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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE Running Head: SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND

Running Head: SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND LANGUAGES

OUMH1203

ENGLISH FOR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

ASSIGNMENT TITLE : SMS (SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE) IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

Name : Mohd Hussain bin Abdullah Matric number : 800717126061001 NRIC : 800717-12-6061 Telephone number : 014-3343554 E-mail address : mdhussainabdullah@gmail.com

Tutor’s name : Dr. Juliana Othman Learning Centre : Petaling Jaya

Semester : May 2010

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

Abstract

Abbreviation, emoticons, code-mixing, newly created words in short message service usage

increasing tremendously. Some people are worried this will corrupt our language (bahasa

melayu). This phenomena caused by-product limitation (multiple letter assigned to a dozen of

mobile phone) and due to the pressure of reducing communicaton latency. Some references from

aforesaid research was took to collect related data. An SMS guideline in form of pamphlet pub-

lished by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka to reflect with this matter. The pamphlet listed more than

200 words of SMS language because too much concern regarding usage of uncontrolled SMS

language. Since too little information about SMS can corrupt cellular phone user languages, an

simple survey questionnaire were distributed to chosen group of volunteers. Then finding from

survey been concluded as an final result.

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

ABSTRACT

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ii

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

iii

1. INTRODUCTION

1

2. RELATED RESEARCH

1

3. METHODOLOGY

7

3.1 Data Collection

7

4. RESEARCH FINDING

9

5. CONCLUSION

10

REFERENCES

11

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Page

Table 3.1

8

Table 3.2

8

Figure 1

3

Figure 2

5

Figure 3

6

Figure 4

9

Figure 5

10

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

1. Introduction

‘oxox’ officially not accepted as one word. However ‘oxox’ 6acceptable abbreviation used in Short Messaging Service (SMS) by cellular phone user. Using ‘oxox’ in SMS will translated as ‘hugs and kisses’ Text Messaging (2010). The abbreviation, newly created words, code- switching, code-mixing and emoticons phenomenon in SMS has been increasing tremendously. Some people are worried this phenomenon will corrupting our national language (Bahasa Melayu).

According to article from Wikipedia SMS (2010), SMS is the text communication service component of mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between mobile phone devices. In general, SMS are understood as short text and read on mobile phone screen Ainin Sulaiman & Ali Hussein Saleh

Zolait (2010). The character are limited to 160 and later became the eventual size for regular SMS, Finn Trosby (2004). The SMS had been developed in the United Kingdom in late 1980. After well developed, first SMS successfully sent from Neil Papworth of Sema Group (now Airwide Solutions) using a personal computer to Richard Jarvis of Vodafone using an Orbitel

901 handset. The text of the message was “Happy Christmas” SMS (2010).

In this paper, I present an review of SMS impact to our Bahasa Melayu. I believe SMS should benefit mobile phone user which were rather than corrupting the language. Based on aforesaid research, the study did not able to correlate whether SMS language had affected language skill of SMS user. The research entitled An Exploratory Investigation into The Relationship Between

Text Messaging and Spelling were made specifically to determine whether SMS has affected the student language. An survey questionnaire distributed to collect required data. The collection of data then sorted out to be used in conclusion. This is important to elucidate the rationale why SMS is not corrupting our Bahasa Melayu language.

2. Related Research

Few research about the effect of SMS language to mobile phone user language available. However only few research which truly related for this review were available. Some words from Bahasa Melayu classic also gave for reference. Then explanation of the SMS impact will be followed by distributed questionnaires to randomly chosen people. All this will be concluded and to be explain the rationale behind the SMS impact.

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

An research article from Donita Massengill Shaw, Carolyn Carlson & Mickey Waxman (2007) looked over eighty-six students. Over 90% of group students within 18-19 years old involved. Those involved had been informed about the research objective and voluntarily to participate it. Data been collected in two format which need students to complete questionnaire and standardized spelling test which contained 77 words. Through the research, they made an correlation from participants frequencies wrote text messages, the length of time been spent and students self-perception of their spelling ability. The data been collected and the conclusion been made. They agreed which no significant relationship between text messages and students language skill were found from their research.

Based on the book titled Sejarah Bahasa Melayu by Abdul Rashid Melebek and Amat Juhari Moain (2006) listed few words in Bahasa Melayu classic which used affix and phoneme. The example phoneme like ‘w’ have similar phoneme ‘b’ in Bahasa Melayu modern. This can be seen from the following words:

wulan

=

bulan

mamawa

=

membawa

sariwu

=

seribu

wanyaknya

=

banyaknya

marwuat

=

berbuat

wanua

=

benua

While phoneme ‘m’ in Bahasa Melayu classic have similarity with ‘ng’ in Bahasa Melayu modern. The example words as followed:

yam

=

yang

datam

=

datang

The prefix ‘man’ in Bahasa Melayu classic have similarity with ‘men’ in Bahasa Melayu modern. This can be proven like:

mangalap

=

mengelap

mamawa

=

membawa

The above explanation has shown the development Bahasa Melayu. The changes made to be adapted as and accepted to standardize national languages. As changes made to fit new

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

situations, it then accepted and completely has no language corrupting issue been heard.

That adaptation sharing similar process with SMS language. The existence of SMS abbreviations, substituted word, emoticons are part of form free expression, Philippines Declares War On Trendy Cyber Slang (2010). It should accepted and supposed to adapted as part of well developed era.

Based on the article Text Messaging (2010), quoted “ Because typing text into a telephone keypad was cumbersome and the number of characters in a text message was limited, a form of shorthand evolved, especially among young people. ” This article should then be understood why such shorten text, abbreviation, emoticons, code-switching and code-mixing exist. The article also listed some text messaging acronyms and for English languages which used in SMS activity.

2G2BT

Too good to be true Tomorrow All the best Best friends forever Be right back By the way Consider it done Call (see) you later

L8R G8R LOL LTS LUWAMH MIA NBD NSFW OMG OTOH oxox PBEM PVP QOTD ROFL SHID SHOF SRO THX or TX TMI TTFN TWIMC UR WYSIWUG YYSSW zzz

See you later alligator Laughed out loud/ Lots of luck Laughing to self Love you with all my heart Missing in action No big deal Not safe for work Oh my God

2MORO

ATB

BFF

BRB

BTW

CID

CUL8R

CU 2MORO See you tomorrow

On the

other hand

DHYB

Don't hold your breath Do it yourself Estimated time of travel Easy Falling on the floor laughing For your information Hug and kiss Hanging my head in shame Hope this help If I remember correctly In my humble opinion If you say so Just kidding Just my 2 cents worth Kiss on the lips Know what I mean?

Hugs and kisses Play by email Player versus player Quote of the day Rolling on the floor laughing Slaps head in disgust Sense of humour failure Standing room only Thanks Too much information Ta ta for now To whom it may concern You are What you see is what you get Yeah, yeah, sure, sure, whatever Sleeping, bored, tired

DIY

ETA

EZ

FOFL

FYI

H&K

HHIS

HTH

IIRC

IMHO

IYSS

J/K

JM2C

KOTL

KWIM

Figure 1 : Some English words with suggested acronym to be used in SMS applications.

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

Typing ‘LOL’ take less than three second but ‘Laughed Out Loud’ surely accomplished above

that. Why waste time to type word with full letter when shorten up word deliver same meaning?

More words should fit enough to send long text message. I believe typing a single correct letter

should take three or more taps due to multiple letter assigned to each number button on keypad.

This painstaking task accomplished with one or two finger of cellular phone user. Rather than

send cumbersome of full letter text messages, abbreviated words, emoticons should simplified

the SMS typing task. The abbreviated words phenomenon are should be best to SMS function

rather than identified as corrupting languages.

Due to uncontrolled usage of SMS languages, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) has conducted

an seminar entitled ‘Seminar Penyelidikan: Perkembangan dan Pengaruh SMS Terhadap

Bahasa Melayu’ which were held on 19 th April 2005. DBP been suggested to publish an usage

guideline to standardize the SMS languages in Bahasa Melayu. An pamphlet had published from

DBP to reflect with SMS languages usage especially when involved with official matter.

“Risalah ini diharapkan dapat dijadikan panduan dalam penulisan SMS yang standard

terutamanya untuk SMS yang digunakan dalam situasi atau urusan rasmi (seperti untuk

menyampaikan maklumat rasmi kepada pihak tertentu, baik kerajaan mahupun swasta).” 1

The pamphlet which entitled ‘Panduan Singkatan Khidmat Pesanan Ringkas (SMS) Bahasa

Melayu’ (2008) had divide SMS to three main group which were ‘singkatan nama khas’,

‘singkatan umum’ and ‘singkatan kata serapan’. ‘Singkatan nama khas’ then divided to six styles

of writing method. While ‘singkatan umum’ which had eleven ways of writing method.

‘Singkatan kata serapan’ are absorbed words from Arab languages. It’s had two types of

abbreviations.

Based on the published pamphlet, symbol also can be used for SMS writing. It listed seventeen

symbol for the SMS purpose. Whereas emoticon also been applied in SMS. The applications for

showing whining face or the feeling of SMS sender. Semantics aspect also noted like

homograph, synonym and certain symbol with more than one meaning.

The following were few of words to be used for the purpose of SMS languages in Bahasa

Melayu which took from the pamphlet.

1 Panduan Singkatan Khidmat Pesanan Ringkas (SMS) Bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka. 2008. p. vii

 

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

 

1. Singkatan Nama Khas

 

Perkataan

Singkatan

Perkataan

Singkatan

Abdul Ahli Mangku Negara Akhbar Dalam Darjah Allahyarham Allahyarhamah

Abd (Abd Rahman) AMN ADD A.yarham atau A.yhm A.yarhamah atau A.yhmh ASB ASN AS AT AA

Gabungan Pelajar-Pelajar Melayu Semenanjung Gunung Hajah Haji Hijrah Hospital

GPMS G (G Kinabalu) Hjh (Hjh Zaiton) Hj (Hj Zainal) H Hosp (Hosp Tawakkal)

Amanah Saham Bumiputera

Amanah

Saham Nasional

Amerika Syarikat Asia Tenggara Asia-Afrika Bachelor of Science (Sarjana Muda Sains) Badan Pencegah Rasuah Barat Laut Batang Batu Belanda Brigedier Bukit Bursa Saham Kuala Lumpur Dasar Ekonomi Baru Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur Dewan Perniagaan dan Perusahaan Melayu Malaysia Doktor Duli Yang Maha Mulia Encik Fahrenheit Februari Gabungan Pelajar-Pelajar Islam Malaysia

Inggeris Institut Institut Jantung Negara Institut Kemahiran MARA Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia

Ing Inst (Inst Aminudin Baki) IJN IKM

BSc BPR BL Btg (Btg Berjuntai) B (B Pahat) atau Bt (Bt 3, ShahAlam) Bld Brig (Brig-Jen = Brigedier-Jeneral) Bkt (Bkt Cina) BSKL DEB DBP DBKL

ITNM

Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli JHEOA

Jabatan Kerja Raya JKR

Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara

JPN

Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan Jabatan Perdana Menteri Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam

JPJ

JPM

JPA

Jaksa Pendamai JP

Jalan Januari Jawatankuasa Kemajuan Kampung

Jln (Jln Raja Laut) Jan

JKK

DPPMM Dr (Dr Zamri) DYMM En (En Syazwan) F Feb

Jawatankuasa Olimpik Antarabangsa JOA Johan Mangku Negara JMN

Johan Setia Mahkota JSM

Johor Bahru

JB Kg (Kg Baru) Kapt (Kapt Zamri)

Kampung

 

Kapten

GPIM

Keluaran Dalam Negara Kasar KDNK

Figure 2 : Some Bahasa Melayu in ‘Singkatan Nama Khas’ words which had been abbreviated for the purpose of SMS application. ‘Perkataan’ for the full letter of word and ‘Singkatan’ for used in SMS abbreviation.

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2. Singkatan Umum

Perkataan

Singkatan

Perkataan

Singkatan

adik alaihissalam assalamualaikum atas atas nama awak awal ayah ayam bagi bahagian bahasa baju balak bangun bapak batang berat bila bilangan binti bodoh bukan buku bulan dalam dan lain-lain dan sebagainya dan seterusnya dapat dari daripada

adk atau dik as askm ats a.n awk awl ayh aym bg bhg bhs bj blk bgn bpk atau pak btg brt bl bil. bt bdh bkn bk bln dlm dll dsb dst dpt dr drpd

datang datuk dekat dengan dengar depan duduk dulu electronic mail (mel elektronik) gigabait gram halaman halang hari hari bulan hektogram (100 gram) hektometer hidup hospital inci ini institut itu jadi jalan jangan jawatankuasa (ahli jawatankuasa) kad pengenalan kampung kapal kasih kawan

dtg tuk dkt dgn dgr dpn ddk dl e-mel gb gm hlm atau hal. hlg hr hb hg hm hdp hosp in ni inst tu jd jln jgn jk (ajk) kp kg kpl ksh kwn

Figure 3 : Some Bahasa Melayu words for ‘Singkatan Umum’ which had been abbreviated for the purpose of SMS application. ‘Perkataan’ for the full letter of word and ‘Singkatan’ for used in SMS abbreviation.

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SMS IS CORRUPTING OUR LANGUAGE

3. Methodology

Some survey based on simple questionnaire are distributed to chosen group of peoples. It conducted over four weeks of period with using self-distrubution method. The method was chosen to enable quick, inexpensive, efficient and accurate means of collecting required datas. Distrubuted questionnaires were based on Hand Phone User Survey 2008 data. It stated the highest number largely comes from ‘20-49’ age group which covered more than 60% of mobile phone user in Malaysia. Selangor becomes largest user which contributes 22% to the statistic. While SMS usage rate showed 50.7% reported an average 5 SMS per day Hand Phone User Survey (2008).

Thirty set of survey questionnaire papers were collected to gathered data. The participants had been informed about the purpose of survey. Participants were asked to complete four section of survey questionnaire paper. Section A was designed to gather general background of volunteers. This are to analyze between volunteer typical age group, gender, ethnic, working status and their text messaging behavior. Section B to determine their SMS activities by circling one from three appropriate given option. While Section C to determined how participants shorten up given words in three languages version. The versions which required participants to shorten up selected words in mother tongue, Bahasa Melayu and English languages. Last section required respondent to choose between agree and disagree if shortening up words will corrupt respondent language. Whereas optional section are asked their own opinion why they agree or disagree in last section of questionnaire paper.

3.1 Data Collection

Data were collected by provide the volunteer with list of general statement. Section B questions were listed as Table 1 below. The questions created to determined SMS user behavior. Only one from three option of answer to be select by respondent. Section C listed seven general sentences which required the participants to shorten it on their own style. Shorten up words in mother tongue languages would relate SMS user with rates of frequency using abbreviated words. Section D required respondent to agree or disagree whether SMS will corrupt user languages. Only ‘yes’ and ‘no’ option were given to respondent.

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Table 3.1. List of questions in Section B for survey questionnaire.

1

Do you have a phone (mobile phone)?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

2

Do you SMS?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

3

When you used SMS, did you shorten up the words, abbreviate the words or chunk the words?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

4

Did you shorten up Bahasa Melayu words in your SMS?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

5

Did you shorten up Mother tongue words in SMS?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

6

Did you shorten up English words in SMS?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

7

Did you SMS in other language(s)?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

8

If Yes, name the language(s)………………………………

9

Did you mix up more than one language in your SMS?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

a.

If Yes, name the language(s)………………………………

10

Will SMS help to revive your mother tongue language?

Yes

No

Not Applicable

Table 3.2. Selected expressions in Section C which required to shorten up by respondent.

Expressions

Mother tongue

Bahasa

English

How are you?

     

Good morning

     

I

will call you

     

Breakfast

     

I

love you

     

Do you want to come with me?

     

He had an accident last night.

     

Section D which required volunteer to circle only one option only.

“Do you think shortening up words in SMS corrupt your language?

Yes

or

No”

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4. Research Finding

From the table above, result for section B of questionnaires were presented by chart. This was

to simplified the viewing method of research finding result. Based on Figure 4, X axis are using

F1, F2, F3 until F10 which represent question number 1, number 2, number 3 until number 10

respectively.

Result of SMS Activities over 30 volunteers in Section B survey questionnaire.

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 F 1 F 2 F 3 F
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
F 1
F 2
F 3
F 4
F 5
F 6
F 7
F 8
F 9
F 10

Yes10 5 0 F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5 F 6 F

No5 0 F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5 F 6 F 7

Not Applicable0 F 1 F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5 F 6 F 7 F

Figure 4 : Result from survey questionnaire paper on Section B. The X axis represent each given statement. Y axis measure the total of respondent whether they choose to said ‘YES’, ‘NO’ or ‘NOT APPLICABLE’ on each statement.

Overview for Section C result are available as per attachment. While overview result from section D were presented in form of pie chart figure. Blue and red colour for ‘yes’ and ‘no’ option respectively. The result found with majority of respondent to choose ‘no’ option.

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Result from 30 participants in Section D of survey questionnaire paper. The question "Do you think shortening up words in SMS corrupt your language?"

2 28
2
28

Yesquestionnaire paper. The question "Do you think shortening up words in SMS corrupt your language?" 2

Noquestionnaire paper. The question "Do you think shortening up words in SMS corrupt your language?" 2

Figure 5 : Result for Section D of survey questionnaire paper. Stated number were represent an each of volunteer.

5. Conclusion

The result from research survey conducted to gather required data. Twenty eight from thirty of

respondents did not agree regarding shortening up words in SMS will corrupt their languages.

From this, I believe SMS not corrupting our language since abbreviation, acronym and

emoticons were intended for SMS activities only. This phenomenon expected to had steady

increase as time goes by, pressure on reducing communication latency, multiple letter assigned

to dozen button on mobile phone keypad and other reason. Although there was no significant

relationship which can be used to relate, more study should be made with more appropriate

approach method. The crucial need to proper method which degree of certainty, possibility or

probability will gave trusted results.

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References

Abdul Rashid Melebek & Amat Juhari Moain. (2006). Sejarah Bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur:

Utusan Publication & Distributor Sdn Bhd.

Ainin Sulaiman & Ali Hussein Saleh Zolait. (2010). International Journal of Technology

Diffusion. Adoption of Short Messaging Service (SMS) in Malaysia. 1(1), 41-51.

Donita Massengill Shaw, Carolyn Carlson & Mickey Waxman. (2007). New England Reading

Association Journal. An Exploratory Investigation into The Relationship Between Text

Messaging and Spelling, 43(1), 57. In ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (OUM Digital

Collection).

Finn Trosby. (2004). Telektronikk. SMS, the strange duckling of GSM, 3. [Online]. Available:

http://www.telenor.com/en/innovation/research/publications/telektronikk/volume/3-

2004.jsp. [2010, June 17].

Malaysia. Bahagian Penyelidikan Bahasa. Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka. (2008). Panduan

Singkatan Khidmat Pesanan Ringkas (SMS) Bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan

Bahasa Dan Pustaka.

Malaysia. Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia. (2008). Hand Phone Users

Survey 2008. Selangor: Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission.

Philippines Declares War On Trendy Cyber Slang. (2010, June19/20). Jakarta Globe.

SMS. (2010). [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS. [2010, June 10].

Text Messaging. (2010). [Online]. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available: http://www.-

britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1099476/text-messaging. [2010, June 18].