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Cyber Journals: Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journal of Selected Areas in Telecommunications (JSAT), January Edition, 2011

Precoded Differential OFDM for Relay Networks

Homa Eghbali and Sami Muhaidat

Abstract — We study the performance of differential space- time codes with linear constellation precoding (LCP) for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) cooperative networks over frequency selective channels. Through exploiting the unitary structure of the orthogonal STBCs, we design a low complexity differential STBC-LCP-OFDM receiver for cooperative networks. We assume the amplify-and-forward protocol and consider both single relay and multi-relay scenarios. Under the assumption of perfect power control for the relay terminal and high signal-to-noise ratio for the underlying links, our performance analysis demonstrates that the considered scheme is able to exploit fully the spatial diversity.

Index Terms — Linear constellation precoding, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, differential detection, cooperative communications.

I. INTRODUCTION

There has been a growing demand for high data rate services for wireless multimedia and internet services. Spatial diversity offers significant improvement in link reliability and spectral efficiency through the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and/or receiver side [1]-[4]. Recently, cooperative communications have gained much attention due to the ability to explore the inherent spatial diversity in relay channels [5]- [9]. The idea behind cooperative diversity is that in a wireless environment, the signal transmitted by the source nodes is overheard by other nodes, which are also known as partners. The source and its partners jointly process and transmit their information, creating a "virtual antenna array" although each of them is equipped with only one antenna. Most the current works on cooperative diversity consider coherent detection and assume the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver. In fading channels where the coherence time is large enough, the channel estimation can be carried out through the use of pilot symbols [10]. For fast fading channels where the phase carrier recovery is more difficult, differential detection provides a more practical solution. In [10-14], differential detection has been investigated for cooperative transmission scenarios. The works in [10-14] assume an idealized transmission environment with an underlying frequency-flat fading channel. This assumption can be justified for narrowband cooperative scenarios with fixed infrastructure; however, it is impractical if wideband cooperative networks are considered. In [26], the applicability of differential STBC to broadband cooperative transmission over frequency-selective channels was

H. Eghbali and S. Muhaidat are with the School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada (e-mail: hea7@sfu.ca, muhaidat@ieee.org).

59

investigated for OFDM systems. However, the proposed system could not fully exploit the underlying multipath diversity. Motivated by this practical concern, we extend the work in [26] to linearly coded and grouped precoded OFDM systems for cooperative communications. LCP-OFDM was developed in [25] for multicarrier wireless transmissions over frequency selective fading channels. Not only LCP improves the uncoded OFDM performance, but also doesn't reduce the transmission rates of uncoded OFDM, and

guarantees symbol detectability [24]. LCP-OFDM was extended to GLCP-OFDM to exploit the correlation structure of subchannels, such that, the set of correlated sunchannels are split into subsets of less correlated subchannels. Within each subset of subcarriers, a linear constellation precoder (LCP) is designed to maximize diversity and coding gains. The LCPs are in general complex and could possibly be nonunitary. While greatly reducing the system complexity, subcarrier grouping maintains the maximum possible diversity and coding gains [25]. GLCP-OFDM is a considerably flexible system that offers maximum multipath diversity, as well as large coding gains, and guaranteed symbol detectability with low decoding complexity. Related work and contributions: Although there have been considerable research efforts on differential STBC (conventional and distributed) for frequency flat fading channels (see for example [10]-[17]), only a few isolated results have been reported on conventional differential STBC for frequency-selective channels [18]-[20]. Distributed differential STBC multi-carrier transmission for broadband cooperative networks was investigated in [26], yet was suboptimal. Our contributions in this work are summarized as follows:

1. We propose a distributed differential linear constellation precoded OFDM (DD-LCP-OFDM) STBC scheme for broadband cooperative systems with amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying. The proposed scheme can be considered as an extension of the DD-OFDM-STBC scheme proposed in [26]. Carefully exploiting the underlying orthogonality of distributed STBC, the proposed scheme is able to fully exploit the available underlying diversity.

2. To further reduce the decoding complexity while preserving the performance, we extend the DD-LCP- OFDM STBC scheme to grouped linear constellation precoded (GLCP)-OFDM system. We observe that the optimal performance of the DD-GLCP-OFDM relies on the design of the GLCP precoder.

3. We present a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study to confirm the analytical observations and give insight into system performance. We extend our work

on single-relay scenarios to multi-relay scenarios and analyze system's performance via simulation results.

vectors h

zero-mean complex Gaussian with power delay profile vectors

,

and

that are normalized such that

and

denoted

RD , and h SD , are assumed to be independent

j

SR ,

h j

[

2

(0),

= σ

σ

SR

2

SD

j

v

by

2

(

L

[

2

2

)]

SR

=

σ

SR

L

RD

l

RD

= 0

2

σ

RD

(

K σ

,

,

SR

l

RD

)

= 1

(0),

(

L

SR

)]

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: In Section II, the transmission model is introduced. The differential scheme under consideration for distributed LCP-0FDM STBC is described in Sections III, and is extended to DD-GLCP- OFDM STBC in section IV. Section V extends our analysis on single relay scenarios to multiple relay scenarios. Numerical results are presented in Section VI and the paper is concluded in Section VII.

* , (.) T , and (.) H denote conjugate, transpose,

and Hermitian transpose operations, respectively. denotes

denotes

entry

Kronecker product,

the Euclidean norm of a vector,

of

tr (·) denotes the matrix trace. I N denotes the identity matrix

of size N, and 0 M ×M denotes all-zero matrix of size M × M .

For

a

FFT

matrix

A

circularly symmetric complex Gaussian random variable is a

random variable

2 ) , where X and Y are

by

v

SD

SR

SR

=

SD

SD

=

[

0

0

σ

RD

2

(

l

(

SD

K σ

,

RD

K σ

)

,

= 1

2

SD

(

)

= 1

L

,

RD

SD

)]

v

RD

L

l

L

l

= σ

SD

2

(0),

SR

l

,

. The CIRs are assumed to be constant

over four consecutive blocks and vary independently every four blocks. We consider LCP-OFDM transformation [25] where the LCP is defined by the N × N matrix Φ that has entries over

the complex field. Φ should satisfy the transmit-power

constraint

into frames, where each frame consists of two information blocks. Let the N ×1vector y SRD represent the data vector that is transmitted to the relay terminal during the first block of each frame, whose entries are complex MPSK symbols that are generated through differential space-time (ST) encoding.

Notation:

(.)

.
.

denotes the absolute value,

the

[.] k

k

th

, l denotes the (

entry

of

a

a

=

[

a

0

K

a

) where

] T

Q represents

element

is

. k l ,
.
k l
,

) th

vector,

(

tr ΦΦ

H

)

= N . Information symbols are parsed

a

matrix,

[.] k denotes

and

a

vector

)mod

N

1

, After linear constellation precoding, the N ×1 precoded

block y

matrix Q H to yield the discrete time signal Q

further

inserted

block and is removed from the corresponding received block.

In the following, without loss of generality, we drop the index j for brevity. The signal received at the relay terminal during the first signalling interval (broadcasting phase) of each frame after the CP removal is

OFDM

cyclic prefix of length

To

is IFFT processed by the inverse FFT

[P a]

N

s

=

N × N

q

a((

N s + q

N

matrix.

l k

( ,

) th

P N

the

is

N × N

given

%

= Φ

y

SRD

SRD

the

permutation

whose

N × N given % = Φ y SRD SRD the permutation whose H Φ y

H

Φ y

SRD

.

remove

L

SR

,

L

RD

,

L

SD

IBI,

a

l

max(

) is

Q(l, k) = 1/

N (0,

2

σ

2

N exp(j2π lk / N ) where

Z = X + jY ~ CN (0,σ

0 l, k N 1

.

per

transmitted

i.i.d.

bold lower-case letters denote vectors.

) . Bold upper-case letters denote matrices and

r

R

=

H. Bold upper-case letters denote matrices and r R = SR Q H Φ y SRD

SR

Q

H Φ

y

SRD

+

n

R

,

,

(1)

II.SYSTEM MODEL

A single-relay assisted cooperative communication scenario is considered. All terminals are equipped with single transmit and receive antennas. We assume AF relaying and adopt the user cooperation protocol proposed by Nabar et. al. [9]. Specifically, the source terminal communicates with the relay terminal during the first signaling interval. There is no transmission from source-to-destination within this period. In the second signaling interval, both the relay and source terminals communicate with the destination terminal.

The CIRs for S R , S D and R D links for the

,

transmission block are by =

j

th

h j

SR

  h

j

SR

[0],

K

,

h

j

SR

[

L

SR

] 

T

h j

SD

=

  h

j

SD

[0],

K

,

h

j

SD

[

L

SD

] 

T

,

and

j

h

RD

All

,

L SD , L RD denote the corresponding channel memory lengths.

, experience frequency selective Rayleigh fading. The random

links are assumed to

L SR ,

=

  h

j

S R

RD

[0],

K

,

j

h

RD

[

L

RD

] 

and

T

respectively,

where

S D

,

R D

Where E SR is the average signal energy over one symbol

period received at relay terminal, H SR is the N × N circulant

matrix with entries [

is the additive white Gaussian noise vector with each entry

2 per dimension. To

ensure that the power budget is not violated, the relay terminals normalizes each entry of the respective received

signal

to ensure unit average energy and

retransmits the signal during the second signalling interval

(relaying phase) of each frame. After some mathematical

manipulations, the received signal at the destination terminal during the relaying phase is given by

H

SR

]

m ,

n

=

h

SR

((

m n

0
0

by

)

mod

N

)

,

and n R

having zero-mean and variance of

E

(

|[r

R

]

n

[r

R

|

2

)

] n

,

= E

SR

n = 1,2,K,N

+ N

0

N

,

a

factor

of

r

D

E E RD SR = H H RD SR E + N SR 0 +
E
E
RD
SR
=
H
H
RD
SR
E
+
N
SR
0
+ H
Q
H Φ
y
SD
SD

Q

H

Φ

+ n

D

y

,

SRD

(2)

where E RD and E SD are the average signal energies over one

60

symbol

entries

and

is

conditionally (conditioned on h RD ) complex Gaussian with

H RD and

period

are

the

h

RD

received

N × N

at

destination

terminal,

with

and

H SD

circulant

matrices

respectively,

[

[

H

H

RD

SD

]

]

m

m

,

,

n

n

=

=

h

SD

((

m n

)

mod

N

)

((

m n

)

mod

N

)

,

n D

 

R

6447448

Qr

  Qr

*

( )

t

t

Φ

(

+

1

)

=

Qn

Qn

*

(

t

t

)

1

+

y

SRD

y

SD (

( )

+

Φ  

γ Λ 1 γ 2
γ
Λ
1
γ
2

RD

Λ

Λ

* Φ

SR

SD

SD Φ   γ Λ 1 γ 2 RD Λ Λ * Φ SR SD

Φ

Λ

*

SR

(

t

)

.

t )

(5)


1 +

Assuming without loss of generality the symbols to have

1 , applying the minimum mean square

error (MMSE) equalization we have

L RD E RD ∑ E + N SR 0 m = 0
L RD
E RD
E
+ N
SR
0
m = 0

m )

2

zero mean and variance

by

a

where

ρ

=

1

+

α

=

1

+

σ

2

n

N

=

D 0

h RD

(

. variance

2

2

σ = σ

y

SRD

y

SD

=

The destination terminal further normalizes the received signal

,

 y ˆ  ( t ) SRD   = y ˆ ( t
 y ˆ
(
t )
SRD
  =
y ˆ
(
t )
SD
*
*
H
Λ
A
γ
Φ
Λ
A
RD
SR
2
SD
*
H
Λ
A −
γ
Φ
Λ
Λ
SD
1
RD
SR
(
H
*
*
γ
Λ
Λ
ΦΦ
Λ
Λ
+
1
RD
SR
SR
RD

R ,

A  

γ

2

Λ

SD

factor of ρ L RD E RD ∑ ( m ) 2 Note . h
factor
of
ρ
L RD
E RD
(
m )
2 Note
.
h RD
E
+ N
SR
0
m = 0
14444244443

that

this

*

SD

)

 

(6)

1

 

. In the

 H γ Φ Λ 1    H γ Φ 2 where A
H
γ
Φ
Λ
1
 
H
γ
Φ
2
where
A =

α

does not affect the SNR, but simplifies the ensuing presentation [21]. After normalization, we obtain

H

ΦΦ Λ

H H r = γ H H Q Φ y + γ H Q Φ
H
H
r
=
γ
H
H
Q
Φ
y
+
γ
H
Q
Φ
y
+
n,
(3)
1
RD
SR
SRD
2
SD
SD
where n is
C N (0, N ) and the
scaling coefficients
γ
and
0
1
a
c
γ
are defined as
γ
=
,
and
γ
=
respectively, where
2
1
2
b
b
L
E
RD
2
a =
SR
,
b
=
1 /
+
E
N
+ ∑
h
(
m E
)
/
N
,
N
E RD
SR
0
RD
RD
0
 
 
0
m = 0
E
and
c =
1 +
SR
E
. Note that at the end of each frame,
N
SD
 
0

the receiver is provided with the time-domain observation r in

(3).

Inspired by Alamouti code [4], we can further extend (3) to a distributed (D)STBC-LCP-OFDM scenario, by using the

and

transmit diversity scheme y * y ( t + 1 ) = y ( )
transmit
diversity
scheme
y
*
y
( t +
1
)
=
y
( )
t
, leading to
SD
SRD
r
( )
t
=
γ
H
H
Q
H y
( )
t
1
RD
SR
SRD
+
γ
H
Q
H Φ
y
( )
t
+
n
( )
t
,
2
SD
SD
H
*
r ( t
+
1 )
= −
γ
H
H
Q
Φ
y
( )
t
1
RD
SR
SD
*
+
γ
H
Q
H Φ
y
( )
t
+
n
(
t
+ 1 ,
)
2
SD
SRD

SRD

(

t +

1

)

= −

y

*

SD

( )

t

(4)

Exploiting the circulant structure of the channel matrices

i ,

a diagonal matrix whose

DFT coefficient of h i . Thus,

transforming the received signal r (2t) to the frequency

domain by multiplying it with Q matrix and further writing the result in matrix form we have

H

i

H SR , denotes

RD

,

(

n n

,

) th

and

SR,

H SD , RD,

we

SD,

have

is

H

i

=

Q

H Λ

i

Q

, where

Λ

element is equal to the

n

th

following, we will discuss the distributed differential (DD)- LCP-OFDM system and the ST encoding and decoding

procedures employed by it.

The

data

III.

vectors

DD-LCP-OFDM

K

d

i

( )

t

=  

d

0

i

( )

t

,

,

d

N

i

1

( )

t

 

T

i = 1,2,

represent the OFDM-STBC symbols, where t is the time

n = 1, K , N , are drawn

index and complex symbols

from an unit-energy MPSK constellation. We are encoding the

and

into their linear constellation precoded

LCP-OFDM-STBC

d

n

i

( )

t

vectors

data

d

1

( )

t

= Φd

1

( )

t

d

2

( )

t

= Φd

2

( )

t

differentially encoded frequency domain counterparts

and

y

SRD

(

m

)

= 

0

y

SRD

(

m

)

y

N

SRD

1

(

m

)

T

,

,

(

SD

n

( )

t

y

Y

)

where

D

n

( )

t

and

Y

n

( )

t

having

n

y

SRD

n

SD

y

(

(

2

2

+

+

1

1

0

SD

y

(

n

SD

y

n

y

SRD

(

(

2

2

t

 

N

1

(

m

)

T

m = 2t,2t+1 as following

 

y

SD

 

(7)

 

d

n

2

(

d

1

n

( )

( ))

t

t

*

 

 

,

(8)

n

 

y

SD

(

2

t

)

 

,

(9)

 

y

n

SD

(

2

t

+

1

)

 

t

)) *

,

*

 

(10)

))

.

= 

m

(

m

)

,

,

n = D n ( )Y t ( t − 1) n  d (
n
=
D n
( )Y
t
(
t −
1)
n
d
(
t
)
1
1
=
*
n
2 − 
(
d
(
t
))
2
n
y
(
2
t
)
SRD
= 
n
y
(
2
t
+
1
)
SRD

t

t

)

)

= −

=

(

Note that (7) is relating 4 frames of information in a differential manner. Applying (10) at the sequence level to the OFDM blocks (2t) and (2t +1) in (9) and substituting them

into (4), we obtain

61

r (

+

) H r ( n 2 t = γ H H Q y ( 2
)
H
r
(
n
2
t
=
γ
H
H
Q
y
(
2
t
)
1
RD
SR
SRD
H
n
+
γ
H
Q
y
(
2
t
)
+
n
(
2
t
)
,
2
SD
SD
*
H
n
2
t
+
1
)
= −
γ
H
H
Q
(
y
(
2
t
))
1
RD
SR
SD
*
H
γ
H
Q
(
n
y
(
2
t
))
+
n
(
2
t
+
1
)
,
2
SD
SRD

(11)

1

t )) + n ( 2 t + 1 ) , 2 SD SRD (11) 

2

(

n

%

r

%

r

n

(

(

(

(

n

r %

2

2

r %

(

n

2

t

+

)

t

t

2

t

2

1

))

*

)

1

))

*

 

(

=

 

r %

r %

n

n

(

(

n

1

U

(

U

t

t

n

2

2

2

(

(

1

2

)

t

t

)

))

))

*

*

 

+

  d d

n

1

n

2

t

)

.

(

( )

t

(15)

To perform MMSE equalization, we can further cascade every

which represents the two consecutive received OFDM frames (2t) and (2t +1) at the destination terminal.

from

the differentially encoded received signals in (12), we exploit the circulant structure of the channel matrices H RD , H SR , and

To recover the OFDM data vectors

d

1

( )

t

and

d

2

( )

t

n

th

elements to use the vector forms in (15) as follows

1

2
2

r %

r %

*

(

(

2

t +

t

)

(

r %

(

*

r %

2

2

t

t

2

2

1

)

)

1

r %

2

U

U

t

t

)

=

r %

*

(

(

2

1

*

2

(

t

t

)

2

(

1

)

)

)

 

+

1

 

2

d

d

(

(

t

t

)

)

.

(16)

H SD , similar to (7) as following n Qr ( 2 t ) =
H SD , similar to (7) as following
n
Qr
(
2
t
)
= r
% (
2
t
)
=
γ
Λ
Λ
y
(
2
t
)
1
RD
SR
SRD
n
+
γ
Λ
y
(
2 t
)
+
Qn
(
2
t
)
,
2
SD
SD
14243
n
%
(
2 t
)
(
)
% (
)
n
Qr
2
t
+
1
=
r
2
t
+
1
= −
γ
Λ
Λ
(
y
(
2
t
))
1
RD
SR
SD
*
n
+
γ
Λ
(
y
(
2
t
))
+
Qn
(
2
t
+
1
)
,
2
SD
SRD
14243
n
%
(
2
t
+ 1
)

d

n

1

(

)

and

n

d

th

n

2

subchannel

n

th

( )

t

. Considering the

R

n

( )

t

n %

n

( )

t

n

th

Thus, performing blind MMSE equalization with no access to

CSI, we have

B

=

(

H

%

r

H

Φ

H

%

r

H

 

d

1

d

2

(

2

t

2

)

B

(

2

t

1

)

B

 

%

 

R

( t )   = ( t )  H γ Φ r %
(
t )
  =
(
t )
H
γ
Φ
r
%
2
H
γ
Φ
r
%
1
r
%
(
2
t )
=  

%

r

(

2

t

2

)

ΦΦ

H

%

r

H

(

2

t

2

)

(

2

t

1

)

%

r

(

*

2

(

t

2

2

t +

+

γ

2

%

r

(

B

)

1

B  

T

)

%

R ,

2

t

1

)

IV.

DD-GLCP-OFDM

H

%

r

H

(

(17)

2

and

t

1

))

γ 1 γ 2
γ
1
γ
2

Φ

where

γ

1


(12)

*  

ΦΦ

Note that in here, we are performing the differential decoding

upon the

t

(12) in the matrix form we have

subchannel, writing

subcarrier to recover

and

Due to high decoding complexity of LCP-OFDM, an optimal subcarrier grouping technique was proposed in [25] in which the decoder's complexity is reduced by dividing the set of all subcarriers into nonintersecting subsets of subcarriers, called subcarrier groups. In this approach, every information

symbol is transmitted over subcarriers within only one of these

subsets. Note that if the subcarrier grouping is properly done,

not only the decoding complexity is reduced, but also systems

performance is preserved [25].

The GLCP matrix θ is designed such that the decoding

complexity is reduced, while preserving the maximum

diversity and coding gains. Assuming that N = KM , in DD- GLCP-OFDM STBC system, the information symbols

,

where ψ is a K × N permutation matrix built from the rows

64748 64748

n    r % ( 2 ) n t   n %
n
r %
(
2
)
n
t
n %
(
2
t
)
=
+
n
n
r %
(
2
t
+
1
)
n %
(
2
t
+
1
)
(13)
n
Y
( )
t
n
6444447444448 6447448
Λ
n
n
y
(
2
t
)
y
(
2
t
)
n
n
γ
Λ
Λ
SRD
SD
1
RD
SR
,
*
*
(
n
− 
y
(
n
2
t
))
(
y
(
2
t
))
n
γ
Λ
SD
SRD
 
 
2
SD
n
n
n
th
where
Λ
, Λ
,
and
Λ
, stand
for
the
n
diagonal
SR
RD
SD
elements of matrices
, and
Λ
SD . Thus, substituting
, Λ RD
Λ SR
(7) into
(13), the
current
input
to
the distributed STBC

differential detector, R

the previous input, R

n ( t )

n

(

t

, for each sub-channel is related to

1)

, according to

d

i

( ),

t

i = 1,2,

m

are divided into M blocks, d

m

i

( )

t

=ψ

m

d

i

( )

t

=

D

We

R

n

( )

t

n

( )

t

R

=

n

(

set

Y

n

n

D

t

R

n

(

t

1

)

n %

n

(

t

1

)

64748

Y

n %

( )

)

1

t

n

(

t

1

)

Λ

n

+

n

n %

n %

( )

(

t

+

( )

( )

n

t

D

n

t

n

t

1

)

.

14444244443

U

n

( )

t

(14)

(0)

;

n = 0,K, N 1 to

I and linearly detect

2

D

n

( )

t

from Y

n

( )

t

using the orthogonal structure in (13). This

can be done by rewriting (14) as follows

(m 1) K +1 mK of I N ; and then precoded by the GLCP

matrix θ . Thus, as an example, (12) can be rewritten as

%

r

(

+

m r % ( 2 t ) m m = γ Λ Λ g (
m
r
% (
2
t
)
m
m
=
γ
Λ
Λ
g
(
2
t
)
1
RD
SR
SRD
m
m
+
γ
Λ
g
(
2 t
)
+
n
%
(
2
t
)
,
2
SD
SD
*
2
t
+ 1
)
m
m
m
= −
γ
Λ
Λ
(
g
(
2
t
))
1
RD
SR
SD
*
m
m
γ
Λ
(
g
(
2
t
))
+
n
% (
2
t
+
1
)
,
2
SD
SRD

(18)

62

1

.

where

i = SRD,SD , are differentially encoded from the GLCP-

t

(7).

Following [24-25], for any K , QAM, PAM, BPSK, and QPSK constellation, the optimal can be constructed through LCP-A, which can be generally written as a Vandermonde matrix as following

OFDM symbols g

following similar steps as in

( )

Λ

i

=ψ Λ ψ

m

m

i

m

i

m

( t )

,

i = SR,RD,SD

= θ

d

m

i

,

T

and

m

g

i

(2 )

t

, normalized received signal to the destination terminal, and the

destination receives

D t denotes the received signal at the destination terminal at

time slot t . Assuming that the Information symbols are first

parsed as four streams of N ×1 blocks

encoded to c ti using the orthogonal space-time block code design C , (7) holds true with

where

n

x

x

n

1

x

n

2

x

n

4

n

3

* (

* (

) *

(

,r

D

,r

D

n

2

n

1

x

n

4

n

3

*

x

)

)

n

4

*

)

*

n

3

)

x

n

3

*

,r

D

n

4

n

12

x

n

3

)

*

(

x

n

4

n

1

)

n

12

x

(

x

,r

D

) *

*

)

*

  

,r

D

,r

D

x

i

, i

,

,r

D

=

4

r

D

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

,

r

1, 2, 3,4 and

x

x

 − x

 −

θ

=

1

β

 

1 α

α

1

L

L

M

L

1 α

α

2

M

1

M

α K

M

K

α

K

where β

parameters {

is

a

constant

K

1

K

2

1

1

1  

,

x

x

n

1

x

(

(

(19)

the

x

n

2

n

1

x

x

(

x

D

n ( t )

=

1

)

(

)

(

)

3 
3


  

( x

1

n

2

x

( x

n

4

n

3

*

(20)

such that

tr θθ

(

H

)

= K

,

and

α

k

}

K

k

=

1 are selected depending on K [25].

V.EXTENSION TO MULTIPLE RELAY SCENARIOS

We consider a multiple-relay assisted cooperative wireless communication system with a single source S , R half-duplex

relay terminals

The source, destination, and all relays are equipped with single transmit and receive antennas. We adopt the transmission protocol in [27] and consider non-regenrative relays. Note that unlike [27], we assume that there is no direct transmission between the source and destination terminals due to the presence of shadowing.

R , i = 1,2,K, R , and a single destination D .

and Y

changes to

n ( t )

changes accordingly. Following this, R

4

D

r

8

D

r

12

r

D

16

r

D

20

r

D

24

r

D

28

r

D

32

r

D

 

T

.

n ( t )

in (13)

(21)

i

R

n

( )

t

=  

VI. NUMERICAL RESULTS

In this section, we present Monte-Carlo simulation results for the proposed receiver.

T Fig.1. depicts the SER performance of the DD-LCP-OFDM

The CIRs for

S R

i

and

links for the

D

R

h

i

SR

i

= h

SR

i

[0],

, h

SR

[

L

i

SR

i

]  

, respectively , where L

SR

i

th

relay

,

terminal are given by

h

R

i

D

= h

R D

i

[0],

, h

R D

i

[

L

R D

i

]

T

STBC scheme assuming for the following three different

scenarios:

1)

2)

3) L

For LCP-OFDM to achieve maximum diversity order, maximum diversity encoders should be used. Two classes of maximum achievable diversity order (MADO) enabling LCP encoders are introduced in [24], namely: Vandermonde encoders and cosine encoders. In here, we are using Vandermonde encoders and we assume 4-PSK modulation. To

further minimize the receiver complexity, we are applying the

low-cost minimum mean-square error (MMSE) equalizer. Our simulation results indicate that with the optimal design of LCP encoder matrix, the DD-LCP-OFDM STBC system is able to achieve full spatial and multipath diversity,

and

All

the

selective Rayleigh fading. The random vectors h

are assumed to be independent zero-mean complex Gaussian with power delay profile vectors denoted by

and

that are normalized such that

L

L

SR

SR

=L

=L

RD

RD

=L

=L

SD

SD

= 0,

= 1,

L R D denote the corresponding channel memory lengths.
i

S R

i

and

v SR

i

= [

2

σ

SR

i

(0),

v

=

R D

L

l

i

SR i

SR i

= 0

[

2

σ

R D

i

(0),

2

SR

σ

i

(

l

SR

i

)

R D links are assumed to be frequency

i

SR

i

and h

R D

i

,

2

σ

SR

i

(

,

2

σ

R D

i

L

SR

i

)]

(

L

R D

i

)]

= 1

and

L

l

D

R

i

R

i

D

= 0

2

R D

σ

i

(

l

R D

i