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Names of Angles

As the Angle Increases, the Name Changes

Type of

Description

Angle

Acute Angle an angle that is less than 90°

Right Angle an angle that is 90° exactly

an angle that is greater than 90°

Obtuse Angle

but less than 180°

Straight Angle an angle that is 180° exactly

This is an Obtuse Angle.

Angle.

But the lines are the same ... so when naming the angles

make sure

that you know which angle is being asked for!

Parts of an Angle

The corner point of an angle is called the vertex

And the two straight sides are called arms

The angle is the amount of turn between each

arm.

Labelling Angles

There are two main ways to label angles:

1. by giving the angle a name, usually a lower-

case letter like a or b, or sometimes a Greek

letter like α (alpha) or θ (theta)

2. or by the three letters on the shape that

define the angle, with the middle letter being

where the angle actually is (its vertex).

Example angle "a" is "BAC", and angle "θ" is

"BCD"

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

There are three special names given to triangles that tell how many sides (or

angles) are equal.

Equilateral Triangle

Three equal sides

Three equal angles,

always 60°

Isosceles Triangle

Two equal sides

Two equal angles

Scalene Triangle

No equal sides

No equal angles

Triangles can also have names that tell you what type of angle is inside:

Acute Triangle

All angles are less than

90°

Right Triangle

Has a right angle (90°)

Obtuse Triangle

Has an angle more than

90°

Tetrahedron

property ...

all four vertices are the same distance from each other!

(thanks Ganesh)

And it is the only Platonic Solid with no parallel faces.

Tetrahedron

It has 4 Faces

Each face has 3 edges, and is actually an Equilateral Triangle

It has 6 Edges

It has 4 Vertices (corner points)

and at each vertex 3 edges meet

Surface Area = √3 × (Edge Length)2

Volume = (√2)/12 × (Edge Length)3

Cube (Hexahedron)

Cube (Hexahedron) Facts

Notice these interesting things:

It has 6 Faces

Each face has 4 edges, and is

actually a square

It has 12 Edges

It has 8 Vertices (corner points)

and at each vertex 3 edges meet

Surface Area = 6 × (Edge Length)2

Volume = (Edge Length)3

Octahedron

Octahedron Facts

Notice these interesting

things:

It has 8 Faces

Each face has 3

edges, and is actually

an Equilateral Triangle

It has 12 Edges

It has 6 Vertices

(corner points)

and at each vertex 4

edges meet

Surface Area = 2 × √3

× (Edge Length)2

Volume = (√2)/3 ×

(Edge Length)3

Dodecahedron

Dodecahedron Facts

Notice these interesting

things:

It has 12 Faces

Each face has 5 edges, and

is actually a pentagon

It has 30 Edges

It has 20 Vertices (corner

points)

and at each vertex 3 edges

meet

Icosahedron

And for reference:

Surface Area =

3×√(25+10×√5) × (Edge

Length)2

Volume = (15+7×√5)/4 ×

(Edge Length)3

Icosahedron Facts

Notice these interesting

things:

It has 20 Faces

Each face has 3 edges, and

is actually an Equilateral

Triangle

It has 30 Edges

It has 12 Vertices (corner

points)

and at each vertex 5 edges

meet

Surface Area = 5×√3 ×

(Edge Length)2

Volume = 5×(3+√5)/12 ×

(Edge Length)3

Prisms

A prism has the same cross section all along its length !

A cross section is the shape you get when cutting straight across an object.

The cross section of this object is a triangle ...

.. it has the same cross section all along its length ...

... and so it's a triangular prism.

(using straight lines!),

Then imagine it extending up from the sheet

of paper,

- that's a prism !

No Curves!

A prism is a polyhedron, which means the cross section will be a

polygon (a straight-edged figure) ... so all sides will be flat!

No curved sides.

For example, a cylinder is not a prism, because it has curved

sides.

Cube: Cross-Section:

square

all along its length)

All the previous examples are Regular Prisms, because the cross section is regular

(in other words it is a shape with equal edge lengths)

Irregular Pentagonal

Cross-Section:

Prism:

(It is "irregular" because the

Pentagon is not "regular"in shape)

Volume of a Prism

The Volume of a prism is simply the area of one end times the length of the prism

Volume = Area × Length

Example: What is the volume of a prism

whose ends are 25 in2 and which is 12 in

long:

Answer: Volume = 25 in2 × 12 in = 300

in3

Tool)

Pyramids

When we think of pyramids we

think of the Great Pyramids of

Egypt.

They are actually Square

Pyramids, because their base is

a Square.

Parts of a Pyramid

A pyramid is made by connecting a base to

an apex

Types of Pyramids

There are many types of Pyramids, and they are named after the shape of their

base.

Pyramid Base

Triangul

ar Details

Pyramid >>

:

Square

Details

Pyramid

>>

:

Pentago

nal Details

Pyramid >>

:

Right vs Oblique Pyramid

This tells you where the top (apex) of the pyramid is. If the apex is directly above

the center of the base, then it is a Right Pyramid, otherwise it is an Oblique

Pyramid.

Regular vs Irregular Pyramid

This tells us about the shape of the base. If the base is a regular polygon, then it

is a Regular Pyramid, otherwise it is an Irregular Pyramid.

Area and Volume

• 1/3 × [Base Area] × Height

The Surface Area of a Pyramid

When all side faces are the same:

• [Base Area] + 1/2 × Perimeter

× [Slant Length]

When side faces are different:

• [Base Area] + [Lateral Area]

Notes On Surface Area

The Surface Area has two parts: the area of the base (the Base Area), and

the area of the side faces (the Lateral Area).

For Base Area :

It depends on the shape, there are different formulas for triangle, square,

etc. See Area for formulas, or our Area Calculation Tool

For Lateral Area :

When all the side faces are the same:

• Just multiply the perimeter by the "slant length" and divide by 2. This

is because the side faces are always triangles and the triangle formula

is "base times height divided by 2"

But if the side faces are different (such as an "irregular" pyramid) then add

up the area of each triangular shape to find the total lateral area.

Sphere Facts

Notice these interesting things:

It is perfectly symmetrical

It has no edges or vertices (corners)

It is not a polyhedron

All points on the surface are the same

distance from the center

Surface Area = 4 × π × r2 Glass Sphere.

Volume = (4/3) × π × r3

Balls and marbles are shaped like spheres.

Of all the shapes, a sphere has the smallest surface area for a volume. Or put another way it can

contain the greatest volume for a fixed surface area.

Example: if you blow up a balloon it naturally forms a sphere because it is trying to hold as

much air as possible with as small a surface as possible. Press the Play button to see.

In Nature

The sphere appears in nature whenever a surface wants to be as small as possible. Examples

include bubbles and water drops, can you think of more?

The Earth

The Planet Earth,

our home, is nearly

a sphere, except that

it is squashed a little It is a spheroid, which means it just misses out

at the poles. on being a sphere because it isn't perfect in one

direction (in the Earth's case: North-South)

Torus

Torus Facts

Notice these interesting things:

It can be made by revolving a small

circle along a line made by another

circle.

It has no edges or vertices

It is not a polyhedron

Surface Area = 4 × π2 × R × r

Volume = 2 × π2 × R × r2

Note: Area and volume formulas

only work when the torus has a

hole!

Torus in the Sky. The Torus is such a

And did you beautiful solid, this one would be fun at the

know that Torus beach !

was the Latin

word for a

cushion? Note: If you have more than one torus

(This is not a they are called tori

real roman

cushion, just an

illustration I

made)

As the small radius (r) gets larger and larger, the torus goes from looking like a Tire

to a Donut:

Cylinder

Cylinder Facts

Notice these interesting things:

It has a flat base and a flat top

The base is the same as the top, and also in-between

It has one curved side

Because it has a curved surface it is not a polyhedron.

Surface Area = 2 × π × r × (r+h)

• Surface Area of One End = π × r2

• Surface Area of Side = 2 × π × r × h

Volume = π × r2 × h

Instructions: In "spin" mode it freely spins

and will respond to your mouse. In "drag" mode it

stops spinning and you can use your mouse to

move it.

cylindrical

Volume of a Cylinder

Just multiply the area of the circle by the height

of the cylinder:

• Area of the circle: π × r2

• Height: h

• Volume = Area × Height = π × r2 × h

There is an easy way to remember:

Imagine you just cooked a pizza.

The radius is "z", and the thickness "a" is the same

everywhere ... what is the volume?

Answer: pi × z × z × a

(we would normally write "pi" as π, and z × z as z2,

but you get the idea!)

It Doesn't Have to Be Circular

Usually when we say Cylinder we mean a Circular

Cylinder, but you can also have Elliptical Cylinders,

like this one:

section is curved and is the same from one end to the

other, then it will still be a cylinder.

More Cylinders

Cone Facts

Notice these

interesting things:

It has a flat base Cone

It has one curved

side

Because it has a

curved surface it is

not a polyhedron.

• The pointy end of a cone is

Surface Area of Base

= π × r2 called the vertex or apex

• The flat part is the base

Surface Area of Side

=π×r×s • An object shaped like a

o Surface Area of Side cone is said to be conical

r = π × r × √(r2+h2)

Volume = π × r2 ×

(h/3)

A cone is made by rotating a triangle!

The triangle has to be a right-angled triangle, and it gets rotated

around one of its two short sides.

The side it rotates around is the axis of the cone.

Volume of a Cone vs Cylinder

The volume formulas for cones and cylinders are very similar:

The volume of a cylinder is: π × r2 × h

The volume of a cone is: π × r2 × (h/3)

So, the only difference is that a cone's volume is one third (1/3) of a cylinder's.

So, in future, order your ice creams in cylinders, not cones, you get 3 times more!

Different Shaped Cones

Polygons

Quadrilaterals

(quad means four, lateral means side).

Any four-sided shape is a

Quadrilateral.

But the sides have to be straight, and it

has to be 2-dimensional.

Properties

• Four sides (or edges)

• Four vertices (or corners).

• The interior angles add up to 360 degrees:

Try drawing a quadrilateral, and measure the angles. They should add to 360°

Types of Quadrilaterals

There are special types of quadrilateral:

Some types are also included in the definition of other types! For example a square, rhombus

and rectangle are also parallelograms. See below for more details.

Let us look at each type in turn:

The Rectangle

means "right

angle"

show equal sides

and

Also opposite sides are parallel and of equal length.

The Rhombus

A rhombus is a four-sided shape where all sides have equal length.

Also opposite sides are parallel and opposite angles are equal.

Another interesting thing is that the diagonals (dashed lines in second figure) of a rhombus bisect

each other at right angles.

The Square

means "right

angle"

show equal sides

A square has equal sides and every angle is a right angle (90°)

Also opposite sides are parallel.

A square also fits the definition of a rectangle (all angles are 90°), and a rhombus (all sides are

equal length).

The Parallelogram

Opposite sides are parallel and equal in length, and opposite angles are equal (angles "a" are the

same, and angles "b" are the same)

NOTE: Squares, Rectangles and Rhombuses are all Parallelograms!

Example:

A parallelogram with:

• all sides equal and

• angles "a" and "b" as right angles

is a square!

The Trapezoid (UK: Trapezium)

Trapezoid Isosceles Trapezoid

A trapezoid (called a trapezium in the UK) has one pair of opposite sides parallel.

It is called an Isosceles trapezoid if the sides that aren't parallel are equal in length and both

angles coming from a parallel side are equal, as shown.

Language Note: In the US a "trapezium" is a quadrilateral with NO parallel sides!

The Kite

Hey, it looks like a kite. It has two pairs of sides. Each pair is made up of adjacent sides that are

equal in length. The angles are equal where the pairs meet. Diagonals (dashed lines) meet at a

right angle, and one of the diagonal bisects (cuts equally in half) the other.

... and that's it for the special quadrilaterals.

Irregular Quadrilaterals

The only regular quadrilateral is a square. So all other quadrilaterals are irregular.

Quadrilateral definitions are inclusive.

Example: a square is also a rectangle.

So we include a square in the definition of a rectangle.

(We don't say "A rectangle has all 90° angles, except if it is a square")

This may seem odd because in daily life we think of a square as not being a rectangle ... but in

mathematics it is.

Using the chart below you can answer such questions as:

• Is a Square a type of Rectangle? (Yes)

• Is a Rectangle a type of Kite? (No)

Complex Quadrilaterals

Oh Yes! when two sides cross over, you call it a "Complex" or "Self-Intersecting" quadrilateral

like these:

Polygon

A quadrilateral is a polygon. In fact it is a 4-sided polygon, just like a triangle is a 3-sided

polygon, a pentagon is a 5-sided polygon, and so on.

Play with Them

Now that you know the different types, you can play with the Interactive Quadrilaterals.

Other Names

A quadrilateral can sometimes be called:

• a Quadrangle ("four angles"), so it sounds like "triangle"

• a Tetragon ("four and polygon"), so it sounds like "pentagon", "hexagon",

etc.

Polygons

A polygon is a plane shape with straight sides.

Is it a Polygon?

Polygons are 2-dimensional shapes. They are made of straight lines, and the shape is "closed"

(all the lines connect up).

(straight sides) (has a curve) (open, not closed)

Polygon comes from Greek. Poly- means "many" and -gon means "angle".

Types of Polygons

Simple or Complex

A simple polygon has only one boundary, and it doesn't cross over itself. A complex polygon

intersects itself!

(this one's a Pentagon) (also a Pentagon)

Concave or Convex

A convex polygon has no angles pointing inwards. More precisely, no internal angles can be

more than 180°.

If there are any internal angles greater than 180° then it is concave. (Think: concave has a

"cave" in it)

Convex Concave

Regular or Irregular

If all angles are equal and all sides are equal, then it is regular, otherwise it is irregular

Regular Irregular

More Examples

Complex Polygon

(a "star polygon", in Concave Octagon Irregular Hexagon

this case, a pentagram)

Names of Polygons

If it is a Regular Polygon...

Name Sides Shape Interior Angle

Pentagon 5 108°

Hexagon 6 120°

Octagon 8 135°

Decagon 10 144°

Hendecagon (or Undecagon) 11 147.273°

Dodecagon 12 150°

Triskaidecagon 13 152.308°

Tetrakaidecagon 14 154.286°

Pentadecagon 15 156°

Hexakaidecagon 16 157.5°

Heptadecagon 17 158.824°

Octakaidecagon 18 160°

Enneadecagon 19 161.053°

Icosagon 20 162°

Triacontagon 30 168°

Tetracontagon 40 171°

Pentacontagon 50 172.8°

Hexacontagon 60 174°

Heptacontagon 70 174.857°

Octacontagon 80 175.5°

Enneacontagon 90 176°

Hectagon 100 176.4°

Chiliagon 1,000 179.64°

Myriagon 10,000 179.964°

Megagon 1,000,000 ~180°

Googolgon 10100 ~180°

gon", "14-gon" ... "100-gon", etc.

Polygons

A polygon is a closed figure made by connecting line segments, where each line segment end

connects to only one end of two other line segments.

The following are examples of polygons:

The figure below is not a polygon, since it is not made of

line

segments:

not intersect in exactly two places each:

Regular Polygon

A regular polygon is a polygon whose sides are all the same length, and whose angles are all the

same. The sum of the angles of a polygon with n sides, where n is 3 or more, is 180° × (n - 2)

degrees.

The following are examples of regular polygons:

:

The following are not examples of regular polygons:

Triangle

A three-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.

A triangle having all three sides of equal length. The angles of an equilateral triangle all measure

60 degrees.

Isosceles Triangle

A triangle having two sides of equal length.

Scalene Triangle

A triangle having three sides of different lengths.

Acute Triangle

A triangle having three acute angles.

Obtuse Triangle

A triangle having an obtuse angle. One of the angles of the triangle measures more than 90

degrees.

Right Triangle

A triangle having a right angle. One of the angles of the triangle measures 90 degrees. The side

opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse. The two sides that form the right angle are

called the legs. A right triangle has the special property that the sum of the squares of the lengths

of the legs equals the square of the length of the hypotenuse. This is known as the Pythagorean

Theorem.

Example:

For the right triangle above, the lengths of the legs are A and B, and the hypotenuse has length C.

Using the Pythagorean Theorem, we know that A2 + B2 = C2.

In the right triangle above, the hypotenuse has length 5, and we see that 32 + 42 = 52 according to

the Pythagorean Theorem.

Triangle

A three-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.

A triangle having all three sides of equal length. The angles of an equilateral triangle all measure

60 degrees.

Isosceles Triangle

A triangle having two sides of equal length.

Scalene Triangle

A triangle having three sides of different lengths.

Acute Triangle

A triangle having three acute angles.

:

Obtuse Triangle

A triangle having an obtuse angle. One of the angles of the triangle measures more than 90

degrees.

Right Triangle

A triangle having a right angle. One of the angles of the triangle measures 90 degrees. The side

opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse. The two sides that form the right angle are

called the legs. A right triangle has the special property that the sum of the squares of the lengths

of the legs equals the square of the length of the hypotenuse. This is known as the Pythagorean

Theorem.

:

For the right triangle above, the lengths of the legs are A and B, and the hypotenuse has length C.

Using the Pythagorean Theorem, we know that A2 + B2 = C2.

In the right triangle above, the hypotenuse has length 5, and we see that 32 + 42 = 52 according to

the Pythagorean Theorem.

Quadrilateral

A four-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360 degrees.

Rectangle

A four-sided polygon having all right angles. The sum of the angles of a rectangle is 360

degrees.

Square

A four-sided polygon having equal-length sides meeting at right angles. The sum of the angles of

a square is 360 degrees.

Parallelogram

A four-sided polygon with two pairs of parallel sides. The sum of the angles of a parallelogram is

360 degrees.

Rhombus

A four-sided polygon having all four sides of equal length. The sum of the angles of a rhombus

is 360 degrees.

Trapezoid

A four-sided polygon having exactly one pair of parallel sides. The two sides that are parallel are

called the bases of the trapezoid. The sum of the angles of a trapezoid is 360 degrees.

Pentagon

A five-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a pentagon is 540 degrees.

:

A regular pentagon:

An irregular pentagon:

Hexagon

A six-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a hexagon is 720 degrees.

A regular hexagon: An irregular hexagon:

Heptagon

A seven-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a heptagon is 900 degrees.

A regular heptagon: An irregular heptagon:

Octagon

An eight-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of an octagon is 1080 degrees.

Examples:

A regular octagon: An irregular octagon:

Nonagon

A nine-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a nonagon is 1260 degrees.

Examples:

A regular nonagon: An irregular nonagon:

Decagon

A ten-sided polygon. The sum of the angles of a decagon is 1440 degrees.

Examples:

An irregular

A regular decagon:

decagon:

Circle

A circle is the collection of points in a plane that are all the same distance from a fixed point.

The fixed point is called the center. A line segment joining the center to any point on the circle is

called a radius.

Example:

The blue line is the radius r, and the collection of red points is the circle.

Convex

A figure is convex if every line segment drawn between any two points inside the figure lies

entirely inside the figure. A figure that is not convex is called a concave figure.

Example:

The following figures are convex.

The following figures are concave. Note the red line segment drawn between two points inside

the figure that also passes outside of the figure.

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