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The best and most elaborate exposition of Richards' theory of value to be found in the VII chapter of The Principles of Literary Criticism. Before
establishing the value of poetry Richards first examines the working of the human mind itself to find out a general psychological theory of value.|

ae describes the human mind as a system of impulses. There are conflicting instincts and desires and wants²or appetencies as Richards calls them in the human

mind. These conflicting instincts cause uneasiness to the human mind, and the human mind wants to achieve an order or systematization of these conflicting

instincts and emotions. Thehuman mind possessess an inherent power of putting conflicting instinces of impulses into a systematic order to which it strives for.

Each new experience, however, disturbs the whole system once again, and again the human mind has to readjust different impulses in a new way to achieve the

desired system or poise. But since the impulses and instincts are conflicting and different, a system can be achieved only when some impulses are satisfied and

some give way to others²in order words are frustrated. The ideal state will be when all the impulses are fully satisfied, but since this is rarely possible, then next

best state is when the maximum number of impulses are satisfied and the minimum are frustrated. The value of art or poetry (and by poetry Richards means all

imaginative literature) is that it enables the mind to achieve this poise or system more quickly and completely than it could do otherwise. ©n short, art is a means

whereby we can gain emotional balance, mental equilibrium, peace and rest. What is true of the individual is also true of society. A society in which arts are

freely cultivated, exhibits better mental and emotional tranquillity than the societies in which arts are not valued.|
The conduct of human life is throughout an attempt to organise impulses. The mind experiences a state of poise only when they organise to follow a
common course. To achieve poise in a given situation some impulses have to give way to others and where this does not happen, no poise can take place. The ideal
state of poise is one in which all the impulses are able to satisfy themselves to the full when stirred into activity by some stimulus, but as this is seldom possible, the
maximum satisfaction of the maximum number of impulses, with the minimum frustration to the rest, is all that can be hoped for.|

Now again we come face to face with the problem of value. aow shall we decide which among these impulses are more important than others, and how shall
we distinguish organisations as yielding more or less value than one another? aere Richards divides impulses into appetencies and aversions, and says "that
anything is valuable which satisfies an appetency or 'seeking after.'|

In the chapter "Art and Morals," I. A. Richards says, "The most valuable states of mind then are those which involve the widest and most omprehensive co-
ordination of activities and the least curtailment, conflict, starvation and restriction. States of mind in general are valuable in the degree in which they tend to
reduce waste and frustration." So experiences can be valuable in two different ways²by virtue of the number of impulses directly satisfied and by virtue of the
increased capacity for co-ordinating impulses in the future that results from the experience.|

ae sometimes speaks as though only the impulses that will satisfy future desires are more important. But Richard does not deny that present satisfaction of
impulses has some value. aowever, he says that the effects of experience on our future capacity to satisfy them is what matters most. ae concludes the chapter, "A
Psychological Theory of Value" with the following words : "To guard against a possible misunderstanding it may be added that the organisation and
systematisation of which I have been speaking in this chapter are not primarily an affair of conscious planning or arrangement....We pass as a rule from a chaotic to
a better organised state by ways which we know nothing about. Typically through the influence of other minds, Literature and the arts are the chief means by which
these influences are diffused. It should be unnecessary to insist upon the degree to which high civilisation, in other words, free, varied and unwasteful life, depends
upon them in a numerous society."|

This theory of values is important to understand the nature of poetry as envisaged by I. A Richards. There are moments in a man's life when his impulses
respond to a stimulus in such an organised way that the mind has a life's experience. Poetry is a representation on this uniquely ordered state of mind. By poetry
Richards means not only verse but all imaginative literature, which is also the product of the same state of mind. From this it will appear that the poet is not
conscious of embodying any thoughtin his work. All he is interested in is to record the happy play of impulses on a particular occasion. To approach him therefore
for what he says is to misunderstand him. It is to share his experience, the happy play of his impulses, that the true reader gaes to him. It is all that a poem or
poetry is.|
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Unlike the Americans, the French and British--less so the Germans, Russians,
Spanish, Portugese, Italians, and Swiss--have had a long tradition of what I shall be
calling Orientalism, a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the
Orient's special place in European Western Experience. The Orient is not only
adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe's greatest and richest and oldest
colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one
of its deepest and most recurring images of the Other. In addition, the Orient has
helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality,
experience. Yet none of this Orient is merely imaginative. The Orient is an integral
part of European material civilization and culture. Orientalism expresses and
represents that part culturally and even ideologically as a a mode of discourse with
supporting institutions, vocabulary, scholarship, imagery, doctrines, even colonial
bureaucracies and colonial styles. . . .

It will be clear to the reader...that by Orientalism I mean several things, all of them, in
my opinion, interdependent. The most readily accepted designation for Orientalism is
an academic one, and indeed the label still serves in a number of academic
institutions. Anyone who teaches, writes about, or researches the Orient--and this
applies whether the persion is an anthropologist, sociologist, historian, or philologist--
either in its specific or its general aspects, is an Orientalist, and what he or she says or
does is Orientalism. . . .

Related to this academic tradition, whose fortunes, transmigrations, specializations,


and transmissions are in part the subject of this study, is a more general meaning for
Orientalism. Orientalism is a style of thought based upon ontological and
epistemological distinction made between "the Orient" and (most of the time) "the
Occident." Thus a very large mass of writers, among who are poet, novelists,
philosophers, political theorists, economists, and imperial administrators, have
accepted the basic distinction between East and West as the starting point for
elaborate accounts concerning the Orient, its people, customs, "mind," destiny, and so
on. . . . the phenomenon of Orientalism as I study it here deals principally, not with a
correspondence between Orientalism and Orient, but with the internal consistency of
Orientalism and its ideas about the Orient . . despite or beyond any corrsespondence,
or lack thereof, with a "real" Orient. (1-3,5)

G    
  [ 


 

G è Edward W. Said


  
è Vintage

è 1994


  by Edward Said is a cononical text of cultural studies in which he
has challenged the concept of orientalism or the difference between east and west,
as he puts it. He says that with the start of European colonization the Europeans
came in contact with the lesser developed countries of the east. They found their
civilization and culture very exotic, and established the science of orientalism,
which was the study of the orientals or the people from these
civilization.
Edward Said argues that the Europeans divided the world into two parts; the east
and the west or the occident and the orient or the civilized and the uncivilized. This
was totally an artificial boundary; and it was laid on the basis of the concept of
them and us or theirs and ours. The Europeans used orientalism to define
themselves. Some particular attributes were associated with the orientals, and
whatever the orientals weren¶t the occidents were. The Europeans defined
themselves as the superior race compared to the orientals; and they justified their
colonization by this concept. They said that it was their duty towards the world to
civilize the uncivilized world. The main problem, however, arose when the
Europeans started generalizing the attributes they associated with orientals, and
started portraying these artificial characteristics associated with orientals in their
western world through their scientific reports, literary work, and other media
sources. What happened was that it created a certain image about the orientals in
the European mind and in doing that infused a bias in the European attitude
towards the orientals. This prejudice was also found in the orientalists (scientist
studying the orientals); and all their scientific research and reports were under the
influence of this. The generalized attributes associated with the orientals can be
seen even today, for example, the Arabs are defined as uncivilized people; and
Islam is seen as religion of the terrorist.
Here is a brief summary of the book, followed by a critique by Malcolm Kerr.

Ch h     
In this chapter, Edward Said explains how the science of orientalism developed
and how the orientals started considering the orientals as non-human beings. The
orientals divided the world in to two parts by using the concept of   and 
 .
An imaginary geographical line was drawn between what was   and what
was 
 The orients were regarded as uncivilized people; and the westerns said
that since they were the refined race it was their duty to civilize these people and in
order to achieve their goal, they had to colonize and rule the orients. They said that
the orients themselves were incapable of running their own government. The
Europeans also thought that they had the right to represent the orientals in the west
all by themselves. In doing so, they shaped the orientals the way they perceived
them or in other words they were 
 the orients. Various teams have
been sent to the east where the orientalits silently observed the orientals by living
with them; and every thing the orientals said and did was recorded irrespective of
its context, and projected to the 
world of the west. This resulted in the
generalization. Whatever was seen by the orientals was associated with the oriental
culture, no matter if it is the irrational action of an individual.
The most important use of orientalism to the Europeans was that they defined
themselves by defining the orientals. For example, qualities such as lazy, irrational,
uncivilized, crudeness were related to the orientals, and automatically the
Europeans became active, rational, civilized, sophisticated. Thus, in order to
achieve this goal, it was very necessary for the orientalists to generalize the culture
of the orients.
Another feature of orientalism was that the culture of the orientals was explained
to the European audience by linking them to the western culture, for example,
Islam was made into £   because Mohammad was the founder of this
religion and since religion of Christ was called Christianity; thus Islam should be
called£   The point to be noted here is that no Muslim was aware of
this terminology and this was a completely western created term, and to which the
Muslims had no say at all.

Ch       


In this chapter, Edward Said points the slight change in the attitude of the
Europeans towards the orientals. The orientals were really publicized in the
European world especially through their literary work. Oriental land and behaviour
was highly  
by the European poets and writers and then presented to
the western world. The orientalists had made a stage strictly for the European
viewers, and the orients were presented to them with the colour of the orientalist or
other writers perception. In fact, the orient lands were so highly  
that
western literary writers found it necessary to offer pilgrimage to these exotic lands
of pure sun light and clean oceans in order to experience peace of mind, and
inspiration for their writing. The east was now perceived by the orientalist as a
place of pure human culture with no necessary evil in the society. Actually it was
this purity of the orientals that made them inferior to the clever, witty, diplomatic,
far-sighted European; thus it was their right to rule and study such an innocent
race. The Europeans said that these people were too naive to deal with the cruel
world, and that they needed the European fatherly role to assist them.
Another justification the Europeans gave to their colonization was that they
were meant to rule the orientals since they have developed sooner than the
orientals as a nation, which shows that they were biologically superior, and
secondly it were the Europeans who discovered the orients not the orients who
discovered the Europeans. Darwin¶s theories were put forward to justify their
superiority, biologically by the Europeans.
In this chapter, Edward Said also explains how the two most renowned
orientalists of the 19th century, namely Silvestre de Sacy and Ernest Renan worked
and gave orienatlism a new dimension. In fact, Edward Said compliments the
contribution made by Sacy in the field. He says that Sacy organized the whole
thing by arranging the information in such a way that it was also useful for the
future orientalist. And secondly, the prejudice that was inherited by every
orientalist was considerably low in him. On the other hand, Renan who took
advantage of Sacy¶s work was as biased as any previous orientalist. He believed
that the science of orientalism and the science of philology have a very important
relation; and after Renan this idea was given a lot attention and many future
orientalists worked of in its line.

Ch     
This chapter starts off by telling us that how the geography of the world was
shaped by the colonization of the Europeans. There was a quest for geographical
knowledge which formed the bases of orientalism.
The author then talks about the changing circumstances of the world politics and
changing approach to orientalism in the 20th century. The main difference was that
where the earlier orientalists were more of silent observers the new orientalists
took a part in the every day life of the orients. The earlier orientalists did not
interact a lot with the orients, whereas the new orients lived with them as if they
were one of them. This wasn¶t out of appreciation of their lifestyle but was to
know more about the orients in order to rule them properly. Lawrence of Arabia
was one of such orienatlists.
Then Edward Said goes on to talk about two other scholars Massignon and
Gibb. Though Massignon was a bit liberal with orientalists and often tried to
protect their rights, there was still inherited biased found in him for the orientals,
which can be seen in his work. With the changing world situation especially after
World War 1, orientalism took a more liberal stance towards most of its subjects;
but Islamic orientalism did not enjoy this status. There were constant attacks to
show Islam as a weak religion, and a mixture of many religions and thoughts. Gibb
was the most famous Islamic orientalist of this time.
After World War 1 the centre of orientalism moved from Europe to USA. One
important transformation that took place during this time was instances of relating
it to philology and it was related to social science now. All the orientalists studied
the orientals to assist their government to come up with policies for dealing with
the orient countries. With the end of World War 2, all the Europeans colonies were
lost; and it was believed that there were no more orientals and occidents, but this
was surely not the case. Western prejudice towards eastern countries was still very
explicit, and often they managed to generalize most of the eastern countries
because of it. For example Arabs were often represented as cruel and violent
people. Japanese were always associated with karate where as the Muslims were
always considered to be terrorists. Thus, this goes on to show that even with
increasing globalization and awareness, such bias was found in the people of the
developed countries.
Edward Said concludes his book by saying that he is not saying that the
orientalists should not make generalization, or they should include the orient
perspective too, but creating a boundary at the first place is something which should
not be done.

£    [ 

Malcolm Kerr did his specialization in International Relations and specialized in


the Middle East from Princeton University. He worked on his PhD thesis with
Gibb, and spent two years with him in Cambridge University.1 Malcolm¶s review
on Orientalismcan be concluded by his following remarks, ³This book reminds me
of the television program ³Athletes in Action,´ in which professional football
players compete in swimming, and so forth. Edward Said, a literary critic loaded
with talent, has certainly made a splash, but with this sort of effort he is not going
to win any major race. This is a great pity, for it is a book that in principle needed
to be written, and for which the author possessed rich material. In the end,
however, the effort misfired. The book contains many excellent sections and scores
many telling points, but it is spoiled by overzealous prosecutorial argument in
which Professor Said, in his eagerness to spin too large a web, leaps at conclusions
and tries to throw everything but the kitchen sink into a preconceived frame of
analysis. In charging the entire tradition of European and American Oriental
studies with the sins of reductionism and caricature, he commits precisely the same
error´2. He further goes on to say ³The list of victims of Said¶s passion is a long
one, too long to examine in detail. Some of them deserve itè he has justly taken the
measure of Ernest Renan. Some others are probably not worth it. One wonders
why he is so ready to lump nineteenth-century travellers with professional
philologists; why he found it necessary to twist the empathy of Sylvain Levi for
colonized peoples into an alleged racism (pp. 248-250), or to dismiss the brilliance
of Richard Burton as being overshadowed by a mentality of Western domination of
the east (p. 197); why he condemns Massignon for his heterodoxy, and Gibb for
his orthodoxy; or why he did not distinguish between Bernard Lewis¶s recent
polemics on modern politics and his much more important corpus of scholarship
on the history of Islamic society and culture. For those who knew Gustave von
Grunebaum and were aware of his scholarly genius and his deep attraction to
Islamic culture in all its ramifications, Said¶s exercise in character assassination
(pp. 296-298) can only cause deep dismay. Suffice it to say that von Grunebaum¶s
view of Islamic culture as ³antihumanist´ was a serious proposition, and in fact not
an unsympathetic one, denounced but not rebutted by Said, who seems not to
recognize the difference between an antihumanist culture and an inhumane one. He
might have done well to note that Abdallah Laroui, whose penetrating criticism of
von Grunebaum¶s work he invokes, earned thereby an invitation from von
Grunebaum to teach at UCLA´3.

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