0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

11 visualizzazioni6 pagineMar 08, 2011

Neural networks

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

11 visualizzazioni6 pagineNeural networks

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Sei sulla pagina 1di 6

S.Cavalieri

Institute of Informatic and Telecommunications

Viale.A.Doria, 6 Catania 95 125 (ITALY)

email:cavalieri@iit.unict.it, fax:+39 95 338280

Abstract - The paper deals with the problem of performance guarantee an optimal solution to the optimization problem,

optimization of Flexible Manufacturing Systems. As widely they have the evident advantage of low calculating times.

documented in literature, this is a hard task on account of its One of the most important contributions in this field is

computational complexity. For this reason a number of heuristic provided by [3], in which two heuristic algorithms are

techniques are currently available, the best known of which are

based on Event Graphs, which are a particular class of Petri

proposed. Although they feature high percentages of optimal

Nets. The paper proposes a performance optimization technique solutions, some remarks need to be made. One concerns the

which, although it is based on Event Graphs, applies different extremely vague definition of certain conditions surrounding

algorithms than traditional heuristic ones. More specifically, a the optimization problem to be solved. In addition, although

novel neural model is used to solve the optimization problem. the algorithms are heuristic and therefore reduce the set of

The neural model was obtained by making significant changes solutions to be explored, the time required to reach a solution

in a network which is well known in literature: the Hopfield cannot be established a priori, and may range in an interval

network The modifications were made in order to meet the whose upper bound is the time required to calculate an

constraints typical of performance optimization of Flexible

exhaustive solution.

Manufacturing Systems. The aim of the paper is to present the

new neural model and show the performance optimization

The aim of this paper is to present an altemative to

results that can be obtained by using it. The results that will be these heuristic algorithms, which can overcome the limits

presented highlight the goodness of the solution proposed and outlined above. The performance optimization technique

its applicability in the factory automation environment. proposed in the paper is again based on Event Graphs, but

applies different algorithms than traditional ones. In

I. INTRODUCTION particular, a novel neural model is used to solve the

optimization problem. The neural model was obtained by

One of the main goal in the area of the factory making significant changes to the well-known Hopfield

automation is to fully exploit the resources present in a network [4][5][6]. The modifications were made in order to

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) [I], to optimize its meet the constraints typical of performance optimization of

productivity (or performance). This can be reached in Flexible Manufacturing Systems.

different way such as, for example, scheduling of the The paper will present the new neural model and its

sequence of activities performed by each resource or fixing use in the FMS performance optimization. Then, in order to

the number of part types processed simultaneously in each highlight the capacity of the neural approach to solve the

production cycle of the FMS. In the paper it will be assumed problem, some example of performance optimization of

that the processing sequence for each resource is always FMSs are shown.

fixed, while the number of parts present in the production

cycle can be varied. Too low a number of parts processed 1I.EVENT GRAPHS-BASED FMS PERFORMANCE

underexploits the available resources, while too high a OPTIMIZATION METHODOLOGY

number causes conflicts which slow down the productivity of

the system. The aim to be reached is to determine a number The class of Petri Nets denoted as Event Graphs is

of parts to be processed such as to optimize the productivity particularly suitable to represent Flexible Manufacturing

of the FMS as a whole. This problem is generally Systems. An Event Graph is a Petri Net in which each place

characterized by very high calculation time needed to obtain has one input transition and one output transition [2]. Each

a feasible solution. For example, literature provides well- transition can have an associated firing time, in which case

known techniques for performance optimization based on the the Event Graph is called timed. The presence of a token in a

use of a particular class of Petri Nets, called Event Graphs place enables firing of the output transition for that place.

[ 2 ] . In this case the FMS performance optimization is a Firing may occur in null time, if the transition is immediate,

combinatorics task of a non-polynomial dimension (i.e. an or in the time associated with the transition if it is timed. An

NP-hard problem). Event Graph is said to be strongly connected if there is a

There are numerous contributions in literature path joining any pair of places. An elementary circuit in a

presenting heuristic algorithms for performance strongly connected Event Graph is a direct path that goes

optimization. Although these algorithms do not always

~

from one place back to the same place, while no other place of the need for a new neural model, the following subsection

is repeated. presents the original Hopfield model [4][5][6] on which the

Modelling an FMS by Event Graph is quite simple new model is based. Then, the limits of the original Hopfield

and consists of representing each FMS resource (buffer, model and the capacity of the new model to overcome them,

machine, robot, etc.) by a place, and the activity performed i d 1 be pointed out.

by the resource by a transition, to which the processing time

of the activity is associated. AThe Hopfield Neural Network

The Event Graph can be easily used to the

performance evaluation and optimization of the FMS. The The Hopfield neural model [4][5][6] is very suitable

optimization problem of a FMS modelled by a strongly to solve optimization problems. This network was first used

connected Event Graph, can be formulated as minimizing the to solve the well-known Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP)

quantity: [7], and then its use was extended to a large number of

optimization problems.

n The Hopfield-type model is based on a single-layer

C U I 'XI (1) architecture of neurons, the outputs of which are fed back

i=l

where U, are the p-invariants of the Event Graph [2] and xi towards the inputs. Fig.1 shows a Hopfield network with n

represents the number of tokens in place Pi, under the neurons.

condition :

M(y 1 2 a . P(Y) (2)

where a is the performance required, M(y) indicates the

number of tokens in the elementary circuit y of the strongly

connected Event Graph, and p(y) is the sum of all the firing 01

Condition ( 2 ) may not be the only one. In many cases, one O2

machine may carry out several operations sequentially. The

corresponding Event Graph will feature particular

elementary circuits called command circuits for each

machine. Each command circuit specifies the sequencing of

Oi

the jobs on the corresponding machines. Indicating as Tc the

set of command circuits, the total number of tokens, M(yC),

'd'y%T, has to be equal to 1. More than one token in a

command circuit would, in fact, correspond to the impossible

situation in which the relative machine is performing two O"

jobs at the same time. When there are command circuits in

Fig. 1 - Hopfield Neural Model

an Event Graph, ( 2 ) therefore becomes:

As can be seen, the i-th neuron (which is drawn by a

circle) receives the outputs of the other neurons and an

external bias current Ii, and produces an output Oi. Each

vyc Erc (2")

feedback between the output of the j-th neuron and the input

where T*=T-T,. of the i-th neuron has an associated weight, wij, which

As can be seen from (1),(2') and (27, optimization determines the influence of the j-th neuron on the i-th

of the performance of a manufacturing system can be neuron. In the i-th neuron, the weighted sum of the outputs

achieved by solving an integer linear problem where at least Oi and the external bias current Ii, produces a signal Ui given

as many constraints as the elementary circuits in the graph by:

must be considered. This represents the major drawback of

such an approach, since it requires a great deal of time to

find a solution. In [3] two heuristic algorithms to reduce this

computational complexity are proposed. In the following

sections the author presents an alternative strategy for FMS where 't is a user-selected decay constant. The output of the

performance optimization, based on the use of a novel neural i-th neuron, Oi is linked to Ui, by a sigmoidal monotonic

model. increasing function. In the paper the following function is

used:

111. A NEW HOPFIELD-TYPE NEURAL MODEL

1+ tanh(Q)

The aim of this section is to describe the novel

neural model used to solve the FMS performance

optimization problem. In order to gain better understanding

1479

~

where the p-armeter uo controls the effective steepness of the A strategy by which such problems can be solved

function: the lower it is, the steeper the function. features the possibility of dynamically modifying the bias

Hopfield [6] showed that if the weights matrix current values in order to meet all the surrounding

W=[wij] is symmetrical and if the function gi is a steep-like conditions. A neural model which can achieve this aim is

curve (i.e.uo+O), the dynamics of the neurons described by shown in Fig.2. Comparison between Figs. 1 and 2 highlights

(3) follow a gradient descendent of the quadratic energy the modifications made to the model originally proposed in

function, also known as the Lyapunov function: [51[61.

minima of the energy h c t i o n (4) coincide at the corners of

the hypercube defined by OI€ {0,1}.

These theoretical results allow a solution to a

particular optimization problem to be obtained fiom the

stabilized outputs of the Hopfield network, by the following

method. First the surrounding conditions of the optimization

condition are identified and expressed in the form of the

energy function given by (4). Each term of the energy

function relating to a surrounding condition is multiplied by

a real coefficient which weights the influence of the

condition on the solution to the problem. By comparison

with function (4) the weights and bias currents are expressed Bias Current Level Neuron Level

as a function of the coefficients by which the surrounding

conditions are multiplied. If the weights matrix obtained is Fig.2-Neural Model Proposed

symmetrical and the function gi is steep-like, the stable

output of the Hopfield model obtained by imposing the Two different levels can be seen in the model: the

weights and biases previously calculated corresponds to a Bias Current Level and the Neuron Level. Both levels

minimum of (4) and thus to a solution to the problem. receive the fed-back neural outputs. The bias current level

processes the outputs received and on the basis of them

B.Description of the Novel Neural Model modifies the bias currents according to the conditions

surrounding the problem to be solved. The neuron level, on

As shown in the previous subsection, the Hopfield the other hand, is the same as the one in the Hopfield model

model features the presence of a constant bias current presented in [5][6]. Processing at the two levels is in cascade

throughout the neural evolution. The bias current plays an as it is first necessary to modi@ the bias currents for each

essential role in the dynamics of the neural model since, as neuron and then calculate the output.

can be seen in (3), it determines the value of each neuron. A During evolution of the neural network the bias

bias value close to zero causes the output of the i-th neuron currents have to be updated according to the output values. If

to assume a value of 1 or 0, depending exclusively on the the neural solution meets all the surrounding conditions at

that iteration, the bias currents are left unaltered. If, on the

weighted sum 2 wij. 0,. A very positive bias current value other hand, one or more conditions are not met, the bias

j current for each neuron which does not meet the conditiods

determines an output value close to 1. By virtue of its role, is modified in such a way as to force the neural solution to

the bias current is always linked to a surrounding condition, meet the surrounding conditiods.

so that the output value of each neuron meets the condition.

The considerations made so far show that, in the 1V.USING THE NOVEL NEURAL NETWORK TO FMS

version proposed in [5][6], the Hopfield neural model can PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

only be applied to solve problems in which all the

surrounding conditions feature a fixed target. In such cases The aim of this section is to show how the novel

an appropriate bias current value ensures the validity of the neural network-based approach is used to optimize the

solution. If, however, a problem features at least one performance of an FMS. The neural solution to the FMS

surrounding condition which does not rigidly constrain the performance optimization is achieved through two different

neural solution but allows it to vary within a range of steps: modelling the FMS by the novel neural network and

possible values, the neural model described above does not link the network to the surrounding condition of the problem.

provide a valid solution. This kind of problem cannot be The two following subsections will give a detailed

solved by recourse to constant bias currents, which description of these two steps. In these sections it will be

drastically limit the variability of the neural solution. shown that the Hopfield model presented in Section 1II.A is

not capable of solving the performance optimization

1480

problem, a solution to which is, however, possible using the

novel model presented in Section 1II.B. n n n

minimize ( c u i .xi)2=minimize ( c c u i 'xi 'U, .x,)

i=l i=lj=1

A. Modelling the FMS by the Novel Neural Network

This condition can be expressed in the following term of the

Lyapunov energy function:

The first step in the strategy proposed is

representing the FMS using the novel neural network. This is

achieved by mapping the Event Graph modelling the FMS -

A. ( ~ ~ u l . o l . u ~

A . o ~ ) = - - . ( ~ ~ u(~

5 )~ u ~ ~ o l ~ o j )

with the neural model, by making each place P, in the Event 2 i j 1

2 i j

Graph correspond to the neuron 0, in the novel neural based on the consideration that each x, corresponds to O,,

network. The value (1 or 0) of the output of each neuron 0, according to the mapping between the Event Graph and the

models the presence or absence of a token in the place P, neural model, as stated in the previous section. By

modelled: if the output is 1 the place corresponding to the comparison of (5) with (4), it is possible calculate the

neuron contains a token, if it is 0 the place contains no contribution to the bias currents and weights of this term:

tokens. It is clear that the proposed coding of the neural

output is based on the necessary assumption that each place wIJ = -A.u, . u J 7I, = 0

in the Event Graph contains at most one token. In general The energy function term relating to the validity of

there is no limit in an Event Graph to the maximum number tlhe solution has to impose a certain number of tokens in each

of tokens in a place. Such a limit can only be imposed by the elementary circuit of the Petri net. The corresponding term

particular features of the FMS modelled (e.g. if a place of the Lyapunov Function has to be of the following kind:

models a buffer, the maximum number of tokens in the place

is equal to the real capacity of the buffer). In [3] it is Constant

demonstrated that it is always possible to modify a strongly

2

.c( Coi-M(y>>2 (6)

y i:Piey

connected graph into an equivalent one in which each place

possesses at most one token. The proposed mapping between This term is, in fact, minimized when the number of

the Event Graph and the novel Hopfield-based Neural activated neurons in each circuit y is equal to M(y). The

Network can occur under the hypothesis of the original Event value of this number is given by conditions (2') and (2").

Graph having been converted into an equivalent one in which Condition (2') establishes that, in all the circuits y*Er*, this

each place contains at most one token. number has to be at least equal to [ a .p(y)l, while condition

(2") states that in all the circuits ycErc, M(yC)is strictly 1.

B.FMS Performance Optimization by the Novel Neural

Eielow we will illustrate the expressions of the energy

Network

function terms relating to conditions (2') and (2").

As said above, ( 6 ) establishes that there are M(y)

As already mentioned in Section III.A, solving any

tokens in each circuit. Therefore the following Lyapunov

optimization problem by means of the Hopfield network is

energy function term:

generally achieved through a number of steps. First, all the

constraints of the optimization problem are expressed in

terms of Lyapunov energy functions. Then, the weights and

bias currents of the Hopfield network are obtained according

to the surrounding conditions, so that it can provide a establishes that in each circuit y*ET* there is a number of

solution to the problem. These steps are examined in greater

detail below, with reference to the surrounding conditions . Comparing (7) with (4) we get

(1),(2') and (2") which, as mentioned previously, are always

present in the problem of FMS performance optimization. tlne following weights and bias current values:

The expression of the energy function linked to the

problem of FMS performance optimization comprises two

terms respectively relating to the quality and validity of the

solution. The term relating to quality has to be based on

condition (1) while the term related to the validity has to take

into account conditions (2') and (2"). The expressions of

these two terms will be formulated below. Each term will be

multiplied by a real coefficient (as will be seen, by the where ny* represents the number of circuits in the set I-* to

coefficients A,B and C) which weights the influence of each which the places with index i and j simultaneously belong.

term on the others. As can be seen, the bias current assumes a constant value,

The term relating to the quality of the solution can fixing the number of tokens in each non-command

be obtained by considering that condition (1) can also be

expressed in the following form: elementary circuit as [a.p(y*)]. For this reason, the bias

current value given by (8") might make the solution non-

1481

~

some circuits in which the number of tokens is strictly 6B- * / a . p ( y * ) ] . The value 6B represents a fkaction of

Y :P,e/

greaterthan [ a . p ( y * ) ] . B. In this way, the increment of the bias current forces the

These considerations show that the original network to satisfy the condition (2').

Hopfield model presented in Section 1II.A is not capable of Condition (2'7, relating to imposing a single token

solving the problem being dealt with here. The novel model in each of the command circuits, corresponds to the

presented in Section III.B, on the other hand, is capable of Lyapunov function term:

reaching this goal. It is, in fact, characterized by variability

in the bias currents; they can be varied during the neural

iteration in order to cause the number of tokens in each

r *1

circuit y*ET*, to be no less than a . p ( y ) . In this way the

neural network is hee to establish the number of tokens in

where the first sum is extended to VycETc. For each yCETc,

the second sum is extended to YOi such that the

corresponding place Pi in the Event Graph belongs to yc. As

each circuit y*E;T*, this respecting the validity of the can be seen this condition imposes a single token in each

solution. In other words, the number of tokens in each circuit command circuit yc. Imposing a single token in each

is not determined a priori but is varied (always, of course, command circuit guarantees the validity of the solution. The

being greater than or equal to a minimum value) so as to contribution to the bias currents and weights of (9) becomes:

guarantee the validity of the solution.

Taking into account (8') and (87, the modification w..- =C.n , I,+ = C.n

1J y'1.J YCt

according to the algorithm shown in Fig.3. represents the number of circuits in the set Tc to

where nyc3,J

which the places with index i and j simultaneously belong,

and nY: represents the number of circuits in the set Tc to

contribution of (8') to the weights is calculated;

contribution of (8") to the bias currents is set to zero; which the place with index i belongs. In this case the

repeat contribution of (2") to the bias current is constant and does

for (each neural iteration) do not have to be modified at each iteration.

begin

for i:=l to n do V.EXAMPLES OF PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF

if (Oi=O) then FMS BY THE NEURAL APPROACH

for Vy*: P i q * do

The aim of this section is to give the results of FMS

performance optimization obtained using the neural

approach presented above. Two examples will be considered

if ( 1 oj <[a.p(y*)/) then which are well known in literature and refer to a Job-Shop

j:Pj cy * [3] and a deterministic Kanban system [ 8 ] .

The Event Graph shown in Fig.4 models a job-shop

composed of four machines M1, M2, M3 e M4, which can

manufacture three types of parts denoted by RI, R2 and R3.

calculate the output of each neuron according to The production mix is 25%, 25% and 50% for RI, R2 and

the new bias currents; R3, respectively. The production processes of the part-types

end are R1 = (M1(1), M2(1), M3(3), M4(3)}, R2 = {M1(1),

until (the neural output is stable); M4(1), M3(2)}, R3 = (M1(1), M2(2), M4(1)}, where the

number in brackets specifies the processing time for each

machine. As can be seen, in the model there are four

Fig.3-Algorithm proposed for the Updating of the Bias Currents command circuits relating to the four machines: rC={yCI, yC2,

yc3,yc4} where yc1=(P13, P14, P15, P16), yc2=(P17, P18,

The algorithm can be explained as follows. At each P19), yc3 = (P20, P21), and yc4=(P22, P23, P24, P25).

neural iterationall the non-activated neurons are considered Table I refers to the solution of job-shop

(i.e.the neurons for which Oi=O holds). For each of them all performance optimization problem provided by the neural

the circuits y* to which the corresponding place belongs are strategy proposed in the previous sections, considering a

considered (i.e. the condition P i q * holds). The number of value of a=1/6 and the following values of U, in (5): u,=l Vi

tokens for each of these circuits is counted. If it is less than E [0,12] and u,=0 Vi E [ 13,251. For each place of the Event

Graph, the table shows the distribution of the tokens

1a * 1

e p(y ) , i.e. condition (2') is not met for that circuit, the

bias current of the neuron being considered is increased by

determined by the neural network. In particular only the

places containing one token are shown. The places not

1482

shown in Table I contain no token. As can be verified, this assuming a=1/3 and values of ui=l Vi~[O,l7]and ui=O Vi€

solution produces the best performance for the whole system. [18,23].

TABLE ll

RI OPTIMAL SOLUTION BY THE NEURAL APPROACH

R2 VI.CONCLUSIONS

FMS performance optimization. It is based on the modelling

of an FMS by a novel neural model. The solution provided

R3

by the neural network determines the FMS configuration

which maximizes performance. From tests carried out on a

large number of examples, it was found that the quality of the

neural solution is always high, as the solution reached is

R3 always optimal or close to optimal.

VI1.REFERENCES

Manufacturing", Prentice-Hall International Editors,

TABLE I 1990.

OPTIMAL SOLUTION BY THE NEURAL APPROACH [2] R.Zurawski, "Petri Nets and Industrial Application: A

Tutorial", IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics,

I P2 1 P3 [ P4 I P5 I P8 I P11 [ P13 [ P17 I P20 I P23

December 1994, vo1.41, n.6, pp.567-583.

[3] S.Laftit, J.M.Proth, X.L.Xie, "Optimization of Invariant

Criteria for Event Graphs", IEEE Transaction on

The Event Graph in Fig.5 shows a Kanban system Automatic Control, vo1.37, n0.5, May 1992, pp.547-555.

composed of a production line with 3 machines, MI, M2 e R.Hecht-Nielsen, "Neurocomputing", Reading, MA:

M3, which can manufacture two part-types denoted as R1 Addison-Wesley, 1990.

and R2. J.J.Hopfield, "Neural Networks and Physical Systems

with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities",

proceedings National Academy of Sciences, vol. 79,

pp.2554-2558, April 1982.

[6] J.J.Hopfield, "Neurons with Graded Response Have

Collective Computational Properties Like those of two-

state Neurons", proceedings National Academy of

Sciences 81:3088-3092,May 1984.

[7] J.J.Hopfield, D. W.Tank, "Neural Computations of

Decisions in Optimization Problems" Biol.Cybern.,

~01.52,pp. 141-152, 1986.

[SI M.Di Mascolo, Y.Frein, Y.Dallery, R.David, "A Unified

Fig.5-Event Graph Model of a Kanban System Modelling of Kanban Systems using Petri Nets",

with three Machines and 2 Part Types.

Technical Report no.89-06, LAG.Grenoble, France,

September 1989.

The manufacturing times of one part of R1-type on

M1, M2 and M3 are 1,2 and 1 respectively. The

manufacturing times of one part of R2-type on M1, M2 and

M3 are 1,l and 2 respectively. The parts enter the production

line according to the sequence R17R2,R1,R2,... In the model

shown in Fig.5, there are three command circuits for the

three machines: TC={ycl,yc2,yc3}where ycI=(P19,P20),

yc2=(P21, P22), and yc3 z(P23, P24).

As above, Table I1 gives the distribution of tokens

corresponding to the best performance for the Kanban

system. It was obtained using the neural approach and