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INTRODUCTION

1. Introduction

1.1. Introduction

The modern power distribution network is constantly being faced with an

ever-growing load demand. Distribution networks experience distinct change from a low

to high load level everyday. Electric load growth and higher regional power transfers in a

largely interconnected network becoming more complex and less secure power system

operation. Power generation and transmission facilities are unable to meet these new

demands.

Many loads at various distribution ends like domestic utilities ,computers,

process industries, adjustable speed drives, printers microprocessor based equipments etc.

have become intolerant to voltage fluctuations, harmonic content and interruptions.

Growth of electronic loads has made the quality of power supply a critical issue. There

fore numerous problems have to be attended in monitoring the operation of such a

system, like voltage fluctuations, power losses, etc. Power system engineers facing these

challenges to operate the system in more a flexible.

Electrical power losses in distribution systems correspond to about 70% of

total losses in electric power systems. These electrical losses can be considerably reduced

through the installation and control of reactive support equipments, such as capacitor

banks, reducing reactive currents in distribution feeders and so on.

Conventional solutions for solving distribution network problems, like

tap-changing transformers to control the voltage along feeders are no longer viable,

because the distribution network will be changed from a passive network into an active

network and thus the voltage profile is not predictable any more. One of the most severe

problems faced by distribution networks operators is voltage drop along distribution

feeders, which is caused by real and reactive power flow. Voltage control is a difficult

task because voltages are strongly influenced by random load fluctuations.

Voltage profile can be improved and power losses can be considerably

reduced by installing Custom Power Devices or Controllers at suitable location. These

controllers which are also named Distribution Flexible AC Transmission System (D-

2

FACTS) [1] are a new generation of power electronics-based equipment aimed at

enhancing the reliability and quality of power flows in low-voltage distribution networks.

Custom power is formally defined as the employment of power electronic

or static controllers in distribution systems rated up to 38 kV for the purpose of supplying

a level of reliability or PQ that is needed by electric power customers who are sensitive to

power variations. Custom power devices or controllers [2-3] include static switches,

inverters, converters, injection transformers, master-control modules and energy-storage

modules that have the ability to perform current-interruption and voltage-regulation

functions with in a distribution system.

Custom Power Devices is classified into three categories by their structures such as

Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Distribution STATCOM (DSTATCOM) and Solid-

State Breaker (SSB). In the present paper D-STATCOM, a member of Custom power

controllers family, is considered.

The D-STATCOM is a shunt-connected, solid-state switching power

converter that provides flexible voltage control at the point of connection to the utility

distribution feeder for power quality (PQ) improvements and also exchanges both active

and reactive power (current) [4] with the distribution system by varying the amplitude

and phase angle of the converter.

Since this device is utilized in steady-state condition for long term,

because of limited capacity of energy storage system, it cannot inject active power to the

system for long term. Therefore, a suitable model for D-STATCOM has been proposed

in load flow program, which is applicable in large distribution systems.

The effects of D-STATCOM on voltage improvement at other nodes are considered and

the optimum location of D-STATCOM in the distribution network is determined.

In the proposed method D-STATCOM is considered in modified load flow

computations. Further the optimal location is identified to place D-STATCOM for the

purpose of loss reduction and voltage improvement.

Load flow is an important method for analysis, operation and planning

studies of any power system in a steady-state condition. In this paper an efficient method

for node and line identification utilized in load flow has been proposed.

3

The load flow method [5] is modified by considering all the line

parameters and load flow solution is obtained. By considering these modifications the

line losses are still reduced and voltage profile is also improved. D-STATCOM is then

modeled [6] and incorporated in the system under consideration. The results obtained are

highly satisfactory and hence the method can be applied a system of any size.

and consumers meters is called distribution system. It is the final stage in the transfer of

power to the individual customers. It generally consists of feeders, distributors and the

service mains.

(a) Feeders: A feeder is a conductor which connects the substation to the area where

power is to be distributed .Generally tappings are taken from the feeders, so that current

remains same through out .The main consideration in the design of feeder is the current

carrying capacity.

(b) Distributor: A distributor is a conductor from which tappings are taken from supply to

the consumers. While designing the distributor, voltage drop along its length is the main

consideration.

(c) Service main: A service main is generally a small cable which connects the distributor

to the consumers terminals.

The a.c.distribution system is classified in to Primary distribution system,

Secondary distribution system.

Distribution substation:

The distribution system is fed through distribution substation. Each

substation normally serves its own load area, which is a subdivision of the area served by

the distribution system. At the distribution substation the sub transmission voltage is

reduced for general distribution throughout the area. The substation consists of one or

more power transformers together with the necessary voltage regulating equipments,

buses and switchgear. The substation designs are based on the consideration such as load

density, high side voltage, low side voltage, reliability, voltage drop, cost and losses.

4

Primary distribution system

It is the part of a.c.distribution system which operates at voltages some

what higher than general utilization and handles large blocks of electrical energy than the

average low voltage consumer uses. The voltage used for primary distribution depends

upon the amount of power to be conveyed and the distance of the substation to be used.

The most commonly used primary distribution voltages are 11kV, 6.6kV and 3.3kV.

Primary feeder supply small industrial consumers. Due to economic considerations

primary distribution is carried out by 3-phase, 3-wire system.

It is that part of a.c.distribution system which includes the range of

voltages at which the ultimate consumer utilizes the electrical energy delivered. The part

of the electric utility system which is between the primary system and the consumers

property is called the 'secondary system'. Here distribution transformers are connected to

primary feeder and its sub feeders and laterals. These transformers serve to step down the

voltage from distribution voltage to the utilization voltage. Each transformers supplies a

consumer or group of consumers over its secondary circuit through his service leads and

meter. The secondary distribution employs 400/230v, 3-phase, and 4-wire system.

Utilization:-

Loads of power systems are divided into industrial, commercial and

residential. Large industrial loads are served directly from the sub transmission network

.Small industrial loads are served from the primary distribution network.

Commercial and residential loads consist largely of lighting, heating and

cooling .These loads are independent of frequency and consume negligibly small amount

of reactive power.

The ratio of power utilized by the consumers of electric power to the

power produced at generation stations must be high as possible. In other words the losses

occurring in carrying electric power from the generator to the consumers must be kept at

the minimum. These losses are called “line losses” or I2R losses in the line.

5

Distribution losses

It has been established that 70% of the total losses are occurring in the

primary and secondary distribution system, while transmission and sub transmission lines

account for only 30% of the total losses. There fore the primary and secondary

distribution system must be properly planned to ensure losses within the acceptability

limits.

Factors contributing to the increase in the line losses in the primary and

secondary distribution system are Feeder length, Inadequate size of conductor, Location

of distribution transformer, Use of over rated distribution transformers, Low voltages,

Low power factor and Poor workman ship in fittings.

(b) Methods for reduction of line losses

The following methods are adopted for reduction of distribution system

losses are Constriction of new substation, Reinforcement of the feeder, Reactive power

compensation, HV distribution system, Grading of conductor, Using shunt compensation

techniques, Feeder reconfiguration and DG unit placement.

Distribution power losses can be considerably reduced by installing

Custom Power Devices or Controllers at suitable location. These controllers which are

also named Distribution Flexible AC Transmission System (D-FACTS) are a new

generation of power electronics-based equipment aimed at enhancing the reliability and

quality of power flows in low-voltage distribution networks. ). D-FACTS mean FACTS

(Flexible AC Transmission Systems) (Hingorani, 1993) that are diverted to distribution

systems.

To improve the power quality some devices need to be installed at a

suitable locations. These devices are called custom power devices, which make sure that

customers get pre specified quality and reliability of supply the compensating devices

compensate a load, i.e., its power factor, unbalance conditions or improve the power

6

quality of supplied voltage, etc. some of power quality improvement techniques are given

as below.

Regulation of the power factor to increase the transmission capability and reduce

transmission losses. Shunt capacitors are primarily used to improve the power factor in

transmission and distribution network, resulting in improved voltage regulation, reduced

network losses, and efficient capacity utilization. .Improved transmission voltage

regulation can be obtained during heavy power transfer conditions when the system

consumes a large amount of reactive power that must be replaced by compensation.

At the line surge impedance loading level, the shunt capacitor would decrease the

line losses by more than 30%.In distribution and industrial systems, it is common to use

shunt capacitors to compensate for the highly inductive loads, thus achieving reduced

delivery system losses and network voltage drop.

Benefits

Improved power factor

Reduced transmission losses

Increased transmission capability

.Improved voltage control

Improved power quality

Other Application

Harmonic filters

The primary purpose of the shunt reactor is to compensate for capacitive charging

voltage, a phenomenon getting prominent for increasing line voltage. Long high voltage

transmission lines and relatively short cable lines (since a power cable high capacitance

to earth) generate a large amount of reactive power during light power transfer conditions

which must be absorbed by compensation. Otherwise, the receiving terminals of the

transmission lines will exhibit a voltage rise voltages .A better fine tuning of the reactive

7

power can be made by the use of a tap changer in the shunt reactor .It can be possible to

vary the reactive power between 50 to 100% of the needed power.

Benefits

Simple and robust customer solution with low installation costs and minimum

maintenance

No losses from an intermediate transformer when feeding reactive

compensation from a over voltage level

No harmonics created which may require filter banks

Voltage flickers can become a significant problem for power distributor

when large motor loads are introduced remote locations. Installation of a series capacitor

in the feeder strengthens the network and allows such load to connected to existing lines,

avoiding more significant investment in new substations or new distribution lines.

The use of mini cap on long distribution feeders provides self regulated

reactive power compensation that efficiently reduces voltage variations during large

motor starting.

Benefits

Reduce voltage fluctuations(flicker)

Improved voltage profile along the line

Easier starting of large motors

Self regulation

1.3.4. Filters

Harmonic filters may be used to mitigate, and in some cases, eliminate problems

created power system harmonics. Non linear loads such as rectifiers, converters, home

electronic appliances, and electric arc furnaces cause harmonics giving rise to extra losses

in power equipment such as transformers, motors and capacitors. They can also causes

other, probably more serious problems, when interfering with control systems and

electronic devices. Installing filters near the harmonic sources can effectively reduce

harmonics.

8

These filters consist of capacitor banks with suitable tuning reactors and damping

resistors. For small and medium size loads, active filters, based on power electronic

converters with high switching frequency, may be a more attractive solution.

Benefits

Eliminates harmonics

Improved power factor

Reduce transmission losses

Increased transmission capability

Improved voltage control

Improved power factor

Other applications

Shunt capacitors

Static var compensators are used in transmission and distribution network mainly

providing dynamic voltage support in response to systems disturbances and balancing the

reactive power demand of large and fluctuating industrial loads. A static var compensator

is capable of both generating and absorbing variable reactive power continuously as

opposed to discrete values of fixed and switched shunt capacitors or reactors.

With continuously variable reactive power supply, the voltage at the svc bus may be

maintained smoothly over a wide range of active power transfer or system loading

conditions. This entails the reduction of network losses and prevention of adequate power

quality to the electric energy end users.

Static var compensators are mainly used to perform voltage and reactive power

regulation. However, when properly placed and controlled, Static Var Compensators can

also effectively counteract system oscillations. A Static Var Compensator, in effect, has

the ability to increase the damping factor (typically by 1-2 MW per Mvar installed) on a

bulky power system witch is experiencing power oscillators.

Static Var Compensator (SVC) is used most frequently for compensation of

disturbances generated by the Electrical Arc Furnaces (EAF) with a well-designed Static

Var Compensator (SVC), disturbances such as flicker from the EAF are mitigated

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Flicker, the random. The random voltage variations can also be disturbing to other

process equipment fed from the same grid. The proper mitigation of flicker is therefore a

matter of power quality improvement as well as an improvement to human environment.

Benefits:

Increased power transfer capability

Additional flexibility in grid operation

Improved grid voltage stability

Improved grid voltage control

Improved power factor

Other applications:

Power oscillation damping

Power quality (Flicker Mitigation, Voltage, Balancing)

Grid voltage support

1.3.6. STATCOM

Static Compensator, when connected to the grid, can provide dynamic voltage

support in response to system disturbances and balance the reactive power demand of

large and fluctuating industrial loads. A Static Compensator is capable of both generating

and absorbing variable reactive power continuously as opposed to discrete values of fixed

and switched shunt capacitors or reactors. With continuously variable reactive power

supply, the voltage at the Static Compensator bus may be maintained smoothly over a

wide range of system operation conditions .This entails reduction of network losses and

provision of sufficient power quality to the electric energy end- users.

Static Compensator uses voltage source converters to improve furnace

productivity similar to a traditional Static Var Compensator while offering superior

voltage flicker mitigation due to fast response time. Similar to Static Var Compensator,

the Static Compensator can elegantly be used to restore voltage and current balance in the

grid, and to mitigate voltage fluctuations generated by the traction loads.

Benefits

Increased power transfer capability

Additional flexibility in grid operation

Improved grid voltage stability

10

Improved grid voltage control

Improved power factor

Eliminated flicker

Harmonic filtering

Voltage balancing

Power factor correction

Furnace/mill process productivity improvement

Other Applications

Power quality(Flicker mitigation, Voltage balancing)

Grid voltage support

It is a series compensating device. It is used for protecting a sensitive load that is

connected downstream from sag/swell etc. It can also regulate the bus voltage at the load

terminal.

It limits a fault current by quickly inserting a series inductance in the fault path.

It breaks a faulted circuit much faster than a mechanical circuit breaker.

It is connected in the bus tie position when a sensitive load is supplied between

two feeders. It protects the load by quickly transferring it from the faulty feeder from the

healthy feeder.

This device, like the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) consists of two

voltage inverters. The capabilities of this device are still unexplored .However it can

simultaneously perform the tasks of Distribution Static Compensator and Dynamic

Voltage Restorer.

11

1.4. Literature Survey

From literature there exist several control strategies which are usually

based on mathematical approach. Plenty of work has been dedicated to applying the

mathematical optimization techniques for system planning. Before the emergence of

FACTS devices, early research on planning reactive power compensation has employed

linear programming [9], discrete programming [10], parameter sensitivity [11], nonlinear

programming [12], etc. So far, with the development of computer technology and

optimization theory, more and more sophisticated models recently have been established

for FACTS devices allocation problems.

A method of applying shunt capacitors for voltage control and peak loss

reduction is discussed [13]. The concept is extended to the optimization of total monetary

savings due to both peak loss and energy loss reductions. A computer program is

developed to aid engineers in the application of such a method. In [14], a successful

attempt was made to solve the problem using the dynamic programming approach. This

optimization technique has eliminated the previously mentioned problems of optimum

number and standard bank size. The method, however, was capable of dealing with the

fixed type of capacitors only.

In [15], the location of SVC is determined by modal analysis of reduced

power flow Jacobian matrix. The critical mode is found by stressing the system to the

vicinity of the saddle node of P–V curve, so that the voltage stability issue can be

addressed. This method is verified via a 1380 bus system. Three types of FACTS

controllers are considered, SVC, TCSC and UPFC. The location with the best average

controllability index of FACTS controllers is selected. In addition, an extended voltage

phasers approach (EVPA) [16] is established for SVC, TCSC and STATCOM allocation

to enhance loadability and voltage stability respectively. The authors in [17] propose a

scheme for TCSC and TCPST planning via linear optimal power flow (OPF) method.

The location is selected via implementing OPF to optimise the cost of installation and

size. In addition, market consideration is also included in TCSC placement.

12

The D-STATCOM (distribution static compensator) with fast response is

an effective solution for improving the power quality of distribution systems. The

dynamic compensation of D-STATCOM in 10/0.4 kV distribution system is simulated

with Matlab, which proves the superiority and feasibility of D-STATCOM.

It is also quite interesting to note that the Bharat Heavy Electric Limited

(BHEL), India was successful in developing distribution scale STATCOM also known as

D-STATCOM which has successfully been installed in industry. The worlds first

commercial STATCOM (±80 MVA, 154 kV) was developed by Mitsubishi Electric

Power Products, Inc. and installed at Inuyama substation in Japan in 1991. STATCOM

also finds its application in industries for flicker reduction.

Generally, distribution networks are radial and the R/X ratio is very high.

For this reason, conventional Newton- Raphson (NR) [18] and fast decoupled load-flow

[19] methods do not converge. Goswami and Basu [20] have presented a direct method

for solving radial and meshed distribution networks. However, the main limitation of

their method is that no node in the network is the junction of more than three branches,

i.e. one incoming and two outgoing branches. Jasmon and Lee [21-22] have proposed a

new load-flow method for obtaining the solution of radial distribution networks. They

have used the three fundamental equations representing real power, reactive power and

voltage magnitude. They have solved the radial distribution network using these three

equations by reducing the whole network into a single h e equivalent. Das et al. [23] have

proposed a load-flow technique for solving radial distribution networks by calculating the

total real and reactive power fed through any node. They have proposed a unique node,

branch and lateral numbering scheme which helps to evaluate exact real- and reactive

power loads fed through any node and receiving-end voltages.

13

1.5. Scope of the Project

In this project, the structure and principle of operation, implementation of

Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator are discussed. And the Proposed method

for modeling D-STATCOM is considered in modified load flow computations. Further

the optimal location is identified to place D-STATCOM for the purpose of loss reduction

and voltage improvement and program is done.

Such device is employed to provide continuous voltage regulation using controlled

converter. The advantage of this type of compensator over conventional SVC’s is the

improved speed of response. This speed of response means that such a device is ideally

suited to application with a rapidly varying load.

Two standard distribution systems consisting of IEEE-15 and IEEE-29

buses are considered and the D-STATCOM model is applied to load flow and

corresponding results are also presented and are compared.

.

14

Chapter II

15

2. Custom Power Devices

2.1. Introduction

Modern power systems are complex networks where hundreds of

generating stations and thousands of load centers are interconnected through long power

transmission and distribution networks. The main concern of consumers is the quality and

reliability of power supplies at various load centers where they are located at .Even

though the power generation in most well developed countries is fairly reliable.

Power distribution systems ideally, should provide their customers with an

uninterrupted flow of energy at smooth sinusoidal voltage at the constant magnitude level

and frequency. However in practice power systems especially the distribution systems

have numerous non linear loads, which significantly effect the quality of power supplies.

As a result of the non linear loads, the purity of the waveform of supplies is lost. This

ends up producing many power quality problems. Apart from non linear loads some

system events both usual (e.g. capacitor switching, motor starting) and unusual (e.g.

faults) could also inflict power quality problems. The consequence of power quality

problems could range from a simple nuisance flicker in the electrical lamps to loss

thousands of dollars due to production shutdown.

A power quality problem is defined as any manifested problem in voltage

or current or leading to frequency deviations that result in failure or misoperation of

customer equipment .

Voltage sag is defined as the sudden reduction of supply voltage down

90% to 10% of nominal, followed by a recovery after a short period of time. A typical

duration of sag is, according to the standard 10 ms to one minute .Voltage sag can cause

loss of production in automated process since voltage sag can trip a motor or cause its

controller to malfunction.

Voltage swell, on the other hand, is defined as a sudden increasing of

supply voltage up 110% t0 180% in rms voltage at the network fundamental frequency

duration 10ms to one minute. Switching off a large inductive load or energizing a large

16

capacitor bank in a typical system event that causes swells. To compensate the voltage

sag or swell in a power distribution system, appropriate devices need to be installed at

suitable location. These devices are typically placed at the point of common coupling

(PCC) which is defined as the point where the ownership of the network changes.

The concept of custom power was introduced by N.G .Hingorani[2] in

1995.Like for transmission systems , the term custom power pertains to the use of power

electronic controllers in a distribution system , especially, to deal with various power

quality problems. Just as FACTS improves the power transfer capabilities and stability

margins, custom power makes sure customers get pre-specified quality and reliability of

supply. This pre-specified quality may contain a combination of specifications of the

following.

1. Low phase unbalance

2. No power interruptions

3. Low flicker at the load voltage

4. Low harmonic distortion in load voltage

5. Magnitude and duration of over voltages or under voltages with in specified limits

6. Acceptance of fluctuations

7. Nonlinear and poor power factor loads without significant effect on terminal voltage

8. "tight" voltage regulation including short duration sags or swells

These can be done on the basis of an individual, large customer, industrial

or commercial parts or a supply for a high community on wide area basis. Custom power

technology is a general term for equipment capable of mitigating numerous power quality

problems Basic functions are fast switching and current or voltage injection for

correcting anomalies in supply voltage or load current, by injecting or absorbing reactive

and active power respectively.

The concept of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems

(FACTS) and Custom Power is widely studied by the researcher. FACTS use Power

electronic devices and methods to control the high-voltage side of the network for

improving the power flow. Custom Power is for low-voltage distribution, and improving

17

the poor power quality [24] and reliability of supply affecting factories, offices and

homes. Power quality and Reliability are becoming important issues for critical and

sensitive loads after introducing the term of Custom Power by Hingorani in early 1980s.

Custom power is formally defined as the employment of power electronic

or static controllers in distribution systems rated up to 38 kV for the purpose of supplying

a level of reliability or PQ that is needed by electric power customers who are sensitive to

power variations. Custom power devices or controllers [6] include static switches,

inverters, converters, injection transformers, master-control modules and energy-storage

modules that have the ability to perform current-interruption and voltage-regulation

functions with in a distribution system.

The power electronic controllers that are used in the custom power

solution can be a network reconfiguring type or a compensating type. The network

reconfigurating devices are usually called switchgears which include current limiting,

current breaking and current transferring devices. The solid state or static versions of the

devices are called: solid state current limiter (SSCL), solid state breaker (SSB), and solid

state transfer switch (SSTS). The compensating devices compensate a load, i.e. its power

factor, unbalance conditions or improve the power quality of supplied voltage, etc. These

devices are either connected in shunt or in series or a combination of both. This class of

devices includes the distribution static compensator (D-STATCOM), dynamic voltage

restorer (DVR), and unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) [2]. Among compensating

devices, a Dynamic Voltage Restorer can deal with voltage sags and swells which are

considered to have a severe impact on manufacturing places such as semiconductors and

plastic products, food processing places and paper mills.

Custom Power Devices is classified into three categories by their

structures such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Distribution STATCOM

(DSTATCOM) and Solid-State Breaker (SSB). Two of the devices DSTATCOM and the

DVR share a similar architecture. Both are based on the voltage source converter. DVR is

connected in series with the line where as DSTATCOM is in shunt with the line across

the load. Among these devices, the main purpose of DVR that injects voltage in series

with a distribution feeder is reducing the effect of short-term voltage sags, dips, swells

and momentary interruptions.

18

The proposed system has a function of generating and absorbing voltage

by self-charging control technique. This system has three states: 1) normal operation, 2)

charging operation and 3) recharging operation. The paper discusses control issues and

the proposed control algorithm. The proposed control technique is applied to

DSTATCOM for protecting voltage sags, swell and momentary interruption.

The family of emerging power electronic devices being offered to achieve

these Custom Power [2-3] objectives includes:

(a) Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) to protect the distribution system

from the effects of a polluting, e.g. fluctuating, voltage sags, swells, transients or

harmonics non-linear (harmonics producing), and load.

(b) Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) to protect a critical load from disturbances, e.g.

sags, swells, transients or harmonics, originating on the interconnected transmission or

distribution system.

(c) Solid-State Breaker (SSB) to provide power quality improvement through

instantaneous current interruption thereby protecting sensitive loads from disturbances

that conventional electromechanical breaker cannot eliminate.

(d) Solid-State Transfer Switch (SSTS) to instantaneously transfer sensitive loads from

a disturbance on the normal feed to the undisturbed alternate feed.

The D-STATCOM is a solid-state dc to ac switching power converter that

consists of a three-phase, voltage-source forced air-cooled inverter. In its basic form, the

D-STATCOM injects a voltage in phase with the system voltage, thus providing voltage

support and regulation of VAR flow.

The D-STATCOM can also be used to reduce the level of harmonics on a

line. Because the D-STATCOM continuously checks the line waveform with respect to a

reference AC signal, it always provides the correct amount of harmonic compensation.

By a similar argument, the D-STATCOM is also suitable for reducing the impact of

voltage transients. The amount of load that can be supported is determined by the MVA

19

rating of the inverters, and the length of time that the load can be maintained by the

amount of energy storage provided.

The D-STATCOM is available in ratings from 2 to 10 MVA in modular 2-

MVA increments. These are similar in performance to SVC. Using only capacitors or

inductors or batteries, these devices can draw / supply both leading and lagging currents.

They have a very good response time and are more suitable for special industrial loads

like arc furnaces.

The DVR is a solid-state dc to ac switching power converter that injects a

set of three single-phase ac output voltages in series with the distribution feeder and in

synchronism with the voltages of the distribution system. By injecting voltages of

controllable amplitude, phase angle and frequency (harmonic) into the distribution feeder

in instantaneous real time via a series injection transformer, the DVR can "restore" the

utility of voltage at its load-side terminals when the quality of the source-side terminal

voltage is significantly out of specification for sensitive load equipment. The reactive

power exchanged between the DVR and the distribution system is internally generated by

the DVR without any ac passive reactive components, i.e. reactors and capacitors. For

large variations (deep sags) in the source voltage, the DVR supplies partial power to the

load from a rechargeable energy source attached to the DVR dc terminal. The DVR is

available in ratings from 2 to 10 MVA in modular 2-MVA increments.

The DVR is capable of generating and absorbing the voltage

independently controllable real and reactive power. It consists of three-phase voltage

source inverter, injection transformer, DC LINK and Rectifier for charging the DC LINK

or Battery. As you know, Rectifier is generating the harmonic problem in distribution

lines. Rectifier or devices for charging DC LINK is useless in this proposed system by

their structure.

Current interruption technology, utilizing high power Solid-State

Breakers (SSB), to solve most of the distribution system problems that result in voltage

20

sags, swells, and power outages. When combined with a current limiting reactor or

resistor, the SSB can rapidly insert the current limiting device into the distribution line to

prevent excessive fault current from developing from sources of high short circuit

capacity, e.g. multi-sourced distribution substations. At the power levels associated with

15-kV and higher voltage class systems, commercially available Gate Turn-Off (GTO)

thyristors and conventional Thyristors (SCRs) can be used for the AC switch.

The SSB consists of two parallel-connected circuit branches: a solid-state

switch composed of GTOs and a solid-state switch using SCRs in series with a current

limiting reactor or resistor. The GTO switch is the main circuit breaker used to clear

source-side faults. It is rated for the maximum normal line current, but not rated for fault

currents. It is normally closed and conducts current uninhibited until the magnitude of the

current reaches a pre-set level at which point it opens rapidly interrupting the current

flow.

Introducing a line of Solid-State Transfer Switches capable of providing

uninterruptible power to critical distribution-served customers. Solid-state, fast acting

(sub-cycle) breakers can instantaneously transfer sensitive loads from a normal supply

that experiences a disturbance to an alternate supply that is unaffected by the disturbance.

The alternate supply may be another utility primary distribution feeder or a standby

power supply operated from an integral energy storage system. In this application, the

SSB acts as an extremely fast conventional transfer switch that allows the restoration of

power of specified quality to the load within 1/4 cycle.

The SSTS consists of two three-phase SSB's, each with independent

control. The status of the three individual phase switches in each SSB will be individually

monitored, evaluated, and reported by continuous real-time switch control and

protections circuits. The operation of the two SSB's will be co-ordinates by the transfer

switch control circuit that monitors the line conditions of the normal and alternate power

sources and initiates the load transfer in accordance with operator selectable criteria.

The SSTS can be provided with either SCR or GTO switches depending

upon the specific load transfer speed requirements. SSTS voltage and current ratings are

21

being developed for 4.16 to 34.5 kV and 300 to 1200 System protection practices are

accommodated in the SSTS available control modes depending upon the critical load

requirements and utility preferences/practices.

In this project report D-STATCOM, a member of Custom power

controllers family, is considered.

2.4.1. Introduction

Distribution STATCOM (D-STATCOM) is utilized to compensate power

quality problems and also it can quickly regulate its susceptance to provide dynamic

reactive compensation and regulate the bus voltages in the power system.

The D-STATCOM is a shunt-connected, solid-state switching power

converter that provides flexible voltage control at the point of connection to the utility

distribution feeder for power quality (PQ) improvements such as unbalanced load,

voltage sag, voltage fluctuation and voltage unbalance and also exchanges both active

and reactive power (current) [6] with the distribution system by varying the amplitude

and phase angle of the converter.

A voltage-source converter is a power electronic device, which can

generate a sinusoidal voltage with any required magnitude, frequency and phase angle.

Voltage source converters are widely used in adjustable-speed drives, but can also be

used to mitigate voltage dips. The VSC is used to either completely replace the voltage or

to inject the ‘missing voltage’. The ‘missing voltage’ is the difference between the

nominal voltage and the actual. The converter is normally based on some kind of energy

storage, which will supply the converter with a DC voltage. The solid-state electronics in

the converter is then switched to get the desired output voltage. Normally the VSC is not

only used for voltage dip mitigation, but also for other power quality issues, e.g. flicker

and harmonics.

22

Voltage source converters are of two type’s viz. series voltage controller and

shunt voltage controller. However D-STATCOM belongs to the shunt voltage controller.

In this project, the D-STATCOM is used to regulate voltage at the connecting bus.

(a) Structure

General structure of D-STATCOM is similar to STATCOM, which is

schematically shown in fig.1, consists of energy storage device, voltage source converter,

a coupling transformer connected in shunt to the distribution network through a coupling

transformer.

are capable of absorbing and injecting reactive power on an electricity system at

distribution voltages.

In this model, D-STATCOM is capable of injecting active power in

addition to reactive power. Since this device is utilized in steady-state condition for long

term, because of limited capacity of energy storage system, it cannot inject active power

to the system for long term for voltage regulation purpose.

23

Therefore, for the steady-state application, D-STATCOM consists of a

small DC capacitor and a voltage source converter and the steady-state power exchange

between D-STATCOM and the ac system is reactive power.

But, there are several factors that must be considered when designing the

D-STATCOM and associated control circuits. In relation to the power circuit the

following issues are of major importance:

• Coupling transformer reactance and transformation ratio

• Output filters equipment

topology which can be used for up to three quite distinct purposes:

1. Voltage regulation and compensation of reactive power;

2. Correction of power factor; and

3. Elimination of current harmonics.

24

(b)Principle of Operation

D-STATCOM is to suppress voltage variation and control reactive power

in phase with system voltage. It can compensate for inductive and capacitive currents

linearly and continuously.

The VSC converts the dc voltage across the storage device into a set of

three-phase ac output voltages. These voltages are in phase and coupled with the ac

system through the reactance of the coupling transformer. Suitable adjustment of the

phase and magnitude of the D-STATCOM output voltages allows effective control of

active and reactive power exchanges between the D-STATCOM and the ac system. Such

configuration allows the device to absorb or generate controllable active and reactive

power.

The controller of the D-STATCOM is used to operate the inverter in such a way that

the phase angle between the inverter voltage and the line voltage is dynamically adjusted

so that the D-STATCOM generates or absorbs the desired VAR at the point of

connection. By varying the amplitude of D-STATCOM output voltage can control the

reactive power exchange between the inverter and the AC system. If the amplitude of the

output voltage is increased above that of AC system voltage, the inverter generates

reactive power for the AC system. If the amplitude of the output voltage is decreased

below that of the AC system, the inverter absorbs the reactive power. If the output

voltage is equal to the AC system voltage, the reactive power exchange is zero, but

actually they have a little phase difference to compensate the loss of transformer winding

and inverter switching, so absorbs some real power from system.

The real power exchanges between the inverter and the AC system can be

controlled by altering the phase angles between the inverter output and the AC system

voltages. The inverter supplies real power to the AC system if the inverter output voltage

is made to lead the corresponding AC system voltage. Conversely, the inverter absorbs

real power from the AC system, if the inverter output voltage is made to lag the AC

system voltage.

There are two techniques for controlling the STATCOM. The first

technique, referred to as phase control, is to control the phase shift to control the

STATCOM output voltage magnitude. The other technique referred to as Pulse Width

25

Modulation (PWM) on the other hand allow for independent control of output voltage

magnitude and phase shift (phase angle of the output voltage); in this case, the DC

voltage is controlled separately from the AC output voltage.

The name is an indication that STATCOM has a characteristic similar to

the synchronous condenser, but as an electronic device it has no inertia and is superior to

the synchronous condenser in several ways, such as better dynamics, a lower investment

cost and lower operating and maintenance costs.

With the advent of D-STATCOM, better performance can be reached in areas such as:

• Dynamic voltage control in distribution systems;

• Power oscillation damping;

• Transient stability improvement;

• Ability to control not only reactive power but, if needed, also active power (with a DC

energy source available).

Such device is employed to provide continuous voltage regulation using

controlled converter. The advantage of this type of compensator has over conventional

SVC’s is the improved speed of response. This speed of response means that such a

device is ideally suited to application with a rapidly varying load.

26

Chapter III

PROPOSED METHOD

27

3. PROPOSED METHOD

3.1.1. Introduction

The most frequent study of an electrical power system, whether a transmission

or a distribution systems, corresponds to the analysis of the operating steady state

conditions. Efficient computer load flow methods have been developed based on busbar

admittance matrix and busbar impedance matrix. But these are designed thinking on

transmission systems, so that their application to distribution systems usually does not

provide good results.

Load flow is a very important and fundamental tool for the analysis of any

power system and is used in operational as well as planning stages.

Load flow analysis of distribution system has not received much attention unlike

load flow analysis of transmission systems. However some work has been carried out on

the load flow analysis of distribution network. Distribution Power Flow is an important

tool for the analysis of distribution system and it is used in the operational as well as in

planning stages.

Such a load flow method must be able to model the special features of distribution

systems in sufficient detail. The well-known characteristics of an electric distribution

system are

1) Radial or weakly meshed structure,

2) Multiphase and unbalanced operation,

3) Unbalanced distributed load,

4) Extremely large number of branches and nodes and

5) Wide-ranging resistance and reactance values.

Generally, distribution networks are radial and the R/X ratio is very high compared

to a transmission system. This makes the distribution system ill-conditioned. That is why

the conventional load flow method such as Newton-Raphson,(NR)[18] and the Fast

Decoupled Load Flow(FDLF)[19] method and their modification are not suitable for

solving the load flow problem of such an ill-conditioned system. For most of the cases

28

NR and FDLF methods failed to converge in solving the load flow problem of

distribution system or converged in high iterations.

In this paper, a modified load-flow technique is considered for solving

radial distribution networks. The proposed method involves only the evaluation of a

simple algebraic expression of receiving-end voltages. The proposed method is very

efficient. It is also observed that the proposed method has good and fast convergence

characteristics.

In this paper, a modified load-flow technique is considered for solving

radial distribution networks. The proposed method involves only the evaluation of a

simple algebraic expression of receiving-end voltages also node and line identification

[25] utilized in load flow has been proposed. The proposed method is very efficient. It is

also observed that the proposed method has good and fast convergence characteristics.

Two standard radial distribution systems consisting of IEEE-15 and IEEE-

29 nodes are considered for solving radial distribution system.

3.1.2.1. Assumption

We assumed that the three-phase radial distribution networks are balanced and can be

represented by their equivalent single-line diagrams. This assumption is valid for 11kV

rural distribution network in India and elsewhere. Distribution lines have small line shunt

capacitance (different from the shunt capacitor banks that are considered as loads) is

considered.

3.1.2.2. Solution Methodology

The load flow method of radial distribution network can be solved in three sets of

equations.

1. Identification of the nodes beyond all the branches.

2. Determination of branch currents.

3. Determine the nodal voltages.

Procedure to determine the voltage at each bus

The distribution load flow method is used to calculate the voltage at each bus and

total real and reactive power losses.

29

Before proceeding to the fundamentals of power system control and

stability limits, some factors influencing active and reactive power flows on the power

system are needed to be discussed. The power transfer between two buses is related to

some parameters:

• Sending and receiving bus voltages

• Power angles between two buses

• Series impedances of the transmission line connecting the two buses.

Consider a single line diagram of two buses of a radial distribution system

as shown in Fig.3.1, the number of branches nb and the number of buses t are related

through t = nb+1.

Vk VS

ILi

PLk+jQLk PLS+jQLS

Where R and X are resistance and reactance of the branch. PLk and QLk are the

active and reactive powers of node k. ILi is the current flowing in the line. Subscript ‘L’ in

PLS and QLS refers to the load connected at Sth bus.

Initially, a flat voltage (1 p.u) of all the nodes is assumed and load currents and

charging currents of all the loads are computed using Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2) respectively.

The load current of node k is

PLk ( k ) − jQLk ( k )

I Lk ( k ) = ,

V * (k )

for k = 2, 3,……. nb (3.1)

Where PLk(k) and QLk(k) are active and reactive power of load connected to node k,

respectively.

The charging current at node k is

30

I Ck (k ) = y0 (k ) *V (k ) ,

for k = 2, 3… nb (3.2)

Here shunt admittance yo is considered as small.

Branch current

Branch Current I(n) is equal to the sum of the load currents of all the nodes beyond

that branch n plus the sum of the charging currents of all the nodes beyond that branch n

i.e.,

nb nb

I ( n) = ∑

k = n +1

I Lk (k ) + ∑I

i = n +1

Ck (k ) (3.3)

Therefore, if it is possible to identify the nodes beyond all the branches, it is

possible to compute all the branch currents.

Voltage at buses

A generalized equation of receiving-end voltage, sending-end voltage, branch

current and branch impedance is

V (a2) = V (a1) - I (i) * Z (i) (3.4)

a1 = RE (i)

a2 = SE (i)

Where RE (i) is the receiving end and SE (i) is the sending end of branch i.

Power losses

The real and reactive power loss of branch i are given

Lreal (i) = |I (i) |2 * R (i) (3.5)

Lreactive (i) = |I (i) |2 * X (i) (3.6)

Where Lreal (i) and Lreactive (i) are the active and reactive power losses at branch i.

At first identification of the nodes beyond all the branches is realized through an

algorithm

31

3.2. Identification of the Nodes

For identification of nodes, consider the single line diagram of radial distribution system

feeder in fig.3.2.

1 2 3 4 5

(1) (2) (3) (4)

(5) (7)

6 8

(6) (8)

7 9

The branch number, sending-end and receiving-end node of this feeder are given

in table 1.

Table: 3.1 Given the line data.

----------------------------------------------------------

Branch Sending end Receiving end

----------------------------------------------------------

1 1.000 2.000

2 2.000 3.000

3 3.000 4.000

4 4.000 5.000

5 3.000 6.000

6 6.000 7.000

7 4.000 8.000

8 8.000 9.000

-----------------------------------------------------------

First we define the variables:

i = 1, 2, 3, ..., nb ( i indicates branch );

ip is the node count (identifies the number of nodes beyond a particular branch);

IN (ip) is the node identifier (helping to identify nodes beyond all the branches);

N (i) is the total number of nodes beyond branch i; and

ie(i, ip + 1) is the receiving-end node.

Note here that before identification of nodes and branches, ip has to be reset to

zero.

ie (i, ip + 1) will now be explained. Consider the first branch in Fig. 3.1, i.e. i =

1; the receiving-end node of branch 1 is 2, i.e. RE (i) = RE (1) = 2. Therefore ie(i, ip +

32

1) = ie(1, ip + 1) will help to identify all the nodes beyond branch 1. This will help to find

the exact current flowing through branch 1. Similarly, consider branch 2, i.e. i = 2; the

receiving-end node of branch 2 is 3, i.e. RE (i) = RE (2) =3.

Therefore, ie(i, ip + 1) = ie(2, ip + 1) will identify all the nodes beyond branch 2.

No node will be repeated while identifying nodes [25] beyond a particular branch.

Identification of nodes beyond all the branches, which helps in computing the exact

current flowing through all the branches, has been explained using an algorithm.

Step 1.read the system data.

Step 2. i =1

Step 3. k = i + 1, set ip = 0

Step 4. nc = 0

if {RE (i) = SE(k)} and {ip = 0} go to step 10

Otherwise go to step 12

Step 5. if {ip = 0} go to step 10

Otherwise go to step 6

Step 6. it = 1

Step 7. if {RE(i) = ie(i, ip+1)}then nc = 1

Otherwise go to step 8

Step 8. it = it +1

If {it ≤ ip} go to step 7

Otherwise go to step 9

Step 9. if {nc = 1} go to step 12

Otherwise go to step 11

Step 10. ie (i, ip + 1) = RE(i)

Step 11. ip = ip +1

IN(ip) =1

ie(i, ip + 1) = RE(i)

N(i) = ip + 1,

Step 12. s = s + 1

If {s ≤ nb} go to step 6

Otherwise go to step 13

33

Step 13. if {iP =0} go to step 14

Otherwise go to step 15

Step 14. ie(i, ip + 1) = RE(i)

N(i) = ip + 1, go to step 15

Step 15. i = i + 1

If {i ≤ nb-1}go to step 3

Otherwise go to step 16

Step 16. ie(nb, 1) = RE(nb)

N(nb) = 1

Step 17. Stop

By using this algorithm we can find the identification of nodes beyond all branches.

-------------------------------------------------

br nodes beyond branch

-------------------------------------------------

1 2 3 4 6 5 8 7 9

2 3 4 6 5 8 7 9

3 4 5 8 9

4 5

5 6 7

6 7

7 8 9

8 9

--------------------------------------------------

The load current and charging current of each node are calculated by using

Eqs. (3.1) and (3.2) and identification of nodes are determined. Then it is easy to

calculate the branch current is given by

nb nb

I (i ) = ∑ IL{ie(i, k )} + ∑ IC{ie(i, k )} (3.7)

k =1 k =1

The voltage of each node is then calculated by using Eqn. (3.4). Real and

reactive power loss of each branch is calculated by using Eqs. (3.5) and (3.6),

respectively.

The convergence of the proposed method is that if, in successive iterations

the difference between the real and reactive power delivered from the substation is less

than 0.1kW and 0.1kVAr, then it has converged.

34

3.3. LOAD FLOW ALGORITHM

To determine the voltage at each node in radial distribution network, the

modified load flow method is used and the algorithm is as follows.

Step 1: Read the line and load data.

Step 2: Determine the nodes beyond each branch and their total number.

Step 3: Initialize the voltage of all nodes to 1p.u and phase angle to zero.

Step 4: Find all load currents and charging currents of each nodes using Eqn. (3.1) and

Eqn.(3.2) by using these branch currents are determined given in Eqn.(3.3)

Step 5: Calculate the voltages and phase angles at each node by using Eqn. (3.4).

Step 6: If the voltage at each node for two successive iteration is within a certain

tolerance (10-4p.u) the solution is reached go to step 8 else, repeat step 5 to 7 until

convergence is reached.

Step 7: Read the results

In this modified load flow method line charging capacitance is also taken

into account in step 4 in the above algorithm which is actually neglected in the load flow

method presented in reference 5.

The proposed method can be used to find out the voltages of nodes, D-

Statcom current, phase angle and injected reactive power by D-STATCOM. These are

used to determine the load currents in the proposed load flow method, and power losses.

Here the bus voltage magnitude in the node where D-STATCOM is located is set to a

nominal value of 1p.u.

3.4.1. Assumptions

It is assumed that the source is a balance, sinusoidal three-phase voltage supply. .

However the following assumptions are considered.

• The three AC mains voltages are balanced

• The three - phase load is balanced and linear

• The inverter switches are ideal

• DC link output is ripple free

• The filter components are reactive and linear

35

3.4.2. Mathematical formulation

Consider a single line diagram of two buses of a distribution system shown in

Fig.3.3. and its branch currents and voltages are calculated by using phasor diagram

method.

Vk VS

ILi

PLk+jQLk PLS+jQLS

Fig 3.3: Single line diagram of two bus system of a distribution system

Subscript ‘L’ in PLk and QLk refers to the load connected to bus k.

Where R and X are resistance and reactance of the branch. PLk and QLk are the

active and reactive powers of node k. ILi is the current flowing in the line

The phasor diagram of the two buses of the distribution system shown in Fig.3.4.

-jXILi

Vs -RILi

µ

VK

β

ζ

ILi

The mathematical equation for two buses of the distribution system is given by

VS ∠µ = VK ∠β − ZI Li ∠ζ (3.8)

36

This gives relation between voltage and current.

Where VS ∠µ and VK ∠β are the voltage of buses K and S before compensation

flow in line. Voltage VK ∠β and I Li ∠ζ current are derived from the load flow

calculations.

A D-STATCOM consists of a two-level Voltage Source Converter

(VSC), a DC energy storage device, a coupling transformer connected in shunt to the

distribution network through a coupling transformer. The VSC converts the DC voltage

across the storage device into a set of three-phase AC output voltages. These voltages are

in phase and coupled with the AC system through the reactance of the coupling

transformer. Suitable adjustment of the phase and magnitude of the D-STATCOM output

voltages allows effective control of active and reactive power exchanges between the D-

STATCOM and the AC system. Such configuration allows the device to absorb or

generate controllable active and reactive power.

A single-phase equivalent circuit of two buses of a distribution system and

its phasor diagram after installing D-STATCOM are shown in Fig.5 and Fig.6,

respectively. Generally, voltage of buses in the system is less than 1 p.u. and it is desired

to compensate voltage of interested bus (Vs) to 1 p.u. by using D-STATCOM.

By installing D-STATCOM in distribution system, all nodes voltage,

especially the neighboring nodes of D-STATCOM location, and branches current of the

network, change in the steady-state condition. D-Statcom is used to regulate voltage

variations and control reactive power in phase with system voltage. It can compensate for

inductive and capacitive currents linearly and continuously.

The schematic diagram of buses K and S of the distribution systems,

when D-STATCOM is installed for voltage regulation in bus S, is shown in Fig.3.5.

37

Vk VS

ILi

PLk+jQLk PLS+jQLS

Fig 3.5: Single line diagram of two buses of a distribution system with D-

STATCOM consideration.

In this diagram, the shunt injected current Istat corrects the voltage sag by

adjusting the voltage drop across the system impedance. The value of Istat can be

controlled by adjusting the output voltage of the converter.

The phasor diagram of the two buses of the distribution system after installing

D-STATCOM at Sth node as shown in Fig.3.6.

-jXILi

ID-stat

-RILi

Vs

µ

VK

ζ

µnew -jX ID-stat

ILi -RID-stat

Vsnew

Fig 3.6: Phasor diagram of voltages and currents of the system shown in Fig.3.5

38

Consequently, ID-Stat must be kept in quadrature with voltage of the

system. By installing D-STATCOM in distribution system, all nodes voltage, especially

the neighboring nodes of D-STATCOM location, and branches current of the network,

change in the steady-state condition.

3.4.6. Mathematical equations:-

From the phasor diagram we can see that

V ∠µnew = VK ∠β − ( R + jX ) I Li ∠ζ

Snew

π

−( R + jX ) I D − Stat ∠ + µ new (3.9)

2

And the phase angle of injected D-STATCOM current (ID-stat) from phasor diagram is

π

∠I D − stat = + µnew (3.10)

2

π

Where I D − Stat ∠ + µnew is the injected current by D-STATCOM, V Snew∠µ new

2

is the voltage of bus S after compensation by D-STATCOM, VK ∠β is the voltage of

STATCOM installation. Voltage VK ∠β and current I Li ∠ζ are derived from the load

flow calculations.

Separating the real and imaginary parts of Eqn.(3.9) yields:

Using the notations below:

u1 = Re ( VK ∠β ) – Re (Z I Li ∠ζ ),

u2 = Im ( VK ∠β ) – Im (Z I Li ∠ζ ),

λ1 = ID-Stat, λ2 = µnew .

Separating the real and imaginary parts of Eqn.(3.9) and using these notations

we get

bcos λ2 = u1 – c1 λ1 sin λ2 – c2 λ1 cos λ2 (3.11)

39

Where a1, a2, c1 and c2 are constants, b is the magnitude of

compensated voltage (e.g. 1 p.u.), λ1 , λ2 are variables to be determined.

b sin λ2 − u1

λ1 = (3.13)

−c1 sin λ2 − c2 cos λ2

and

b sin λ2 − u2

λ1 = (3.14)

−c2 sin λ2 + c1 cos λ2

Where λ1 = ID-Stat,

By equating Eqs. (3.13) and (3.14), it can be shown that

(u1c2 – u2c1) sin λ2 + (- u1c1 – u2c2) cos λ2 + bc1=0, (3.15)

By solving the quadratic equation we get the value of δ.

(P12+P22) δ2 + (2P1bc1) δ +(b2c12 –P12) = 0, (3.16)

Where

P1 = (u1c2 – u2c1), P2 = u1c1 + u2c2

There are two roots for δ and therefore, two values are calculated for λ2 and λ1 , but

only one is acceptable. To determine the correct answer, these roots are examined under

boundary conditions in the load flow results:

If b = VSnew = VS, then λ1 = ID-Stat = 0 and

λ2 = µ new = µ

After testing these conditions on load flow, correct answer is selected.

And then we know that λ2 = µ new and also we assume δ = sin λ2 , then

jQD-Stat = VSnew I*D-Stat. (3.18)

and * denotes conjugate of complex variable.

40

Where

VSnew = VSnew∠µnew (3.19)

π

ID-Stat = I D − Stat ∠ + µnew (3.20)

2

After finding reactive power, current and voltage, load flow is run using Matlab code.

The real power injected by the D-STATCOM is equal to zero (i.e.,

Pinj=0) and the bus voltage magnitude in the node where D-STATCOM is located is set

to a nominal value of 1p.u.

The phase angle at the compensated node and the reactive power

injection of D-STATCOM are calculated by Eqs. (3.17) and (3.18), respectively. If the

reactive power generated (or absorbed) by the D-STATCOM, Qinj, exceeds the rating of

the D-STATCOM device, it is fixed at this value (i.e., Qinj=Srat).

The algorithm proposed in this paper was developed in MATLAB. The

following section describes the control algorithm implemented for modeling D-

STATCOM in modified load flow method

To determine the voltages at each node, real and reactive power losses in

radial distribution network, the proposed method can be summarized in the following

algorithm.

Step 2: Determine the voltages and losses by using modified load flow method without

installing D-STATCOM.

Step 3: Install D-STATCOM and it is desired to compensate voltage of interested bus

(VS) to 1 p.u. and find out injected reactive power, phase angle and D-STATCOM

current (ID-stat) by using Phasor diagram method given in eqn. (3.18), eqn. (3.17)

and eqn. (3.20) respectively.

Step 4: Determine voltages by using Eqn. (3.9) and run modified load flow method

again.

41

Step 5: Then repeat step.2 and again place D-STATCOM at another location and repeat

step.3 and 4 to find out Voltages and losses at all nodes.

Step 6: Read the results and find out the node at which minimum losses is obtained and

it is selected for optimum location for D-STATCOM.

In this modified load flow method line charging capacitance is also taken

into account in the above algorithm which is actually neglected in the load flow method

presented in reference [5].

42

Chapter IV

43

4. RESULTS & DISCUSSION

In this project, software program has been developed in Matlab for simple

and modified load flow method and optimal location of D-STATCOM on radial

distribution system.

This Matlab program is tested for two systems viz., IEEE-15 bus and

IEEE-29 bus systems. The 15-bus and 29-bus data has been reported in tables. The

converged voltages on this system after doing load flow method are presented in table.

Then after installing D-STATCOM, at each node and the proposed method is applied.

The results obtained for these systems are briefly summarized in this section.

4.1.1. One line diagram of IEEE-15 bus radial distribution system

8

8 9

11 12 13

6 11 12

10

7

15

1 2 3 4 14 5

1 2 3 4

13

5

9

6 14

10

Fig 4.1: One line diagram of IEEE-15 bus radial distribution system

44

4.1.2. Line data and load data of 15-bus distribution system

The line data and load data of 15-bus distribution system are as follows.

Table 4.1: Line data for 15- bus radial distribution system

bus bus R(ohms) X(ohms)

1 1 2 1.3531 1.3235

2 2 3 1.1702 1.1446

3 3 4 0.8411 0.82271

4 4 5 1.5235 1.0276

5 2 9 2.5573 1.7249

6 9 10 1.0882 0.734

7 2 6 1.2514 0.8441

8 6 7 2.0132 1.3579

9 6 8 1.6867 1.1377

10 3 11 1.7955 1.2111

11 11 12 2.4484 1.6515

12 12 13 2.0132 1.3579

13 4 14 2.2308 1.5047

14 4 15 1.1970 0.8074

No of buses: 15, No of lines: 14, Base Voltage: 11KV, Base KVA: 100KVA

45

Table 4.2: Load data for 15 bus radial distribution system

Pl Ql

0 0

44.0999 44.0999

70 71.4142

140 142.8285

44.9909 44.9909

140 142.8285

140 142.8285

70 71.4142

70 71.4142

44.9909 44.9909

140 142.8285

70 71.4142

44.9909 44.9909

70 71.4142

140 142.8285

No of buses: 15, No of lines: 14, Base Voltage: 11KV, Base KVA: 100KVA

46

4.1.3. Load Flow Results of 15-bus system

The voltages for this system after running load flow are shown in table 4.3.

in p.u

1 1.0000

2 0.9720

3 0.9574

4 0.9516

5 0.9506

6 0.9589

7 0.9567

8 0.9576

9 0.9685

10 0.9673

11 0.9506

12 0.9463

13 0.9449

14 0.9493

15 0.9492

Without D-STATCOM, and running load flow method the total real and

reactive power loss of this system are 60.0628 kW and 55.5749 kVAr, respectively.

47

4.1.4. Results of 15-bus system after installing D-STATCOM

After installing D-STATCOM, running the load flow method, the Voltage

Magnitudes after compensation in p.u at 10th-node is given by table 4.4.

Node no: compensation in p.u at 10th-

node

1 1.0000

2 0.9780

3 0.9677

4 0.9623

5 0.9614

6 0.9655

7 0.9634

8 0.9643

9 0.9750

10 1.0000

11 0.9506

12 0.9468

13 0.9457

14 0.9601

48

Real and Reactive power losses of 15 – bus distribution system after

installing the D-STATCOM at each nodes is given by table 4.5.

Table 4.5: Real and Reactive power losses of 15 – bus distribution system after installing

the D-STATCOM at nodes are specified.

2 48.2240 45.0755

3 55.6690 51.6311

4 48.5986 44.7036

5 41.0954 38.6371

6 46.2655 43.5056

7 47.2820 44.0329

8 54.9474 50.8193

9 50.2550 46.4612

10 37.9444 34.8113

11 44.3756 41.1492

12 48.9887 45.4502

13 44.9764 41.1875

14 48.8523 45.3901

real and reactive power losses respectively, when the device is placed at node -10 shown

in table 4.5.

49

4.2. IEEE-29 bus system:

19 20 21

19 20 21

22

18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

50

25

28

22 26 27

26 27

25

23 24

23 24

4.2. IEEE 29-bus system:

4.2.1. Line data and load data for 29- bus system

The line data and load data of 29-bus distribution system are as follows.

1 1 2 1.8216 0.7580

2 2 3 2.2270 0.9475

3 3 4 1.3662 0.5685

4 4 5 0.9180 0.3790

5 5 6 3.6432 1.5160

6 6 7 2.7324 1.1370

7 7 8 1.4573 0.6064

8 8 9 2.7324 1.1370

9 9 10 3.6432 1.5160

10 10 11 2.7520 0.7780

11 11 12 1.3760 0.3890

12 12 13 4.1280 1.1670

13 13 14 4.1280 0.8558

14 14 15 3.0272 0.7780

15 15 16 2.7520 1.1670

16 16 17 4.1280 0.7780

17 17 18 2.7520 0.7780

18 2 19 3.4400 0.9725

19 19 20 1.3760 0.3890

20 20 21 2.7520 0.7780

21 21 22 4.9536 1.4004

22 3 23 3.5776 1.0114

23 23 24 3.0272 0.8558

24 24 25 5.5040 1.5560

25 6 26 2.7520 0.7780

26 26 27 1.3760 0.3890

27 27 28 1.3760 0.3890

No of buses: 29, No of lines: 27, Base Voltage: 11KV, Base KVA: 100KVA

51

Table 4.7: Load data for 29- bus system

Node no Pl Ql

1 140.00 90

2 80 50

3 80 60

4 100 60

5 80 50

6 90 40

7 90 40

8 80 50

9 90 50

10 80 50

11 80 40

12 90 50

13 70 40

14 70 40

15 70 40

16 60 30

17 60 30

18 70 40

19 50 30

20 50 30

21 40 20

22 50 30

23 50 20

24 60 30

25 40 20

26 40 20

27 40 20

No of buses: 15, No of lines: 14, Base Voltage: 11KV, Base KVA: 100KVA

52

4.2.3. Load flow solution for 29-bus system

The voltages in per unit are obtained for this system after running load

flow method is shown in table 4.8.

1 1.0000 17 0.8477

2 0.9797 18 0.8470

3 0.9603 19 0.9603

4 0.9505 20 0.9592

5 0.9444 21 0.9577

6 0.9228 22 0.9565

7 0.9100 23 0.9505

8 0.9041 24 0.9484

9 0.8946 25 0.9464

10 0.8837 26 0.9100

11 0.8755 27 0.9094

12 0.8720 28 0.9091

13 0.8635

14 0.8563

15 0.8524

16 0.8504

the total real and reactive power loss of this system are 303.927kW and 122.3292 kVAr

respectively.

53

4.2.4. Results of 29-bus system after installing D-STATCOM

After installing D-STATCOM, running the load flow method for 29-bus

system, the Voltage Magnitudes after compensation in p.u at 13th-node is given by

table 4.9.

Table 4.9: load flow solution with D-STATCOM

1 1.0000 17 0.8490

2 0.9973 18 0.8472

3 0.9954 19 0.9949

4 0.9942 20 0.9942

5 0.9932 21 0.9928

6 0.9901 22 0.9909

7 0.9875 23 0.9937

8 0.9861 24 0.9922

9 0.9837 25 0.9890

10 0.9801 26 0.9890

11 0.9779 27 0.9885

12 0.9768 28 0.9879

13 1.0000

14 0.8563

15 0.8540

16 0.8516

54

Table 4.10: Real and Reactive power losses of 15 – bus distribution system after

installing the D-STATCOM at each node is given.

Nodes Real power losses Reactive power losses

2 222.9651 89.3485

3 230.7026 92.6054

4 223.2182 89.4897

5 224.9190 90.1879

6 228.1189 91.5345

7 215.7298 86.3536

8 216.4618 86.6710

9 208.2909 83.2839

10 198.3834 79.4189

11 438.0603 176.1914

12 227.4905 91.9262

13 194.3258 78.7030

14 238.3141 95.6078

15 261.5701 104.4960

16 200.5714 81.1681

17 210.3367 84.9354

18 232.4672 93.3656

19 233.6183 93.8158

20 232.2015 93.2887

21 233.7131 93.9616

22 225.6816 90.5424

23 232.0193 93.1783

24 233.6178 93.8242

25 232.6227 93.4192

26 218.8908 87.7012

27 231.1892 92.8270

28 232.8760 93.5262

55

The minimum losses are obtained i.e., 194.3258 kW and 78.7030 kVAr

of real and reactive power losses respectively, when the device is placed at node -13

shown in table 4.10.

Thus D-STATCOM improves the voltage of both nearby downstream

nodes and nearby upstream nodes, especially the nodes located between D-STATCOM

and the source.

Therefore, in the two examples i.e., a IEEE 15-bus and IEEE 29-bus

distribution systems minimum loss occurs when D-STATCOM is placed at nodes 10th

and 13th respectively.

56

Chapter V

CONCLUSION

57

5. CONCLUSION

A simple and modified load-flow technique has been proposed for solving

radial distribution networks. The method has good and fast convergence characteristics

compared with some other existing methods. Later D-STATCOM is applied to proposed

load flow calculations in 15- and 29-bus IEEE test systems. The optimum location for D-

STATCOM is identified based on minimum losses. The results indicated that the

proposed model can be applied for large distribution systems. The computer program is

developed using the Matlab.

compared to two-level inverter. But it has following significant advantage. It can be used

for high power applications as the semiconductor devices are subjected to less voltage

and current stresses.

A new PWM-based control scheme has been implemented to control the

electronic valves in the two-level VSC used in the D-STATCOM and DVR. As opposed

to fundamental frequency switching schemes already available in the MATLAB/

SIMULINK, this PWM control scheme requires only voltage measurements. This

characteristic makes it ideally suitable for low-voltage custom power applications only.

58

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59

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PAPER PRESENTED IN NATIONAL CONFERENCE

Controller in Distribution System for loss reduction”, paper presented in National

Conference on Oct 6-7, 2009, at GSSSETW, Mysore, Karnataka.

63