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An Overview of MIMO Systems in

Wireless Communications

Lecture in “Communication Theory for Wireless Channels”

Sébastien de la Kethulle — September 27, 2004

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 1


Future Broadband Wireless Systems

• Desired attributes
– Significant increase in spectral efficiency and data rates
– High Quality–of–Service (QoS) — bit error rate, outage, . . .
– Wide coverage
– Low deployment, maintenance and operation costs

• The wireless channel is very hostile


– Severe fluctuations in signal level (fading)
– Co–channel interference
– Signal power falls off with distance (path loss)
– Scarce available bandwidth
– ...

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 2


[1]
The Wireless Channel

• Multipath propagation causes signal fading

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 3


[1]
MIMO System

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 4


Performance Improvements Using MIMO Systems

• Array gain =⇒ increase coverage and QoS

• Diversity gain =⇒ increase coverage and QoS

• Multiplexing gain =⇒ increase spectral efficiency

• Co–channel interference reduction =⇒ increase cellular capacity

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 5


[1]
Array Gain

• Increase in average received SNR obtained by coherently combining


the incoming / outgoing signals

• Requires channel knowledge at the transmitter / receiver

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 6


[2, 3]
Array Gain

y = Hx + n

• H ∈ CM ×N (E|Hik |2 = 1). x ∈ CN , y ∈ CM

• n ∈ CM : zero–mean complex Gaussian noise

• Principle: To obtain the full array gain, one should transmit using the
maximum eigenmode of the channel


• The singular
√ value decomposition
√ (SVD) H = UDV , with
D = diag( λ1, . . . , λm, 0, . . . , 0) and m = min{N, M }, yields
m equivalent SISO channels ( ` †´ eig HH if M < N
λ1 , . . . , λm = ` † ´
eig H H if M ≥ N

y
e = De
x+n
e,

e = U†y, x
where y e = V†x and n
e = U†n (U, V unitary)
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 7
[2, 3]
Array Gain

y
e = De
x+n
e

• If λi = λmax = max{λ1, . . . , λm}, (maximum eigenmode)


p
yei = λmax x ei + n
ei
• Known results
– For N × 1 and 1 × M arrays, the array gain (increase in average
SNR) is respectively of 10 log10 N and 10 log10 M dB
– In the asymptotic limit, with M large:

λmax < ( c + 1)2M c= N
M ≥1

λmin > ( c − 1)2M c= N
M >1
• For maximum
– Capacity: waterfilling (later in this presentation)
– Array gain: use only the maximum eigenchannel

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 8


[2, 3]
Diversity Gain
• Principle: provide the receiver with multiple identical copies of a
given signal to combat fading =⇒ gain in instantaneous SNR

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 9


[4]
Diversity Gain
• Intuitively, the more independently fading, identical copies of a
given signal the receiver is provided with, the faster the bit error rate
(BER) decreases as a function of the per signal SNR. At high SNR
values, it has been shown that
Pe ≈ (Gc · SNR)−d
where d represents the diversity gain and Gc the coding gain
• Definition: For a given transmission rate R, the diversity gain is

log(Pe(R, SNR))
d(R) = − lim , (1)
SN R→∞ log SNR

where Pe(R, SNR) is the BER at the given rate and SNR

• Independent versus correlated fading


• Diminishing return for each extra signal copy
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 10
[3, 5, 6]
Diversity Gain

L,d

←− per receive antenna

• The diversity gain is the magnitude of the slope of the BER Pe(R, SNR) plotted
as a function of SNR on a log–log scale

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 11


[4, 6]
Multiplexing Gain
• Principle: Transmit independent data signals from different
antennas to increase the throughput

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 12


[1]
Co–Channel Interference

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 13


[1]
Co–Channel Interference Reduction

• N − 1 interferees can be cancelled with N transmit antennas

• M − 1 interferers can be cancelled with M receive antennas

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 14


[1]
Capacity of MIMO Systems — The Gaussian Channel

y = Hx + n,
with:

• H ∈ CM ×N with uniform phase and Rayleigh magnitude (Rayleigh


fading environment)—i.i.d. Gaussian, zero–mean, independent real
and imaginary parts, variance 1/2

• x ∈ CN , y ∈ CM

• n: zero–mean complex Gaussian noise. Independent and equal


variance real and imaginary parts. E[nn†] = IM

† †

• Transmitter power constraint: E[x x] = tr E[xx ] ≤ P

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 15


[7]
Circularly Symmetric Random Vectors

Definition: A complex Gaussian random vector x ∈ Cn is said to be


circularly symmetric if the corresponding vector

 
Re(x)
x̂ ∈ R2n =
Im(x)

has the structure

 
 †
 1 Re(Q) −Im(Q)
E (x̂ − E[x̂])(x̂ − E[x̂]) =
2 Im(Q) Re(Q)

for some Hermitian non–negative definite Q ∈ Cn×n

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 16


[7]
Circularly Symmetric Random Vectors

The pdf of a CSCG random vector x with mean µ and covariance matrix
Q is given by

1  † −1

fµ,Q(x) = exp − (x − µ) Q (x − µ)
det πQ

and has differential entropy


Z
h(X) = − fµ,Q(x) log fµ,Q(x) dx
Cn

= log det πeQ

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 17


[7]
The Deterministic Gaussian Channel — Capacity

y = Hx + n, E[x†x] ≤ P

Idea: Maximize the mutual information between x and y

I(X; Y) = h(Y) − h(Y|X)


= h(Y) − h(N)

=⇒ Maximize h(Y)

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 18


[7]
Maximizing h(Y)

It can be shown that:

• If x satisfies E[x†x] ≤ P , then so does x − E[x]

• For all y ∈ CM , h(Y) is maximized if y is Circularly Symmetric


Complex Gaussian (CSCG)

• If x ∈ CN is CSCG with covariance Q, then y = Hx + n ∈ CM is also


CSCG

=⇒ I(X; Y) = log det πe(IM + HQH†) − log det πe


= log det(IM + HQH†)

• A non–negative definite Q such that I(X; Y) is maximum and


tr(Q) ≤ P remains to be found
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 19
[7]
Deterministic Gaussian MIMO Channel
• H known at the transmitter (“waterfilling solution”): Choose Q
diagonal, such that

Qii = (α − λ−1 +
i ) , i = 1, . . . , N

(·)+ , max(·, 0), (λ1, . . . , λN ) the eigenvalues of H†H and α such


with P
that i Qii = P . The capacity is given by:

N
X +
CWF = log(αλi) [bits/s/Hz]
i=1

P
• H unknown at the transmitter: Choose Q = N IN (equal power).
Then,
CEP = log det(IM + N P
HH†) [bits/s/Hz]

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 20


[3, 7]
Waterfilling Solution

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 21


Rayleigh Fading MIMO Channel
• Memoryless Rayleigh fading Gaussian channel (unknown at the
transmitter)

P
• Choose x CSCG and Q = N IN . The ergodic capacity is given by:
h i
CEP P
= EH log det(IM + N HH†) [bits/s/Hz]
m
X 
P

= EH log 1 + N λi ,
i=1

where m = min(N, M ) and λ1, . . . , λm are the eigenvalues of the


Wishart matrix
HH†

M <N
W=
H†H M ≥N

• For large SNR, CEP = min(N, M ) log P + O(1), i.e. the capacity
grows linearly with min(N, M )!
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 22
[3, 7]
Capacity of Fading Channels

• Rayleigh fading: the capacity grows linearly with min(N, M )

• Ricean channels: Increasing the line–of–sight (LOS) strength at fixed


SNR reduces the capacity

• If the gains in H become highly correlated, there is a capacity loss

• Waterfilling (WF) capacity gains over Equal Power (EP) capacity


are significant at low SNR but converge to zero as the SNR increases
=⇒ Question: Is it beneficial to feed the channel state back to the
transmitter ?

• Many exact capacity results are known for i.i.d. Rayleigh channels.
For other channels (Rice, etc.), we have many limiting results

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 23


[3]
Ergodic Capacity of Ideal MIMO Systems
Channel unknown at the transmitter, i.i.d. Rayleigh fading

MT , N
MR , M

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 24


[6]
Outage Capacity
• The capacity of a fading channel is a random variable

• Definition: The q% outage capacity Cout,q of a fading channel is the


information rate that is guaranteed for (100 − q)% of the channel
realizations, i.e.
P (I(X; Y) ≤ Cout,q) = q%

• Since, for large SNR and i.i.d. Rayleigh fading,

C = min(N, M ) log SNR + O(1),

we can define the multiplexing gain r as

C(SNR)
r = lim ,
SNR→∞ log SNR

which comes at no extra bandwidth or power

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 25


[1, 3, 6]
Outage Capacity of Ideal MIMO Systems
Channel unknown at the transmitter, i.i.d. Rayleigh fading

MT , N
MR , M

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 26


[6]
Transmission over MIMO channels

We can use the advantages provided by MIMO channels to:

• Maximize diversity to combat channel fading and decrease the bit


error rate (BER) =⇒ space–time codes (STC)

• Maximize the throughput =⇒ spatial multiplexing, V–BLAST (Bell


laboratories layered space–time)

• Try to do both at the same time =⇒ trade–off between increasing the


throughput and increasing diversity

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 27


[3, 6, 8]
Maximizing Diversity with Space–Time Codes

often better performance


• Space–Time Trellis Codes (STTC) ←− at the cost of increased complexity

– Complex decoding (vector version of the Viterbi algorithm) —


increases exponentially with the transmission rate
– Full diversity. Coding gain

• Space–Time Block Codes (STBC)


– Simple maximum–likelihood (ML) decoding based on linear
processing
– Full diversity. Minimal or no coding gain
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 28
[3]
Alamouti Scheme for Transmit Diversity (STBC)


r1 = h1c1 + h2c2 + n1 [time t]
r2 = −h1c∗2 + h2c∗1 + n2 [time t + T ]

re1 = h∗1 r1 + h2r2∗ = (|h1|2 + |h2|2)c1 + h∗1 n1 + h2n∗2 −→ b



c1
=⇒
re2 = h∗2 r1 − h1r2∗ = (|h1|2 + |h2|2)c2 − h1n∗2 + h∗2 n1 −→ b
c2

• Assumption: the channel remains unchanged over two consecutive


symbols
• Rate = 1 — Diversity order = 2 — Simple decoding

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 29


[9]
STBC Receiver Structure

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 30


[3]
STBCs from Complex Orthogonal Designs
• Alamouti’s scheme works only when N = 2 =⇒ Generalization

• Definition: A complex orthogonal design Oc of size N is an


orthogonal matrix with entries in the indeterminates
∗ ∗ ∗
±x1, ±x2, . . . , ±xN , their conjugates
√ ±x1 , ±x2 , . . . , ±xN or multiples
of these indeterminates by ± −1
 space −→ time
x1 x2 ↓
• Example (2 × 2): Oc(x1, x2) =
−x∗2 ∗
x1
• Coding scheme (using a constellation A with 2b elements):
1. At time slot t, N b bits arrive at the encoder. Select constellation
signals c1, . . . , cN
2. Set xi = ci to obtain a matrix C = Oc(c1, . . . , cN )
3. At each time slot t = 1, . . . , N , the entries Cti, i = 1, . . . , N are
transmitted simultaneously from transmit antennas 1, 2, . . . , N

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 31


[10]
STBCs from Complex Orthogonal Designs

• The maximum–likelihood detection rule reduces to simple linear


processing for STBCs

• One can obtain the maximum possible diversity order M N at


transmission rate R = 1 using STBCs based on orthogonal designs

• However: complex orthogonal designs exist only if n = 2. . . !

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 32


[10]
Generalized Complex Orthogonal Designs (GCOD)

• Definition: Let Gc be a p × N matrix with entries in the indeterminates


∗ ∗ ∗
±x1, ±x2, . . . , ±xk , their conjugates
√ ±x1 , ±x2 , . . . , ±xk or multiples of
these indeterminates by ± −1 or 0. If Gc†Gc = (|x1|2 + · · · + |xk |2)I,
then Gc is referred to as a generalized complex orthogonal design of size
N and rate R = k/p

• Definition: Generalized complex linear processing orthogonal design


(GCLPOD) Lc: exactly like above, but the entries can be linear
combinations of x1, . . . , xk and their conjugates

• One can obtain a diversity order of M N at rate R using a STBC


based on a GCOD or a GCLPOD of size N and rate R

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 33


[10]
Generalized Complex Orthogonal Designs
• Generalized complex linear processing orthogonal designs of rates:
– R = 1 exist for N = 2
– R = 3/4 exist for N = 3 and N = 4
– R = 1/2 exist for N ≥ 5

• For N ≥ 3, it is not known whether GCLPODs with higher rates exist

• Example (GCLPOD, R = 43 , N = 3 and GCOD, R = 12 , N = 3):


 
x1 x2 x3

x1 x2
x
√3
  −x2 x1 −x4 
2 −x3 x4 x1
 
∗ ∗ x3
 −x2 x1 √  
 −x4 −x3

3 2 3 x2 
Lc =  √x3∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ G =
 
x3 −x1 −x1 +x2 −x2  c
 ∗ ∗ ∗

 2

2 2   x1 x2 x3

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗  ∗ ∗ ∗ 
x3 x3 x2 +x2 +x1 −x1 −x x −x
√ − √2 2 1 4
 
2 2  −x∗ x∗
x∗ 
3 4 1

−x4 −x∗3 x∗2

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 34


[10]
Capacity and Space–Time Block Codes

• Space–time block codes


– have extremely low encoder/decoder complexity

– provide full diversity

• However
– For the i.i.d. Rayleigh channel, STBCs result in a capacity loss in
the presence of multiple receive antennas

– STBCs are only optimal with respect to capacity when they have
rate R = 1 and there is one receive antenna

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 35


[11]
Maximizing the Throughput with V–BLAST

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 36


[1]
Maximizing the Throughput with V–BLAST

Description

• Transmitters operate co–channel, symbol synchronized

• Substreams are exactly independent (no coding across the transmit


antennas — each substream can be individually coded)

1
• Individual transmit powers scaled by N so the total power is kept
constant

• Channel estimation burst by burst using a training sequence

• Requires near–independent channel coefficients

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 37


[4]
Receivers for Spatial Multiplexing

y = Hx + n, i.e.

      
y1 h11 h12 · · · h1N x1 n1
 y2   h21 . . . ..   x   n 
 . = . 2  2 
 .   . ...
  +
..   ..   .. 

yM hM 1 · · · · · · hM N xN nM

• If we transmit a block of N × T symbols, we have Y = HX + N, with


Y, N ∈ CM ×T and X ∈ CN ×T


• Optimal (ML) Receiver: x̂ = arg min y − Hx

x

– Exhaustive search (often prohibitive complexity)


– Diversity order for each data stream: M (N ≤ M )

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 38


[3, 4, 6]
Receivers for Spatial Multiplexing

y = Hx + n

• Zero–forcing (ZF) Receiver:

x̂ = H#y

with H# = (H†H)−1H† (pseudo–inverse)

– Significantly reduced receiver complexity


– Noise enhancement problem
– Diversity order for each data stream: M − N + 1 (N ≤ M )

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 39


[3, 4, 6, 12]
Receivers for Spatial Multiplexing

y = Hx + n

• Minimum mean–square error (MMSE) Receiver:


h 2i
f · y,
x̂ = W f = arg min E Wy − x .
where W
W

We obtain:

 †−1


x̂ = H HH + E nn ·y

– Minimizes the overall error due to noise and mutual interference


– Equivalent to the zero–forcing receiver at high SNR
– Diversity order for each data stream: approximately M − N + 1
(N ≤ M )

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 40


[3, 4, 6, 12]
Receivers for Spatial Multiplexing
 
y = Hx + n, H= h1 h2 · · · hN

• V–BLAST receiver — successive interference cancellation (SIC):


e1 = w1T y
x
x̂1 = Q(e
x1) (quantization)
y2 = y − x̂1h1 (interference cancellation)
e2 = w2T y2,
x etc.
• The ith ZF–nulling vector wi is defined as the unique minimum–norm
vector satisfying 
0 j>i
wiT hj =
1 j = i,

is orthogonal to the subspace spanned by the contributions to yi due


to the symbols not yet estimated and cancelled and is given by the ith
row of H# = (H†H)−1H† (N ≤ M )
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 41
[13]
Receivers for Spatial Multiplexing
 
y = Hx + n, H= h1 h2 · · · hN

• V–BLAST receiver
– The SNR of xei is proportional to 1/kwik2
– Idea: detect the components xi in order of decreasing SNR =⇒
ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC)
#
˜T
gi1 gi2 giN
ˆ
initialization: G1 = H Gi = ···
i = 1
y1 = y
‚ j ‚2
recursion: ki = arg minj ∈{k
/ 1 ,...,ki−1 } gi
‚ ‚
k
wki = gi i
x
eki = wkT yi
i
x̂ki = Q(e xki )
yi+1 = yi − x̂ki hki
Gi+1 = H# Hk , H with columns k1, · · · , ki set to 0
ki i
i = i+1
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 42
[13]
Receivers for Spatial Multiplexing

• The V–BLAST SIC receiver:


– Provides a reasonable trade–off between complexity and performance
(between MMSE and ML receivers)
– Achieves a diversity order of approximately M − N + 1 per data
stream (N ≤ M )

• The V–BLAST OSIC receiver:


– Provides a reasonable trade–off between complexity and performance
(between MMSE and ML receivers)
– Achieves a diversity order which lies between M − N + 1 and M for
each data stream (N ≤ M )

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 43


[3, 6]
Performance Comparison

N M
↓ ↓
←− diversity receiver

←− SIC
←− OSIC

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 44


[6]
Performance Comparison

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 45


[4]
D–BLAST

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 46


[4, 14]
Linear Dispersion Codes

• V–BLAST
– is unable to work with fewer receive than transmit antennas
– doesn’t have any built–in spatial coding

• Space–time codes do not perform well at high data rates

• Linear dispersion codes


– include V–BLAST and the orthogonal design STBCs as special cases
– can be used for any number of transmit and receive antennas
– can be decoded with V–BLAST like algorithms
– satisfy an information–theoretic optimality criterion

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 47


[4, 15]
Linear Dispersion Codes

k
• A linear dispersion code of rate R = p b is one for which

1
 
x
k
X  x2 
X= (ciCi + c∗i Di), X=
 .. 

i=1
xp

where ci, . . . , ck belong to a constellation A with 2b symbols and


Ci, Di ∈ Cp×N

Number of transmit antennas: N


Number of receive antennas: M

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 48


[15]
Linear Dispersion Codes

• If Y = XHT + N, it can be shown that: (H ∈ CM ×N ; Y, N ∈ Cp×M )


       
ŷ1 ĉ1 n̂1 Y= y1 · · · yM
 ..  = H  ..  +  ..  ,
 
ŷM ĉk n̂M N= n1 · · · nM
| {z } | {z }
η ξ
h i h i h i
Re(yi ) Re(ni ) Re(ci )
where ŷi , Im(yi ) , n̂i , Im(ni ) , ĉi , Im(ci ) and

H ∈ C2M p×2k = f (H, C1, . . . Ck , D1, . . . Dk )

• V–BLAST like techniques can thus be used to decode linear


dispersion codes
• {C1, . . . , Ck , D1, . . . , Dk } are dispersion matrices designed to optimize
given criteria (e.g. maximum mutual information between η and ξ)

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 49


[15]
Diversity vs. Multiplexing Trade–off

C = min{N, M } log SNR + O(1)

• Definition: A scheme {C(SNR)} is a family of codes of block length


l, one for each SNR level. R(SNR) [b/symbol] denotes the rate of the
code C(SNR)

• Definition: A scheme {C(SNR)} is said to achieve spatial


multiplexing gain r and diversity gain d if the data rate

R(SNR)
lim =r
SNR→∞ log SNR

and the average error probability

log Pe(SNR)
lim = −d (2)
SNR→∞ log SNR

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 50


[8]
Diversity vs. Multiplexing Trade–off
• For each r, d∗(r) is the supremum of the diversity gains achieved
over all schemes

• We also define:
– d∗max , d∗(0), the maximal diversity gain

– rmax , sup{r|d∗(r) > 0}, the maximal spatial multiplexing gain

• Theorem: Assume l ≥ N + M − 1. The optimal trade–off curve


d∗(r) is given by the piecewise–linear function connecting the points
(k, d∗(k)), k = 0, 1, . . . , min{N, M }, where

d∗(k) = (N − k)(M − k).

In particular, d∗max = N M and rmax



= min{N, M }.

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 51


[8]
Diversity vs. Multiplexing: Optimal Trade–off

m,N
n,M

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 52


[8]
Diversity vs. Multiplexing Trade–off: V–BLAST

n,N =M

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 53


[8]
Diversity vs. Multiplexing Trade–off: Alamouti Scheme

m,N
n,M

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 54


[8]
Diversity vs. Multiplexing Trade–off: Alamouti Scheme

m,N
n,M

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 55


[8]
Diversity vs. Multiplexing Trade–off

• Definitions (1) and (2) for the diversity gain are not equivalent: in
the former one, a fixed data rate is assumed for all SNRs, whereas in
the latter one, the data rate is a fraction of C(SNR), and hence
increases with the SNR

• Definition (1) is the most widely used in the literature

• Definition (2) allows to quantify the diversity vs. multiplexing


trade–off

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 56


[6, 8]
MIMO Channel Modeling

• A good MIMO channel model must include:

– Path loss

– Shadowing

– Doppler and delay spread profiles

– Ricean K factor distribution

– Joint antenna correlation at transmit and receive ends

– Channel matrix singular value distribution

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 57


[3]
Ricean K factor distribution

H = HLOS + HNLOS

• The higher the Ricean K factor, the more dominant HLOS


(line–of–sight)
• HLOS is a time–invariant, often low rank matrix =⇒ high K factor
channels often exhibit a low capacity
• In a near–LOS link, the improvement in link budget often more than
compensates for the loss of MIMO capacity =⇒ usually, the LOS
component is not intentionally reduced
• Experimental measurements show that, in general:
– K increases with antenna height
– K decreases with transmitter–receiver distance =⇒ MIMO
substantially increases throughput in areas far away from the base
station
An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 58
[3]
Correlation Model for HNLOS
“One–ring” model

• Base Station (BS) usually elevated and unobstructed by local scatterers

• Subscriber Unit (SU) often surrounded by local scatterers — assumed


here uniformly distributed in θ
TAl : lth transmitting antenna element Θ : angle of arrival
RAl : lth receiving antenna element ∆ : angle spread
S(θ) : scatterer located at angle θ

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 59


[16]
Correlation Model for HNLOS

• Correlation from one BS antenna element to two SU antenna elements:


 

E[Hl,pH∗m,p] ≈ J0 d(l, m)
λ ↑
distance between antennas l and m

• Correlation from two BS antenna elements to one SU antenna element


in the broadside direction (Θ = 0):
 

E[Hm,pH∗m,q ] ≈ J0 ∆ d(p, q)
λ

distance between antennas p and q

• Correlation from two BS antenna elements to one SU antenna element


in the inline direction (Θ = π2 ):
2
 2 
∆ 2π

∗ −j 2π d(p,q) 1− ∆4
E[Hm,pHm,q ] ≈ e λ · J0 d(p, q)
2 λ

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 60


[3, 16]
Correlation Model for HNLOS

←− J0 (x)

• The mobiles have to be in the broadside direction to obtain the highest


diversity

• Interelement spacing has to be high to have low correlation =⇒


beamforming and MIMO yield conflicting criteria

• Using the above results, one can obtain upper bounds for the MIMO
capacity

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 61


[3, 16]
Decoupling Between Rank and Correlation

Pinhole channel

• Uncorrelated fading at both ends doesn’t necessarily imply a


high–rank channel

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 62


[3, 4]
MIMO Channel Modeling

• Time–varying wideband MIMO channel:

L
X
H(τ ) = Hiδ(τ − τi)
i=1

where H(τ ) ∈ CM ×N and only H1 contains a LOS component

• Typical interelement spacing:


– Base station: 10λ (due to the absence of local scatterers)
– Subscriber unit: 12 λ (rich scattering)

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 63


[3]
MIMO–OFDM Systems

SISO OFDM Transmitter SISO OFDM Receiver

N , K , l = OFDM symbol number N ,K

• Net result: The frequency selective fading channel of bandwidth B is


decomposed into K parallel frequency-flat fading channels, each
B
having bandwidth K . (Condition: The impulse response of the
channel is shorter than the length of the cyclic prefix)

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 64


[6, 17]
MIMO–OFDM Systems

• OFDM can be extended to MIMO systems by performing the


IDFT/DFT and CP operations at each of the transmit and receive
antennas (with the appropriate condition on the length of the cyclic
prefix)

• Diversity systems: (Ex: Alamouti scheme)


– Send c1 and c2 over OFDM tone i over antennas 1 and 2
– Send −c∗2 and c∗1 over OFDM tone i + 1 over antennas 1 and 2
within the same OFDM symbol
– Alternative technique: Code on a per–tone basis across OFDM
symbols in time

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 65


[6]
MIMO–OFDM Systems

• Spatial multiplexing: Maximize spatial rate (r = min{N, M }) by


transmitting independent data streams over different antennas =⇒
spatial multiplexing over each tone

• Space–frequency coded MIMO–OFDM


– OFDM tones with spacing larger than the coherence bandwidth
BC experience independent fading
B
– If Deff = BC , the total diversity gain that can be realized is of
N M Deff

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 66


[6]
Throughput in MIMO Cellular Systems

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 67


[1, 4]
Conclusions

• MIMO channels offer multiplexing gain, diversity gain, array gain


and a co–channel interference cancellation gain

• Careful balancing between those gains is required

• MIMO systems offer a promising solution for future generation


wireless networks

• Ongoing research
– Space–time coding (orthogonal designs, etc.)
– Receiver design (ML receiver is too complex)
– Channel modeling
– Capacity of non–ideal MIMO channels
– ...

An Overview of MIMO Systems in Wireless Communications 68


[1, 4]
References
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coded wireless systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 281–302, Apr. 2003.
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[12] H. Bölcskei and A. Paulraj, “Multiple–input multiple–output (MIMO) wireless systems,” unpublished.
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[15] B. Hassibi and B. M. Hochwald, “High–rate codes that are linear in space and time,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 48,
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[16] M. J. Gans D. Shiu, G. J. Foschini and J. M. Kahn, “Fading correlation and its effect on the capacity of multielement
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