederate States of
the vast plantations of tobacco and cotton, America, under the
and on slavery. There was also a huge presidency of Jefferson Davis
difference in density of population: the (1808-89). The Civil War

The Victorian Age


white population increased, due to the broke out in 1861 and lasted
immigrants from Europe who settled four years, ending in 1865,
especially in the North, bringing with when the blue Northern
them their languages and customs. In the troops commanded by
South, instead, there were about 3,500,000 Ulysses Grant (1822-85) defeated the grey t A gold hunter on his
black slaves. Furthermore, life in the South Confederates led by Robert Lee (1807-70). way to California.
E11
was based on a rigidly divided class system, Five days later, President Lincoln was
with the aristocracy of the plantation assassinated by a Southern fanatic. “O
owners still linked to the old values of Captain! My Captain” wrote the poet Walt
gallantry and honour. Whitman (; 5.18) under the emotional
The question of slavery was most impact of his death, pointing out how
urgent and there was pressure on the important Lincoln’s leadership had been.
Southern States to abolish it. On the one However, the abolition of slavery,
hand, the abolitionists attacked the sanctioned after the Civil War by the 13th
exploitation of slaves, the cruelty and the Amendment of the Constitution did not
separation from their families they grant the blacks equality and economic
suffered, and the fact they were given no security. They were free but penniless and
education. On the other hand, the homeless; some migrated to the industrial
supporters of slavery held that it was an cities in the North, others remained with
institution which gave the blacks their old masters who, impoverished by the
employment, protection, and taught them war, could not afford to pay wages, but
the principles of the Christian faith. would share the crops with the workers
Many people were deeply moved and and provide them with tools and a cabin.
converted to the anti-slavery cause by A wave of resentment and violence,
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1851-52), a novel by embodied by the racist ‘Ku Klux Klan’,
Harriet Beecher Stowe which had a strong frightened the blacks and their families.
impact because of its sentimental account The so-called ‘Black Codes’ were created,
of the degrading effects of slavery. which segregated the blacks in schools,
Northern abolitionists, who included hospitals, and transport.
writers, intellectuals, and religious While the economy of the South had
associations, began to organise themselves as collapsed during the war, the Northern
a political movement. From what had factories had increased their output to
formerly been the Whig Party, arose the supply military needs. The country’s

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At the same time, expansion and
settlement in the West were encouraged
above all by the discovery of gold in
California in 1848, which resulted in the
‘gold rush’. Then the Homestead Act (1862)
granted free soil to the first occupants.
This migration westwards had two main
consequences: it led to the disappearance
of the frontier, and to the extermination of
buffaloes, with the consequent starvation
of the American Indians, who were
subjugated, mass-deported or brutally
exterminated. Cattlemen became the new
Western symbols, the cowboys, so deeply
The Victorian Age

rooted in American tradition.


The second half of the century was
t American School, an natural resources – including coal, copper, characterised by unprecedented
Abraham Lincoln iron and oil – were fully exploited. Big technological development and important
souvenir postcard
depicting the emancipation
fortunes were made, and financial empires inventions: in 1837 Samuel Morse
E12 of slaves in 1863, 1909, were created by men who rose from invented the electric telegraph. Later the
Private Collection/Peter nothing, like Cornelius Vanderbilt and typewriter (1867), the telephone (1871),
Newark American Pictures.
John Rockefeller, and embodied a new the phonograph (1877), the electric lamp
version of the American dream: the myth (1879), the adding machine (1888), the
of the self-made man who went from ‘rags first movie camera (1890), and the cash
to riches’. The other side of the coin was register (1897) were invented. The first
the majority of workers were exploited and skyscraper was built in Chicago in 1883
did not have a share in the wealth and and new railroads joined the Atlantic to
leisure. They soon organised themselves the Pacific. In spite of its several
and founded the ‘American Federation of contradictions, America had become the
Labour’ (AFL), which became the strongest richest and most modern country in the
group of trade unions. world.

1. Fill in the table to explain the differences between the North and 3. Point out the causes and consequences
the South in America in the 19th century. of the American Civil War.
North South 4. What was the ‘American dream’? Who
19th century embodied it at that time?

2. Focus on the question of the abolition of slavery and gather 5. What encouraged the expansion and
information about abolitionists and supporters of slavery. settlement in the West? With what
consequences?
Abolitionists Supporters of slavery
Who they were 6. What kind of inventions were developed
What they said in America in the 19th century?

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The World Picture

The Victorian compromise 5 4

The Victorians were great moralisers, conformity to social standards. It implied


probably because they faced numerous the possession of good manners, the
problems on such a scale (; 5.1, 5.2) that ownership of a comfortable house with
they felt obliged to advocate certain values servants and a carriage, regular attendance
which offered solutions or escape. at church, and charitable activity.
As a rule the values they promoted Philanthropy was a broadly-based Victorian
reflected not the world as they saw it, the phenomenon with a range and diversity of
harsh social reality around them, but the interests: it addressed itself to every kind of
world as they would have liked it to be. poverty, to ‘stray children, fallen women
Probably the most persistently advocated and drunken men’ and absorbed the
notion throughout the 19th century was the energies of thousands of Victorians, large
need to work hard. In an age which believed numbers of whom were women.
in progress, it seemed natural to believe that It is far too easy to speculate on the
material progress would emerge from hard motives for Victorian philanthropy. Good

The Victorian Age


work and to insist on the sense of duty deeds marked out a woman or man as a
rather than on personal inclination. Sunday person of standing in a community. In life,
schools and, later, the compulsory and then in death, charitable work was
elementary schools placed great emphasis on listed alongside a Victorian’s varied
punctuality and application. Diligence, good accomplishments and qualities. In
time-keeping and good behaviour were addition, many activists genuinely believed E13
rewarded, normally by the gift of books. that they could, through personal example
These values were of equal application to all and through the charitable systems they
strata of society, though they were refined established, reform the objects of their
and given their essential Victorian form by charity; they could save the dissolute, raise
the upper or middle classes. up fallen women, and instil industry and
The idea of respectability distinguished self-help where it was most needed.
the middle from the lower class. Bourgeois ideals also dominated
Respectability was a mixture of both Victorian family life. The family was a
morality and hypocrisy, severity and patriarchal unit where the position of the

build up your language Victorian values


1. Write the corresponding adjective near each noun.
Noun Adjective
stability
duty
hard work
respectability
charity
philanthropy
authority
chastity
prudery
patriotism

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husband was dominant. The man was the manifestations led to the denunciation of
breadwinner as well as the source of nudity in art, the veiling of sculpted
discipline; it was a role imposed upon him genitals and the rejection of words with
by divine providence, and it was equally sexual connotations from everyday
incumbent on the woman to obey the vocabulary.
source of authority. But this is not to deny In the late 19th century, expressions of
the key role of women in child-rearing and civic pride and national fervour were
educating, in managing servants and frequent among the British (; 5.2).
budgeting. Patriotism was deeply influenced by ideas
The subservience of women was clearly of racial superiority. Towards the end of
underlined by the enormous difficulties Victoria’s reign, the British had come to
they faced if they cast aside the roles accept that, in the racial hierarchy of
expected of them. The concept of the mankind, they stood supreme. In part,
‘fallen woman’ was a fate imposed upon they had only to look at their empire, at
The Victorian Age

thousands of women by a society with an the variety of races and peoples they
intense concern for female chastity. Single governed, to find apparent confirmation of
women with a child suffered the worst of this view. There emerged a powerful belief
society’s punishments: they were that the ‘races’ of the world were divided
ostracised as Thomas Hardy well describes by fundamental physical and intellectual
E14 in his novel Tess of the D’Urbervilles differences, that some were destined to be
(; 5.13). led by others. It was thus an obligation
Sexuality was generally repressed in its imposed by the Almighty on the British to
public and private forms, and moralising bestow their superior way of life – their
‘prudery’ in its most extreme institutions, law, and politics – on native

h George Adolphus Storey,


The Orphans, 1879,
Forbes Magazine Collection,
New York. The upper and
middle classes often had a
somewhat romantic
perception of ‘stray children’
due to their prevalence in
Victorian literature.
However, orphans were also
often treated with disdain
and distrust-victims of classic
‘Victorian contradictions’.

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peoples throughout the world. This f W.H. Hunt, The Awakening
Conscience, 1853-54. London,
attitude came to be known as ‘Jingoism’. Tate Britain. William Holman Hunt
Colonial power and economic progress (1827-1910) was one of the Text bank
made for the optimistic outlook of many founders of the Pre-Raphaelite 39
Brotherhood. He was the most
Victorians. However, their self-confidence religious of the group and its
and moral certainties were only one intellectual leader. His works are
element in a complex framework of often characterized by a series of
figures added to landscape
Victorian ideals. It was, after all, an age background painted from nature.
riddled with contradictions and doubts,
notably about religion and, increasingly,
about the relationship between
science and belief.

The Victorian Age


2. Read the first paragraph and say whether these
statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. The values of the Victorians reflected the
kind of world they wanted to achieve.
2. The Victorians greatly valued
personal qualities.
E15
3. Victorian values were only applied
to the middle class.

3. Explain what the concept of respectability implied.

4. Read the paragraph about philanthropy and note


down:
1. to whom it was addressed;
2. who was mainly involved in it;
3. the reasons behind it.

5. Fill in the table with information about the role of


men and women inside the family.
Men Women

7. Look at the painting and answer the questions.


1. What is there on the carpet?
2. What does the girl’s lack of a wedding ring emphasize?
3. Is there a window or a mirror in the background?
4. How is the room furnished?
6. Answer the following questions.
5. What symbols explain the theme of the fallen woman?
1. What was the fate of ‘fallen women’ Why?
6. How are the image reflected in the mirror and the light
2. What forms did the repression of sexuality take?
in the right corner related?
3. How did the British conceive of their role in the
world?
4. Where did optimism spring from? 8. Explain what aspect of Victorianism this painting
5. In what fields did doubts arise? comments upon.

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The Literary Context

5 5 The Victorian novel

Reviewers also had a strong influence on


the reception of literary works and on the
shaping of public opinion.
The Victorians showed a marked
interest in prose, and the greatest literary
achievement of the age is to be found in
the novel, which soon became the most
popular form of literature and the main
form of entertainment. The spread of
scientific knowledge made the novel
realistic and analytical, the spread of
democracy made it social and
humanitarian, while the spirit of moral
unrest made it inquisitive and critical.
The Victorian Age

During the 18th century, novels


generally dealt with the adventures either
of a social outcast or a more virtuous hero
(; 3 .9), but their episodic structure
remained the same. The search for
E16 thematic unity was brought in by Jane
Austen (; 4 .20), with the theme of a girl’s
d Robert William Buss, D uring the Victorian Age there was for the choice of a husband, by Sir Walter Scott
Dickens’s Dream, 1875.
first time a communion of interests and (; 4.11) and by the Gothic writers (;
opinions between writers and their 4.9), who set their novels in a remote, at
readers. One reason for this close times strange and exotic, past.
relationship was the enormous growth of In the 1840s novelists felt they had a
the middle classes (; 5.1), who, although moral and social responsibility to fulfil:
consisting of many different strata where they aimed at reflecting the social changes
literacy had penetrated in a heterogeneous that had been in progress for a long time,
way, were avid consumers of literature. such as the Industrial Revolution, the
They borrowed books from circulating struggle for democracy, and the growth of
libraries and read the various periodicals, towns.
which the age abounded in. Moreover, The novelists of the first part of the
Victorian writers often belonged to the Victorian period depicted society as they
middle class. saw it, and, with the exception of those
A great deal of Victorian literature was sentiments which offended current morals,
first published in this form; essays, verse particularly sex, no side of it escaped their
and even novels made their first scrutiny. They were aware of the evils of
appearance in instalments in the pages of their society, such as the terrible conditions
periodicals, which allowed the writer to of manual workers (; 5.1) and the
feel he was in constant contact with his exploitation of children. However, their
public. He was obliged to maintain the criticism was much less radical than that
interest in his story at certain levels, of contemporary European writers, like
because one boring instalment would Balzac, Flaubert, Turgenev and Dostoevsky,
cause the public not to buy that periodical because the historical conditions of Britain
any more; moreover, he could always alter were quite different from those of France
the story according to its success or failure. or Russia.

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As the Victorian novelists also conceived of
literature as a vehicle to correct the vices 1. Use the following points to give a short talk on the Victorian novel.
and weaknesses of the age, didacticism is 1. a close relationship between writers and readers
one of the main features of their work. The 2. circulating libraries
voice of the omniscient narrator provided 3. the publishing world
a comment on the plot and erected a rigid 4. a novel with new features
barrier between ‘right’ and ‘wrong’, light 5. a novel deeply linked to society
and darkness. Retribution and punishment 6. the role of the narrator
were dutifully administered in the final 7. a new approach to setting and characters
chapter, where the whole texture of events,
adventures, and incidents had to be on the creation of characters. From the
explained and justified. characters of Dickens’s novels (; 5.11),
The setting chosen by most Victorian two lines of development arose: one
novelists was the city, which was the main moved towards a deeper analysis of the

The Victorian Age


symbol of industrial civilisation as well as character’s inner life; the other, typical of
Text bank
the expression of anonymous lives and lost later novelists, was nearer to the European 40
identities. In their effort to portray the development of ‘Naturalism’, an almost
individual motives for human action and scientific look at human behaviour, upon
all that binds men and women to the which the narrator no longer had power to
community, Victorian writers concentrated comment. E17

g William Logsdail, St
Paul’s and Sudgate Hill,
1887. Private Collection.

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The Literary Context

5 6 Types of novels 1870-1901

h India on the brain – Mr situation. The master of this genre was


Rudyard Kipling, cartoon,
ca. 1892. William Thackeray (1811-63).
Early in the Victorian Age there was a
vogue for the so-called ‘social-problem
novel’, which dealt more or less directly
with the turmoil of the 1830s and 1840s;
the novels of Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-65)
are remarkable for their harsh portrait of
industrial life. Charles Dickens’s novels
(; 5.11) are mostly admired for their
tone, combining humour with a
sentimental plea for reform in favour of
the less fortunate. They constitute the bulk
of what is generally called the
The Victorian Age

‘humanitarian novel’ or the ‘novel of


purpose’, which could be divided into
novels of a ‘realistic’, ‘fantastic’, or ‘moral’
nature according to the predominant tone
or issue dealt with. The Bildungsroman
E18 (‘novel of formation’ or ‘education’)
became very popular after the publication
of Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre and
Dickens’s David Copperfield (; 5.11).
Text bank These novels dealt with one character’s
47-48 development from early youth to some
sort of maturity. The works by the Brontë
sisters (; 5.12) can be linked to the
persistence of the Romantic and Gothic
traditions; they focus on intense subjective
experiences rather than on a world of
social interaction.
The realistic novel finds its best
representatives in Thomas Hardy (; 5.13)
and George Eliot. While Eliot focused on
the psychological and moral complexity of
h Frontispiece of Wee
Winkie by R. Kipling. human beings, Hardy excelled in a
Mowgli, an expert hunter particular kind of portrayal that defines
raised by a pack of wolves the protagonist by his or her ‘native’ locale
after being lost by his
parents in the Indian jungle, and at the same time painfully alienates
is one the most prominent them from it. His characters are caught
and memorable characters between rural traditionalism and the
in the series of stories by
Rudyard Kipling.
potential dangers of the modern and
urban.
The ‘novel of manners’ seemed to keep Robert L. Stevenson’s (; 5.14) tried to
closer to the original 18th-century models. capture the monstrous, illogical aspects of
It dealt with economic and social problems life and described the double nature of
and described a particular class or Victorian society.

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Text bank
41

12
Empire and the
Victorian novel
Outside the mainstream was Rudyard Gaskell and George
Kipling, who exalted British imperial power Eliot (pen name of
as a sacred duty, legitimising the belief that Mary Ann Evans).
it was the task of the white man, and in This output is
particular of the British, to carry civilisation surprising if one
and progress to the savages. thinks of the state of
A particular aspect of Victorian subjection of
literature is what is called ‘nonsense’, Victorian women; it
created by Lewis Carroll (1832-98) and is less surprising if
Edward Lear (1812-88). In his famous one remembers that
novel, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland the majority of
(1865), Carroll created a nonsensical novel-buyers and
universe where social rules and readers were women,
conventions disintegrate, the cause/effect since they had more

The Victorian Age


relationship does not exist, and time and time than men to
space have lost their function of giving an spend at home where
order to human experience. The best they could devote
examples of nonsense verse were written themselves to
by Edward Lear, who was a landscape reading. However,
painter and an illustrator of books but even if it was easier E19
who is chiefly remembered for his Book of for a woman to
Nonsense (1846), a collection of short, write, in terms of
humorous poems known as ‘limericks’. time and interests, it was not easier to t John Tenniel, Alice
Here the seriousness of the tone and the publish and some women used a male Upsets the Jury Box,
illustration from Alice’s
regular five-line verse contrast with the pseudonym in order to see their work in Adventures in Wonderland
deliberate absurdity of the content. The print. In fact, creative writing, like art and by Lewis Carroll, Private
poems transform people through public activities, was considered masculine. Collection.
caricatures into vegetables or animals. From Jane Austen to George Eliot, the
It is important to underline that a great woman’s novel had moved in the direction
number of the novels published during the of an all-inclusive female realism, a broad,
middle period of Victorianism, up to socially informed exploration of the daily 13
1870-80, were written by women such as lives and values of women within the Women in the
Charlotte and Emily Brontë, Elizabeth family and the community. 19th Century

1. Read to the end the text about the different Victorian novels and fill in the following table.
Novel of Social-problem Novel of Psychological Realistic novel Nonsensical
manners / Humanitarian formation novel novel
novel
Main
exponents
Themes

2. Explain why the output of women writers increased in the Victorian Age and why women used a male pseudonym.

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Fiction 4
The cinematic technique

The so-called ‘cinematic’ novelists anticipated the cinema, rather than being influenced
by it, since their works were published before film had properly evolved as a narrative
medium. Throughout the 19th century novelists cultivated the ‘camera-eye’ and ‘camera
movement’, moving into their subjects, from the city into the street, from the street into
the house, and taking the reader from room to room.
Film viewers tend to take the camera eye for granted and to accept the truthfulness of
what it shows them. Its perspective is close enough to ordinary human vision to seem a
transparent medium for the rendering of reality rather than an artificial system of signs.
Both novel and film are able to shift their point of view between an ‘omniscient’ or
impersonal perspective and the perspective of a particular character without sacrificing
realistic illusion.

Differences between Apart from dialogue and monologue and the use of music for emotional suggestion, a
a novel and a film film is obliged to tell its story mainly in terms of the visible – behaviour, physical
appearance, setting – whereas the verbal medium of the novel can describe anything,
visible or invisible (notably the thoughts passing through a character’s head).
A cinematic novelist is one who deliberately renounces some of the freedom of
representation and report offered by the verbal medium, who imagines and presents his
materials in primarily visual terms, and whose visualisations correspond in some
E20 significant respect to the visual effects typical of film.

Techniques similar The ‘wide’, ‘panoramic’, ‘aerial views’ are characteristic ways of introducing an action;
to those of the they may be ‘bird’s-eye’, that is, not too high, simply from elevated ground. These are
motion-picture motion-pictures since people move up into the middle distance or foreground, or
camera
alternatively recede and diminish. The scene is empty at first, then an object appears,
nearer a point of observation; when it reaches the foreground, it seems to fill the picture
just as in the cinema it would fill the screen. Elements like clouds, mist, and rain are
often combined with a ‘receding shot’ to create what in a film ‘fades’ or ‘dissolves’.

A cinematic Among Victorian novelists, Thomas Hardy (; 5.13) exploited a freedom within his
novelist: verbal medium and anticipated the cinema in the choice of some techniques, as the last
Thomas Hardy pages from Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891) clearly show.
» Aerial view
The city of Wintoncester, that fine old city, aforetime capital of Wessex, lay
amidst its convex and concave downlands in all the brightness and warmth
of a July morning.
» Zooming in
The gabled brick, tile, and freestone1 houses had almost dried off for the
5 season their integument of lichen2, the streams in the meadows were low,
and in the sloping High Street from the West Gateway to the mediæval
cross and from the mediæval cross to the bridge, that leisurely dusting and
1. gabled … freestone.
Munite di frontone, di
sweeping was in progress which usually ushers3 in an old-fashioned
mattoni, mattonelle e market-day.
pietra di taglio. 10 From the western gate aforesaid the highway, as every Wintoncestrian
2. integument of lichen.
Tegumento di lichene. knows, ascends a long and regular incline of the exact length of a measured
3. ushers in. Inaugura. mile, leaving the houses gradually behind.

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4. precincts. Dintorni.
5. buoyancy. Esuberanza,
» Low-angle shot
allegria. Up this road from the precincts4 of the city two persons were walking
6. wicket. Cancelletto. rapidly, as if unconscious of the trying ascent – unconscious through
7. bowed. Chine.
8. gait of grief. Andatura
15 preoccupation and not through buoyancy5. They had emerged upon this
addolorata. road through a narrow barred wicket6 in a high wall a little lower down.
9. the drooping of their They seemed anxious to get out of the sight of the houses and of their kind,
heads. Le loro teste
chine. and this road appeared to offer the quickest means of doing so. Though
10. quaint. Pittoresche. they were young they walked with bowed7 heads, which gait of grief 8 the
11. blot. Macchia. 20 sun’s rays smiled on pitilessly.
» Close-up
One of the pair was Angel Clare, the other a tall budding creature – half
girl, half woman – a spiritualized image of Tess, slighter than she, but with
the same beautiful eyes – Clare’s sister-in-law, ’Liza-Lu. Their pale faces
seemed to have shrunk to half their natural size. They moved on hand in
25 hand, and never spoke a word, the drooping of their heads9 being that of
Giotto’s ‘Two Apostles’.
» Panoramic view
When they nearly reached the top of the great West Hill the clocks in the
town struck eight. Each gave a start at the notes, and, walking onward yet a
few steps, they reached the first milestone, standing whitely on the green
30 margin of the grass, and backed by the down, which here was open to the
f English School, Poster road. [...]
advertising Lyman H. Against these far stretches of country rose, in front of the other city
Howe’s ‘High Class edifices, a large red-brick building, with level gray roofs, and rows of short E21
Moving Pictures’, 19th
century, Private Collection
barred windows bespeaking captivity, the whole contrasting greatly by its
Barbara Singer. 35 formalism with the quaint10 irregularities of the Gothic erections.
» Wide-panoramic view
It was somewhat disguised from the road in
passing it by yews and evergreen oaks, but it
was visible enough up here. The wicket from
which the pair had lately emerged was in the
40 wall of this structure. From the middle of the
building an ugly flat-topped octagonal tower
ascended against the east horizon, and
viewed from this spot, on its shady side and
against the light, it seemed the one blot11 on
45 the city’s beauty. Yet it was with this blot, and
not with the beauty, that the two gazers were
concerned.
» Zooming-in
Upon the cornice of the tower a tall staff was
fixed. Their eyes were riveted on it. A few
50 minutes after the hour had struck something
moved slowly up the staff, and extended itself
upon the breeze. It was a black flag.
(T. Hardy, Tess of the D’Urbervilles)

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