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Long Term Evolution (LTE)

Overview
Overview

Introduction

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the preferred development path of GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA networks currently deployed, and an option for evolution of CDMA networks. This essential evolution will enable networks to offer the higher data throughput to mobile terminals needed in order to deliver new and advanced mobile broadband services.

The primary objectives of this network evolution are to provide these services with a quality at least equivalent to what an end-user can enjoy today using their fixed broadband access at home, and to reduce operational expenses by means of introducing flat IP architecture.

This brochure presents the drivers for, and the main technical characteristics of, LTE. It explains Alcatel-Lucent’s LTE solution, and highlights our strong commitment to, and leadership in, LTE.

Why LTE ?

Improved Quality of Experience & New Services

Although 3G/3.5G technologies such as HSPA/EV-DO deliver significantly higher bit rates than 2G technologies, they do not fully satisfy the “wireless broadband” requirements of instant-on, always-on and multi-megabit throughput. With LTE delivering even higher peak throughput and much lower latency, mobile operators (either 3GPP or 3GPP2 based) have a unique opportunity to evolve their existing infrastructure to next- generation wireless networks. As depicted in Figure 1, these networks will deliver their subscriber’s Quality of Experience (QoE) expectations in terms of real-time services such as Voice Over IP, Multi-User Gaming Over IP, High Definition Video On Demand and Live TV. This will also continue to improve the quality of delivery for all legacy applications (e-mail, internet browsing, MMS, etc.).

Figure 1: Mobile Services and Throughput Trends

High High Resolution Resolution Multi-user Multi-user Multimedia Multimedia Interactive Interactive Gaming
High
High
Resolution
Resolution
Multi-user
Multi-user
Multimedia
Multimedia
Interactive
Interactive
Gaming
Gaming
High
High
Definition
Definition
Collaborative
Collaborative
Video
Video
Office
Office
Music
Music
Music
Applications
Applications
Download
Download
Download
MBMS
MBMS
MMS
MMSMMS
Mobile
Mobile
File
File
File
TV
TV
Transfer
Transfer
Transfer
Video
Video
SMSSMS
SMS
Web/
Web/
Web/
Streaming
Streaming
Email
Email
Email
Voice
Voice
2000 2000
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‘Peak rates are the maximum under a perfect RF condition. Actual rates may be much lower depending on RF conditions’
‘Peak rates are the maximum under a perfect RF condition. Actual rates may be much lower depending on RF conditions’
GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS
GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS
HSPA
HSPA
LTE
LTE

100 100

Mbps

Mbps

10 10

Mbps

Mbps

1 1

Mbps

Mbps

100 100

kbps

kbps

10 10

Kbps

Kbps

The improved speed and low latency provided by LTE will offer a much improved end-user experience for all corporate services:

For applications where data throughput is important - faster e- mail and file uploads, enhanced VPN connection, high-speed internet, etc. and;

For interactive applications where latency is crucial - IMS based VoIP, mail and file synchronization with an on-line server, peer-to-peer applications such as “NetMeeting”, SIP multimedia services including video and voice conference over IP, application sharing, etc.

In addition to typical corporate applications, we expect an increased interest from the vertical markets where information accuracy, reliability and immediacy are key: medical applications where latency and high resolution imaging are highly important; machine-to-machine communication where security and immediacy are crucial; live network based navigation; etc.

The mass market will benefit from improvements delivered by LTE for all person-to-person and internet community applications:

Push-to-See, improved quality for VoIP, photo and video downloading / uploading for personal blogs, online gaming, mobile social networks (such as YouTube, myspace), and “Second life” type applications etc.

On top of those improvements, LTE will enable the introduction of new services, such as High Definition Video (or HD TV) and multi-user interactive gaming:

HD TV requires between 10 to 20 Mbits/s bandwidth (18 Mbits/s for example with Blue Ray standard), which is higher than current HSPA capabilities.

Interactive multi-user gaming is extremely sensitive to latency:

the very low latency offered by LTE (less than 10ms versus 60ms with HSPA) is key for fighting games, car races, or any action games involving a large number of simultaneous users. In addition, the higher throughput offered will enable high- resolution video games.

Lastly LTE will play a key role in the development of N-uple services at home (IP TV, Internet, telephone, mobile…services bundle). We are observing an increasing need for broadband access at home and the same will apply to mobile services for two main reasons. Firstly, as subscribers become used to higher speeds at home, they will require the same quality of service when they are mobile so as to benefit from a seamless experience. The second reason is the possibility of offering higher bandwidth in remote areas where ADSL throughput is no longer sufficient and fibre may not be economically viable compared with LTE. In those areas the same LTE infrastructure will deliver mobile services as well as broadband access at home, bringing economies of scale.

same LTE infrastructure will de liver mobile services as well as broadband access at home, bringing

Capacity Requirements

With the recent introduction of HSDPA and EV-DO Rev A, we have observed a significant increase in mobile data traffic, with some operators quadrupling their Packet Switched traffic in one year. At this growth rate, and with the proliferation of new applications on the network, cells in hot spots will be quickly saturated and the network will require densification in these overloaded areas. This can be delivered by using a higher capacity solution such as LTE.

To illustrate this mobile traffic growth, Figure 2 provides the yearly forecast for a typical Mobile Operator in a Western country of 60 million inhabitants.

Figure 2: Mobile Data Traffic Growth

Mobile Data Traffic in Gigabits per year (Source : CSFB) Typical Operator in W-E country of 60 M population

6 000 000 5 000 000 4 000 000 3 000 000 2 000 000
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000 000
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0
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LTE and Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service

The Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) enables multiple users to receive data over the same radio resource. This creates a more efficient approach for delivering content, such as video programming, to which multiple users have subscriptions. However, with HSPA, MBMS does not match the capabilities of broadcasting and/or broadband wireless technologies (such as DVB-H or WiMAX). With an OFDM/SC-FDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex /Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) system, LTE provides the possibility of operating MBMS in a single frequency network mode where significant performance gains (up to five times existing capacity) can be achieved without additional receiver complexity. LTE will consequently dramatically enhance MBMS, and match DVB-H and WiMAX, capabilities.

Reducing the Total Cost of Ownership

Another key driver behind LTE is the reduction of the cost per byte, which is expected to decrease by a factor of six compared with HSPA today (see Figure 3). This cost reduction is derived from network simplification, with flat IP architecture and the enhanced capacity delivered by the new radio technologies implemented by LTE.

Figure 3: Reduced TCO with LTE

Cost per bit Evolution (*) Cost per bit Evolution (*) UMTS UMTS HSPA HSPA LTE
Cost per bit Evolution (*)
Cost per bit Evolution (*)
UMTS
UMTS
HSPA
HSPA
LTE
LTE

*Source:

Analysis Research, 2006

What Is LTE Technology?

In order to prepare for wireless operator’s future needs and to

ensure the competitiveness of their mobile systems over the next ten years, a progression of network architecture, as well as an

evolution of the radio interface is required. This is being evaluated

in the 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE), Long Term

Evolution (LTE) and HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) Study Items. From

a network deployment perspective it is likely that HSPA

enhancements will be introduced first followed by the progression

to a radio interface (LTE).

LTE will allow operators to achieve even greater peak throughputs in higher spectrum bandwidth, and to benefit from greater capacity at a reduced cost. Initial deployments are targeted for

2009.

LTE characteristics include:

Peak LTE throughputs (high spectral efficiency)

DL: 100 Mb/s SISO (Single Input Single Output);

173 Mb/s 2x2 MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output);

326 Mb/s 4x4 MIMO; for 20 MHz

UL: 58 Mb/s 16 QAM

86 Mb/s 64 QAM (based on 1 Tx UE)

Increased Spectrum efficiency over Release 6 HSPA

DL: 3-4 times HSDPA for MIMO (2,2)

UL: 2-3 times E-DCH for MIMO(1,2)

Ultra low Latency

less than 10 msec for round-trip delay (RTD) from UE to server

Reduced call setup times (50-100ms)

=>wired user experience

Capacity per cell

200

users

allocations

for

5

MHz,

400

users

in

larger

spectrum

Flexible spectrum use maximizes flexibility

1.4, 3/3.2, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz

All frequencies of IMT-2000: 450 MHz to 2.6 GHz

LTE is being developed by the 3GPP (3rd generation Partnership Project) standards body that is also responsible for GSM and W- CDMA. LTE standards are currently being developed and are expected to be finalized in early 2008.

In order to reach this performance, LTE will make the best use of

the latest technologies on the market. For radio, a new modulation scheme is being used based on OFDM, and the latest antenna technologies, such as MIMO will be deployed. For the core network, an IP based network topology will also be introduced to

considerably reduce network complexity.

LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) on the downlink, which is better suited than W-CDMA for achieving high peak data rates in high spectrum bandwidth. On the uplink LTE uses SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency

Division Multiple Access), a technology that provides advantages

in power efficiency and resulting terminal battery life versus a pure

OFDM approach.

About Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent (Euronext Paris and NYSE: ALU) provides solutions that enable service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide, to deliver voice, data and video communication services to end-users. As a leader in fixed, mobile and converged broadband networking, IP technologies, applications, and services, Alcatel-Lucent offers the end-to-end solutions that enable compelling communications services for people at home, at work and on the move. For more information, visit Alcatel-Lucent on the Internet:

http://www.alcatel-lucent.com. Copyright © 2008 by Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved. October, 2008

on the Internet: http://www.alcatel-lucent.com . Copyright © 2008 by Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved. October, 2008

MIMO refers to a technique that employs multiple transmit and receive antennas, often in combination with multiple radios and parallel data streams. This results in numerous data paths effectively operating in parallel and, through appropriate decoding, a multiplicative gain in throughput. For example, with a 2X2 MIMO system, a gain of a factor of 2 is expected on the peak throughput.

LTE also requires new network architecture, with the main

functional entities being: the e-node B on the access side, and the Serving (S) and Packet Data Network (PDN) gateways and the Mobile Management Entity (MME) in the core network, as

depicted

in

Figure 4.

Figure 4: LTE Architecture

Call Server Application servers MME eNode B MD MD Service IP Multi-standard S S IP
Call Server
Application
servers
MME
eNode B
MD MD
Service IP
Multi-standard
S
S
IP transport
backbone
X2
User Database
backbone
eNode B
S1
3GLTE
S/P GW

LTE is a pure packet system, with no support for legacy circuit- switched voice/data. This shift allows a significant simplification of the network, reducing the number of nodes and improving operational efficiencies. This network simplification also removes any bottlenecks from the system, ensuring the network permanently runs at peak efficiency.

Figure 5 shows the impacts of this simplification comparing traditional UMTS elements and LTE nodes, and provides a macroscopic mapping of User Plane and Control Plane between nodes.

Figure 5: UMTS-LTE Node Mapping

EPC - Network Simplification

C-plane U-plane GGSN SGSN RNC NodeB
C-plane
U-plane
GGSN
SGSN
RNC
NodeB

C-plane U-plane

C-plane U-plane GGSN SGSN RNC NodeB C-plane U-plane MME S-GW P-GW eNode B In contrast to

MME

U-plane GGSN SGSN RNC NodeB C-plane U-plane MME S-GW P-GW eNode B In contrast to UMTS

S-GW

P-GW

GGSN SGSN RNC NodeB C-plane U-plane MME S-GW P-GW eNode B In contrast to UMTS architecture,

eNode B

In contrast to UMTS architecture, no Radio Network Controller (RNC) is required: the RNC’s functions are collapsed into the eNodeB. On the Core network side, the Mobility Management Entity (MME) assumes the role of the SGSN for the control plane, and the serving and PDN gateways ensure the role of user plane, routing user data traffic to the network edge, replacing the GGSN.

Alcatel-Lucent is committed to LTE with early involvement in 3GPP / LTE specifications, leadership in the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative and has LTE trials planned as early as Q4 2007 (Lab), Field trials in 2008 and Commercial trials in 2009

Alcatel-Lucent’s technological leadership in LTE is based on our OFDM know-how with WiMAX, MIMO expertise, and leadership in the flat IP architecture with Base Station Router concept.

Alcatel-Lucent’s smooth LTE evolution from today’s W- CDMA/HSPA networks is based upon our UTRAN equipment ready to evolve to support LTE and on our strong relationships with chipset and terminals suppliers.

Alcatel-Lucent is strongly committed to CDMA operators willing to implement LTE, by providing a smooth evolution of their networks to LTE, and by delivering LTE / EV-DO roaming/interworking from day one.

The smooth evolution from both CDMA and UMTS is

enabled by a focus on:

Integrated OAM solutions

Inter-technology roaming leadership

Reuse of existing investments i.e. BTS assets

Multi-standard Base stations

Integrated transport capabilities

And more

Alcatel-Lucent and LGE have engaged a strategic cooperation on LTE, focused on ensuring networks, devices, and associated services are in lock-step and up-to-speed for commercial operation with quality of performance and user experience assured. Alcatel-Lucent understands a strong ecosystem is critical to secure & accelerate the launch of LTE. Jointly with device manufacturers such as LGE, Alcatel- Lucent has developed ecosystem workgroups and participates in various multimedia forums to identify the best-in-class applications aimed at supporting the successful launch of LTE

Alcatel-Lucent’s end to end solution for LTE includes, but is not limited to:

Access Gateways

Next Generation Core solutions (IMS)

Market leading network services

Application and subscriber data solutions

IP transport solutions

Alcatel-Lucent’s value proposition for LTE is comprised of 5 key components as shown in Figure 6 below.

Figure 6: Alcatel-Lucent LTE Value Proposition

4G Leadership (LTE, WiMAX) 4G Leadership (LTE, WiMAX) Common technology Common technology Common R&D Common
4G Leadership (LTE, WiMAX)
4G Leadership (LTE, WiMAX)
Common technology
Common technology
Common R&D
Common R&D
Common platforms
Common platforms

Technical leadership

Technical leadership

OFDM know-how with WiMAX

OFDM know-how with WiMAX

MIMO (We invented it! First proposal 2000)

MIMO (We invented it! First proposal 2000)

Flat IP architecture with BSR + # 1 in IP access

Flat IP architecture with BSR + # 1 in IP access

Leader in wireless transmission

Leader in wireless transmission

Conclusion

Strong Ecosystem

Strong Ecosystem

Conclusion Strong Ecosystem Strong Ecosystem
Ca ll Ca ll Ca ll Ca ll Serv ers Serv ers Serv ers Serv
Ca ll
Ca ll
Ca ll
Ca ll
Serv ers
Serv ers
Serv ers
Serv ers
eNode B
eNode B
eNode B
eNode B
 

Involved in the early stages of defining 3GPP/LTE specifications, and benefiting from a broad experience acquired over many years on wireless and mobile broadband system deployments in similar technologies, Alcatel-Lucent is in a unique position to propose an efficient and easy-to-deploy LTE solution from day one:

http://www.alcatel-lucent.com. Copyright © 2008 by Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved. October, 2008

High availability

High availability

High availability

High availability

IP Bac kbone

IP Bac kbone

IP Bac kbone

IP Bac kbone

AGW

AGW

AGW

AGW

Media

Media

Media

Media

Ga tew ay s

Ga tew ay s

Ga tew ay s

Ga tew ay s

Strategic partnership with Appli & Terminal

Strategic partnership with Appli & Terminal

players to secure LTE Ecosystem (e.g. LGE)

players to secure LTE Ecosystem (e.g. LGE)

Ecosystem growing beyond traditional devices

Ecosystem growing beyond traditional devices

Enhanced broadcast solution (#1 in IP TV)

Enhanced broadcast solution (#1 in IP TV)

About Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent (Euronext Paris and NYSE: ALU) provides solutions that enable service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide, to deliver voice, data and video communication services to end-users. As a leader in fixed, mobile and converged broadband networking, IP technologies, applications, and services, Alcatel-Lucent offers the end-to-end solutions that enable compelling communications services for people at home, at work and on the move. For more information, visit Alcatel-Lucent on the Internet:

services for people at home , at work and on the move. For more infor mation,