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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

Rapid Prototyping Model Coordinate Estimation Using Radial Basis Function.

1 Anantmurty S. Shastry and 2 S.Purushothaman

1 Anantmurty S. Shastry

Research Scholar,

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Vinayaka Missions University,

Salem, Tamilnadu, India

E-Mail: ansshastry@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the methods for getting proper geometric coordinates of a sample object that has to be rapid prototyped. The coordinates of the objects is obtained by using Radial Basis Function (RBF). The training is done with many sample objects. It is expected to have minimum distance traveled by the Rapid prototyping machine when the software follows the geometric coordinates produced by the RBF.

Key words: Rapid Prototyping, Artificial

Neural Network, Radial Basis Function.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a variety of specialized equipment, software and materials capable of using 3D computer aided design (CAD)[5] data input to directly fabricate geometrically complex objects. RP technologies have emerged as a key element of time with their ability to shorten the product design and development process[2]. This highly innovative and cost efficient technology has found applications in automotive, aerospace and medical equipment manufacturing, replacing the commonly used slower and less accurate manual methods of fabricating prototypes[4]. With advances in established technologies, materials and the introduction of new methods, selecting the right RP machine has become much more difficult and is one of the most important decisions to be made when employing any RP technology. This is vital in minimizing built time, cost and achieving optimal accuracy. When

199

2 Dr.S.Purushothaman, Principal ,

Sun College of Engineering and Technology,

Sun Nagar, Erachakulum,

Kanyakumari district-629902,India

E-Mail: dr.s.purushothaman@gmail.com

making this decision, the designers and RP machine operators should consider a number of

different processes and specific constraints. This

may be a difficult and time consuming task.

The RP material flows through an

orifice and comes out in the form of drops. The

size of the drop is depending upon the speed of

the wire comes out and solidification of material.

For

example, 1 mm size of drop is placed in 1

mm

size cube cavity to get the same size of cube

after solidification in fraction of seconds[1]. The

sides of the cube should be flat in all respects. To achieve this focus has been made on a method which can inform that how to make the above things with critical path method (CPM)[6]. Some products have been chosen with their applications, particularly in medical area. By considering all the parameters in developing any kind of object is being able to produce in shorter

time without any difficulty[3].

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Materials

A schematic flow of the proposed work is presented in Figure 1. Rapid Model: It is the end product that has to be rapid prototyped.

Coordinates: There are various Coordinates measured from the RP model either through CMM/Reverse Engineering/existing drawing details.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

Sizes: The length, width /thickness, breadth/height and other profiles are calculated from the coordinates.

RBF: Coordinates and sizes of sample RP models are used as data for training the RBF neural network to obtain final weights that will be used for testing.

Obtain format to meet RP M/c: The outputs of RBF are used as inputs for RP M/c converter where RP model will be developed.

Rp Model
Rp Model

Co ordinates

Input to RBF

Define sizes
Define sizes

Obtain format to meet RP M/c

to RBF Define sizes Obtain format to meet RP M/c Fig.1 Schematic flow 2.2 Methods The

Fig.1 Schematic flow

2.2 Methods

The concept of distance measure is used to associate the input and output pattern values. Radial Basis Functions is capable of producing approximations to an unknown function ‘f’ from a set of input data abscissa. The approximation is produced by passing an input point through a set of basis functions, each of which contains one of the RBF centres, multiplying the result of each function by a coefficient and then summing them linearly.

For each function ‘t’, the approximation to this function is essentially stored in the coefficients and centres of the RBF. These parameters are in no way unique, since for each function ‘t’ being approximated, many combinations of parameter values exist. RBFs have the following mathematical representation:

F(x)

=

c

o

+

N 1

i = 0

c

i

Φ(|| x

R

i

||)

(1)

200

where

c

is

a

vector

containing

the

coefficients of the RBF,

a centres of the RBF, and

R

is

vector

containing

the

φ

is

the

basis

function

or

activation function of the network.

Implementation

Step 1: Apply Radial Basis Function.

No. of Input = 15

No. of Patterns = 6

No. of Centre = 6 Calculate RBF as

RBF = exp (-X)

Calculate Matrix as

G = RBF

A = G T * G

Calculate

B = A -1

Calculate

E = B * G T

Step 2: Calculate the Final Weight.

F = E * D

Step 3: Store the Final Weights in a File.

3. EXPERIMENT SET UP

Six RP models have been considered as examples for testing the RBF network. Each RP model has been labeled with Cartesian coordinates. The models have been developed using CAD software. The models are defined with definite number of points. The distance between points are calculated internally by the program. During training RBF, only the point coordinates are input in the input layer. The

number of centers used is 6. The targets used is

15.

Table 1 presents 6 sample RP models under consideration. Table 2 presents number of points considered in this analysis for each RP model. Table 3a-c presents actual coordinates in mm for each point. The total number of points considered is 15 in each object.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

 

Table 1 Sample RP models

 
   
 
   
   
 
   
 
   
   
 

Table 2 Number of points in the RP model

   

RP

Number of points

 

1

8

2

10

 

3

12

 

4

15

 

5

4

6

5

 

Table 3a Cartesian coordinate

 
 

P1

P2

 

P3

 

P4

 

P5

 

x

 

y

z

x

y

z

 

x

y

z

x

y

z

x

y

z

1

0

 

0

0

50

0

0

 

50

50

0

0

50

50

0

0

50

2

9.08

 

0

0

38.47

0

0

 

47.55

27.95

0

23.77

45.22

0

0

27.95

0

3

12.5

 

0

0

37.5

0

0

 

50

21.65

0

37.5

43.30

0

12.5

43.30

0

4

13.52

 

0

0

32.66

0

0

 

46.19

13.52

0

46.19

32.66

0

32.66

46.19

0

5

0

 

0

0

25

0

0

 

12.5

21.65

0

12.5

7.22

50

x

x

x

6

0

 

0

0

25

0

0

 

25

25

0

0

25

0

12.5

7.22

50

 

4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

The coordinates of the RP models are learnt by RBF. Table 4 presents the outputs of RBF for all the 6 RP models for the points p1, p2. Similar close outputs are obtained for points p3, p4, p5, p6, p7, p8, p9, p10, p11, p12, p13, p14, p15

the actual implementation, the RP model coordinates are given as inputs to the RBF to obtain the actual coordinates that helps in RP modeling.

Conclusion: This work has made an attempt to train RBF with RP model coordinates. During

 

201

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

 

Table 3b Cartesian coordinate

 
   

P6

 

P7

 

P8

 

P9

 

P10

 

x

y

z

x

y

z

 

x

 

y

z

 

x

 

y

z

 

x

y

z

1

50

0

50

50

50

50

 

0

 

50

50

 

x

 

x

x

 

x

x

x

2

9.08

0

50

38.47

0

50

 

47.55

27.95

50

 

23.77

45.22

50

 

0

27.95

50

3

0

21.65

0

12.5

0

50

 

37.5

 

0

50

 

50

21.65

50

37.5

43.30

50

4

13.52

46.19

0

0

32.66

0

 

0

13.52

0

 

13.52

 

0

50

32.66

0

50

5

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

x

 

x

 

x

x

 

x

x

x

6

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

x

 

x

 

x

x

 

x

x

x

 

Table 3c Cartesian coordinate

 
   

P11

 

P12

 

P13

 

P14

 

P15

 

x

y

z

x

y

 

z

x

y

 

z

x

y

 

z

x

y

z

1

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

2

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

3

12.5

43.30

50

0

21.65

50

 

x

 

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

4

46.19

13.52

50

46.19

32.66

50

32.66

46.19

50

13.52

46.19

50

0

32.66

50

5

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

x

x

x

6

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

x

x

x

X

represents no coordinates

 
 

REFERENCES

 

[4] Pham, D.T., and Pham, P.T. N. Computational

 

[1]

Rao, P.N., Lerner, Y. and Kouznetsov, V. Rapid

 

Intelligence for Manufacturing. Computational Intelligence in Manufacturing Handbook, CRC Press, New York, 2000. Fadel, G.M. and Kirschman, C. “ Accuracy Issues in CAD to RP Translations”, Invited paper to the first Internet conference on Rapid Prototyping, Forwarded to Rapid Prototyping Journal, 1995 Wodziak, J. R., Fadel, G. M. and Kirschman, C. F., “A Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing multiple part placement to reduce build time”, Paper presented at the Fifth International Rapid Prototyping Conference, Dayton OH, 1994, published in the conference proceedings.

Prototyping Applications in Metal Casting.Institution of Engineers Journal, Malaysia. Vol. 64, No.3, 2003, pp.1-7. [2] Pham, D.T. and Dimov, S.S. Rapid Manufacturing: The Technologies & Applications of Rapid Prototyping & Rapid Tooling. Springer- Verlag, London, 2001.Proceedings of The 2006 IJME - INTERTECH Conference [3] Fadel, G.M., and Ganti, R. ”Parametric Based Controller For Rapid Prototyping Applications” Presented at the 1998 Solid Freeform Fabrication Conference, Austin, TX, 1998

 

[5]

202

[6]

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

Table 4 RBF outputs X -coordinate of P1 Y -coordinate of P1 14 1 Target
Table 4 RBF outputs
X -coordinate of P1
Y -coordinate of P1
14
1
Target
Target
0.8
RBF output
RBF output
12
0.6
10
0.4
0.2
8
0
6
-0.2
-0.4
4
-0.6
2
-0.8
0
-1
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
RP model
RP model
Z -coordinate of P1
X -coordinate of P2
1
55
Target
Target
0.8
RBF output
RBF output
50
0.6
45
0.4
0.2
40
0
35
-0.2
-0.4
30
-0.6
25
-0.8
-1
20
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
RP model
RP model
Y -coordinate of P2
Z -coordinate of P2
1
1
Target
Target
0.8
RBF output
0.8
RBF output
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0
0
-0.2
-0.2
-0.4
-0.4
-0.6
-0.6
-0.8
-0.8
-1
-1
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
RP model
RP model
Estimated and target coordinate outputs
Estimated and target coordinate outputs
Estimated and target coordinate outputs
Estimated and target coordinate outputs
Estimated and target coordinate outputs
Estimated and target coordinate outputs

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